Bell of King Seongdeok
|Bell of King Seongdeok|
National Treasure of Korea No.29: The Bell of King Seongdeok.
|Revised Romanization||Seongdeok daewang sinjong, Emile jong|
|McCune–Reischauer||Sŏngdŏk taewang sinjong, Emile chong|
The Bell of King Seongdeok is a massive bronze bell, the largest extant bell in Korea. The full Korean name means "Sacred (or Divine) Bell of King Seongdeok the Great." It was also known as the Emile Bell, after a legend about its casting, and as the Bell of Bongdeoksa Temple, where it was first housed.
The bell was commissioned by King Gyeongdeok to honor his father, King Seongdeok. However, King Gyeongdeok never lived to see the casting of the bell, as he died in 765 A.D. The bell was finally cast in 771 A.D., during the reign of Gyeongdeok's son, King Hyegong.
Now stored in the National Museum of Gyeongju, the bell was designated as the 29th national treasure of Korea on December 12, 1962. It measures 3.33 meters high, 2.27 meters in diameter, and 11 to 25 centimeters in wall thickness. The Gyeongju National Museum weighed it in 1997, and found that its weight was 18.9 tons.
When rung, it is said to have been heard from 40 miles away on a clear day..
The bell is considered a masterpiece of Unified Silla art. It is unique among Korean bronze bells because of the presence of a small hollow tube near the hook. The whole structure, including its decorative elements, produces a wide range of sound frequencies; the tube absorbes high frequency waves, contributing to a distinctive beat.
The hook of the bell is in the shape of a dragon's head. There are many relief patterns on the bell, including are flower patterns along the rim and shoulder. There are also reliefs of lotus flowers, grass reliefs, and a pair of two apsarases (heavenly maidens). The striking point of the bell (dwangja) is also in the shape of a lotus and sits between two of the apsarases reliefs. The bottom of the bell is in a rhombic shape, lending it a look unique among bells of the Orient.
The column the bell hangs on is quite firm. Even a column made with the same diameter, out of modern alloy might bend by weight of the bell, yet the bell still hangs on an ancient column that has lasted for several centuries.
The bell is commonly known as the Emile Bell in both Korean and English. Emile, pronounced "em-ee-leh," is an ancient Silla term for "mommy".
According to legend, the first bell that was cast produced no sound when it was struck. The bell was recast many times but with no success. The king that had wanted the bell cast died after a while and his young son took over with the help of the queen. The son carried out what his father had started but still he didn't have any success. Later, a monk dreamed that if a child was cast into the metal, the bell would ring. The monk then took a child from the village and had her cast into the metal. When the bell was complete, the bell made the most beautiful sound when struck.
Some, however, believe the legend may actually be a modern invention, and that the story and name originated in the 1920s. A story that was published about the "Eomilne bell" or "Earmilne bell" (어밀네 종) may have been distorted in retelling. The most recent argument is that legend about other bell became confused with the legend of the Emile bell.
Related articles tell similar or same legend: H. N. Allen, "Places of interest in Seoul - with history and legend"(The Korean Repository, 1895.4), H. B. Hulbert, "The Korean Legend on the 'Spirit of the Bell'"(The Korean Review, 1901), Constance J. D. Coulson, "The Sight of Seoul"(Korea, 1910), Frank Elias, "Korea-chapter4(Places, Bells, and Dogs)"(The Far East(China, Korea, Japan), 1911), E. M. Cable, "Old Korean Bells"(Royal Asiatic Society XVI, 1925)
- Official Site of Korea Tourism: The Divine Bell of King Seongdeok
- Beat Maps of King Song-Dok Bell, Beat Map Drawing Method of Bell Type Structures and Beat Maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell by Kim Seok Hyun. http://www.ndsl.kr/ Another article can search at JSV 2005.3 by Yi JangMu and Yi CiUk
- 나의 문화유산답사기(literally My Cultural Heritage Exploration.) book 3 chapter 9, by Yu HengJun
- http://cha.korea.kr/gonews/branch.do?act=detailView&type=news§ionId=co_sec_1&categoryId=&dataId=155312736 (Korean), also fiction section of the '매일신보(Official newspaper of the Governor-General of Korea, published by the Japanese colonial government). One picture of the link is original text of Earmilne bell. Opponents reference is 326 page of The Passing of Korea (Homer Bezaleel Hulbert, 1906, a story about other bell in Seoul and Japanese records about 1920).
- 326 page of The Passing of Korea.
- http://orumi.egloos.com/4061904 (Korean) References of this post is a article of journal called Byeolgungon(별건곤, 別乾坤), 23rd(1929.9.27).
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