Belial is a term occurring in the Hebrew Bible which later became personified as a demon in Jewish and Christian texts.
Hebrew Bible 
The term belial (בליעל bĕsa-zeb) is a Hebrew adjective meaning "worthless" from two common words beli- (בְּלִי "without-") and ya'al ( יָעַל "value") It occurs twenty-seven times in the Masoretic Text in verses such as the following:
Of these 27 occurrences, the idiom "sons of Belial" (בְּנֵֽי־בְלִיַּעַל beni beliyaal) appears 15 times to indicate worthless people, including idolators (Deuteronomy 13:13), the men of Gibeah (Judges 19:22, 20:13), and the sons of Eli (1 Samuel 2:12, Nabal and Shimei) and so on. In the King James Version, these occurrences are rendered with "Belial" capitalised:
- "the sons of Eli were sons of Belial " (KJV)
In modern versions these are usually read as a phrase:
- "the sons of Eli were worthless men " (NRSV, NIV)
In the Hebrew text the phrase is either "sons of Belial" or simply "sons of worthlessness." However "sons of" phrases are a common semitic idiom such as "sons of destruction" "sons of lawlessness".
The etymology of the word is traditionally understood as "lacking worth". Some scholars translate it from Hebrew as "worthless" (Beli yo'il), while others translate it as "yokeless" (Beli ol), "may have no rising" (Belial) or "never to rise" (Beli ya'al). Only a few etymologists have assumed it to be an invented name from the start. (Be′li·al) [from Heb., meaning "Good for Naught"; a compound of beli′, "not, lacking," and ya·‛al′, "be of benefit; be beneficial"]. The quality or state of being useless, base, good for naught. The Hebrew term beli·ya′‛al is applied to ideas, words, and counsel, to calamitous circumstances, and most frequently, to good-for-nothing men of the lowest sort—for example, men who would induce worship of other gods; those of Benjamin who committed the sex crime at Gibeah; the wicked sons of Eli; insolent Nabal; opposers of God’s anointed, David; Rehoboam’s unsteady associates; Jezebel's conspirators against Naboth; and men in general who stir up contention. Indicating that the enemy power would no longer interfere with the carrying out of true worship by his people in their land, Jehovah declared through his prophet: "No more will any good-for-nothing person pass again through you. In his entirety he will certainly be cut off."
Second Temple period 
The term belial appears frequently in Jewish texts of the Second Temple period (texts classified by Christians as the Old Testament pseudepigrapha and apocrypha. Also a large number of references to Belial are evidenced in the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran from 1948.
Dead Sea Scrolls 
In The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, one of the Dead Sea scrolls, Belial is the leader of the Sons of Darkness:
But for corruption thou hast made Belial, an angel of hostility. All his dominions are in darkness, and his purpose is to bring about wickedness and guilt. All the spirits that are associated with him are but angels of destruction.
In the Rules of the Community God is found making a very prolific statement, "I shall not comfort the oppressed until their path is perfect. I shall not retain Belial within my heart."
The War Scroll and the Thanksgiving hymns both delve into the idea that Belial is accursed by God and his people, and shows how the existence of Belial in this world can be attributed to the mysteries of God since we can not know why he permits the dealings of Belial to persist.
In the Dead Sea Scrolls Belial is further contrasted with God. These are the Angel of Light and the Angel of Darkness. The Manual of Discipline identifies the Angel of Light as God himself. The Angel of Darkness is identified in the same scroll as Belial.
Also in The Dead Sea Scrolls is a recounting of a dream of Amram, the father of Moses, who finds two 'watchers' contesting over him. One is Belial who is described as the King of Evil and Prince of Darkness. Belial is also mentioned in the Fragments of a Zadokite Work (which is also known as The Damascus Document (CD)), which states that during the eschatological age, "Belial shall be let loose against Israel, as God spoke through Isaiah the prophet." The Fragments also speak of "three nets of Belial" which are said to be fornication, wealth, and pollution of the sanctuary. In this work, Belial is sometimes presented as an agent of divine punishment and sometimes as a rebel, as Mastema is. It was Belial who inspired the Egyptian sorcerers, Jochaneh and his brother, to oppose Moses and Aaron. The Fragments also say that anyone who is ruled by the spirits of Belial and speaks of rebellion should be condemned as a necromancer and wizard.
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs 
Belial is also mentioned in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. The author of the work seems to be a dualist because he presents Belial as God's opponent, not as a servant, but does not mention how or why this came to be. Simeon 5:3 says that fornication separates man from God and brings him near to Belial. Levi tells his children to choose between the Law of God and the works of Belial It also states that when the soul is constantly disturbed, the Lord departs from it and Belial rules over it. Naphtali contrasts the Law and will of God with the purposes of Belial. Also, in 20:2, Joseph prophesies that when Israel leaves Egypt, they will be with God in light while Belial will remain in darkness with the Egyptians. Finally, the Testament describes that when the Messiah comes, the angels will punish the spirits of deceit and Belial and that the Messiah will bind Belial and give to his children the power to trample the evil spirits.
Ascension of Isaiah 
And Manasseh turned aside his heart to serve Beliar; for the angel of lawlessness, who is the ruler of this world, is Beliar, whose name is Matanbuchus.—(Ascension of Isaiah 2:4)
- "What harmony is there between Christ and Belial? What does a believer have in common with an unbeliever?".(2 Corinthians 6:15)
The spelling found in most manuscripts of 2 Corinthians is actually Beliar (Βελιάρ) not Belial (Βελίαλ). This is the reading preferred by textual scholars and the change of -l to -r is attributed to a common change in Aramaic pronunciation.
The Jewish Greek Septuagint, later the Old Testament of the early Christian church, generally renders the "sons of Belial" verses in the Hebrew Bible either as "lawless men", by idioms "sons of the pest", rather than a personal name "sons of Belial.":
- andres paranomoi" ("lawless men" ἄνδρες παράνομοι) (Deuteronomy 13:13)
- huioi loimoi ("sons of the plague" υἱοὶ λοιμοὶ) (1 Samuel 2:12)
The Septuagint also avoids belial in the singular so Shimei (2 Samuel 16:7) when he cursed David, "Come out, come out, thou bloody man, and thou man of Belial" is rendered "you lawless man" (paranomos), and Hannah to Eli "Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial" is rendered "don't count your maidservant as a daughter of the pest" The Latin Vulgate and Syriac Peshitta Old Testaments in some cases follow the Greek, in other literalize as Hebrew. The single New Testament use is preserved "Belial" in Latin and Syriac.
Gospel of Bartholomew 
Rabbinical literature 
The Talmud and rabbinical interpretation generally follow a non-supernatural view, an allegorical personification of evil, as with rabbinical interpretations of evil. The phrase "sons of Belial" from the Torah continued to retain currency.
Belial in Literature 
BELIAL came last, than whom a Spirit more lewd
Fell not from Heaven, or more gross to love
Vice for it self: To him no Temple stood
Or Altar smoak'd; yet who more oft then hee
In Temples and at Altars, when the Priest
Turns Atheist, as did ELY'S Sons, who fill'd
With lust and violence the house of God.
In Courts and Palaces he also Reigns
And in luxurious Cities, where the noyse
Of riot ascends above thir loftiest Towrs,
And injury and outrage: And when Night
Darkens the Streets, then wander forth the Sons
Of BELIAL, flown with insolence and wine.
Witness the Streets of SODOM, and that night
In GIBEAH, when hospitable Dores
Yielded thir Matrons to prevent worse rape.
Or, my scrofulous French novel
Simply glance at it, you grovel
- On gray paper with blunt type !
If I double down its pages
- Hand and foot in BELIAL's gripe:
When he gathers his greengages,
- At the woeful sixteenth print,
- Ope a sieve and slip it in't?
The 17th-Century German grimoire The Lesser Key of Solomon mentions Belial, as does Aleister Crowley's Goetia (1904) and Anton LaVey's The Satanic Bible (1969). In The Satanic Bible (Earth: The Book of Belial), Belial means "without a master", and symbolizes independence, self-sufficiency, and personal accomplishment.
Belial in popular culture 
Popular culture contains many references such as in the silent 1929 film, Nosferatu, Philip K. Dick's novel The Divine Invasion, Graham Masterton's novel Master of Lies, Aldous Huxley's novel Ape and Essence, contemporary horror The Exorcism of Emily Rose and so on.
See also 
- Minor Prophets: Volume 2 - Page 46 Michael H. Floyd - 2000 Nahum "In late biblical times beliya'al came to designate a mythic personification of evil, and Belial thus became the name of a satanic figure... Two considerations militate against this sort of reading, one historical and the other grammatical. First, the mythic personification of Belial appears to have been a rather late development, and there is no good reason to suppose that beliya'al had assumed this meaning by the time Nahum was composed. There is no evidence of a satanic figure named Belial in biblical or extrabiblical literature from earlier than the third century BCE (T. J. Lewis, "Belial," ABD 1 :655-56), and most scholars would date the final edition of .."
- The Epistles to the Corinthians [Gr. text] with notes and ... - Page 131 Arthur Penrhyn Stanley - 1855 "The fullest description of a man of Belial in the Old Testament is in Proverbs, vi. 12 — 15. : " A naughty person (' Adam Belial'), a wicked man, walketh with a froward mouth. He winketh with his eyes, lie speaketh with his feet, he teacheth with ..."
- "Reformed" Is Not Enough - Page 148 Douglas Wilson - 2002 "What are we to make of the phrase “sons of Belial”? In every instance of the phrase in the Old Testament, it always refers to members of the covenant whose lives were completely at odds with the terms of it, and whose hollowness was ..."
- Exploring People of the Old Testament: Volume 2 John Phillips - 2006 "Eli's Sons Were Unregenerate (2:12) First Samuel 2:12 says, “The sons of Eli were worthless men,” or “sons of Belial.” We would say ... "
- Commentary on the New Testament use of the Old Testament Gregory K. Beale, D. A. Carson - 2007 "... "But as for you, come here, you sons of lawlessness Are you not children of destruction, a lawless seed?" Both phrases involve a Semitic idiom in which a generic personal noun ("son," "man," "master," etc.) followed by an adjectival genitive ..."
- Metzger & Coogan (1993) Oxford Companion to the Bible, p 77.
- JewishEncyclopedia.com: Belial
- De 15:9; Ps 101:3; Na 1:11
- Ps 41:8
- De 13:13
- Jg 19:22-27; 20:13
- 1Sa 2:12
- 1Sa 25:17, 25
- 2Sa 20:1; 22:5; 23:6; Ps 18:4
- 2Ch 13:7
- 1Ki 21:10, 13
- Pr 6:12-14; 16:27; 19:28
- Na 1:15; see also 1Sa 1:16; 10:27; 30:22; Job 34:18
- CD 4:13
- CD 4:17-18
- Levi 19:1
- 2:6, 3:1
- Neil Forsyth The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth Princeton 1987 Page 201 "The form Beliar(c.g., 2 Cor. 6.15) is due to Syriac pronunciation."
- Marvin R. Vincent (1834-1922) Word Studies in the New Testament Part Three - Page 325 - 2004 "The form Beliar, which is preferred by critics, is mostly ascribed to the Syriac pronunciation of Belial, the change of 1 into r being quite common."
- Septuagint 1 Samuel 1:16 μὴ δῷς τὴν δούλην σου εἰς θυγατέρα λοιμήν ὅτι ἐκ πλήθους ἀδολεσχίας μου ἐκτέτακα ἕως νῦν "don't count your maidservant as a daughter of the pest"
- Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer - Page 471 Geoffrey Chaucer, Walter W. Skeat - 2008 "Belial signifies worthlessness ; and hence, lawlessness, or evil. But in the Vulgate version of Judges, xix. 22, the word Belial is explained to mean ' absque iugo ' ; which in O. French would become ..."
- Chaucer name dictionary: a guide to astrological, biblical, ... - Page 169 Jacqueline De Weever - 1995 "The Parson quotes I Kings 2:12: filil Heli filii Belial, "the sons of Helie are the sons of Belial" "
- The censor, the editor, and the text: the Catholic Church and the ... - Page 218 Amnon Raz-Krakotzkin - 2007 "Yosef Hacohen does not mention the issue of the printers but writes that the event happened as a result of informants who were "people, sons of Belial from our midst." See the summary in Heller, Printing of the Talmud, 156-63. 49."
- S. L. MacGregor Mathers, A. Crowley, The Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon the King (1904). 1995 reprint: ISBN 0-87728-847-X.
- Metzeger, Bruce M. (ed); , Michael D. Coogan (ed) (1993). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504645-5.