Bellefontaine, Ohio

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Bellefontaine, Ohio
City
Logan County courthouse in Bellefontaine
Logan County courthouse in Bellefontaine
Official seal of Bellefontaine, Ohio
Seal
Nickname(s): The Peak of Ohio
Location of Bellefontaine, Ohio
Location of Bellefontaine, Ohio
Detailed map of Bellefontaine
Detailed map of Bellefontaine
Coordinates: 40°21′39″N 83°45′29″W / 40.36083°N 83.75806°W / 40.36083; -83.75806Coordinates: 40°21′39″N 83°45′29″W / 40.36083°N 83.75806°W / 40.36083; -83.75806
Country United States
State Ohio
County Logan
Founded 1817
Government
 • Mayor Adam Brannon (D)
Area[1]
 • Total 10.04 sq mi (26.00 km2)
 • Land 10.04 sq mi (26.00 km2)
 • Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation[2] 1,243 ft (379 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 13,370
 • Estimate (2012[4]) 13,197
 • Density 1,331.7/sq mi (514.2/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code 43311
Area code(s) 937
FIPS code 39-05130[5]
GNIS feature ID 1064407[2]
Website ci.bellefontaine.oh.us

Bellefontaine (/bɛlˈfntɨn/ bel-FOWN-tin)[6] is a city in and the county seat of Logan County, Ohio, United States.[7] The population was estimated at 13,322 in 2011. It is the center of the Bellefontaine Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Logan County, as defined by the United States Census Bureau in 2003. The highest point in Ohio, Campbell Hill, is within the city limits of Bellefontaine.

History[edit]

The name Bellefontaine means "beautiful spring" in French, and is purported to refer to several springs in the area.[8]

Blue Jacket's Town[edit]

Around 1777, the Shawnee war leader Blue Jacket (Weyapiersenwah) built a settlement here, known as Blue Jacket's Town. Blue Jacket and his band had previously occupied a village along the Scioto River, but with the coming of the American Revolutionary War to the Ohio Country, Blue Jacket and other American Indians who took up arms against the American revolutionaries relocated in order to be closer to their British allies at Detroit. Blue Jacket's Town was destroyed in Logan's Raid, conducted by Kentucky militia in 1786 at the outset of the Northwest Indian War. The expedition was led by Benjamin Logan, namesake of Logan County. Blue Jacket and his followers relocated further northwest to the Maumee River.[9]

Beginning in the 1800s, American Revolutionary War veterans and others from Virginia and elsewhere began settling in the area of Blue Jacket's Town. Bellefontaine is on or near the edge of the Virginia Military District, and the Treaty of Greenville delineating lands to be held by Americans from those to be held by natives was poorly administered in the area.[9]

Railroads[edit]

Bellefontaine was platted in 1820 and incorporated in 1835.[10][11][12] In 1837, the Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad built the first railroad in Bellefontaine. This began Bellefontaine's reputation as a railroading town. This reputation was cemented in the 1890s, when the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad (also called the Big Four Railroad) built a main terminal in the city. This terminal also boasted the largest roundhouse between New York and St. Louis.[13]

Though railroading hit hard times in the late 20th century, and the Big Four terminal ceased operations in 1983, Bellefontaine remains a landmark on America's railways. The city is at the junction of CSX lines going to Cleveland, Indianapolis, and Dayton.

Automotive transportation[edit]

Court Avenue, looking East from South Main St.

In 1891, Bellefontaine became the location of the first concrete street in America. George Bartholomew invented a process for paving using Portland cement, which until then had been used in stone construction. A small section of Main Street, on the west side of the Logan County Courthouse, was the first to be paved using that process. When that proved successful, Court Avenue, which runs along the south side of the courthouse, was then paved. While Main Street is now paved with asphalt, Court Avenue has retained its original concrete pavement for over 100 years. At its centennial, the street was closed and a statue of Bartholomew placed at its Main Street end, although since then one lane has been reopened for eastbound traffic.

In 1979, Honda began manufacturing motorcycles in the Columbus suburb of Marysville, Ohio. Since that time, Honda's operations in the Bellefontaine area have greatly expanded, and Bellefontaine is now centrally located to Honda operations in Marysville, East Liberty, Russells Point, Anna, and Troy, Ohio. It follows, then, that Honda is presently Bellefontaine's largest employer.

Today, Bellefontaine is centered at the intersection of U.S. Route 68 with State Routes 47 and 540. U.S. Route 33, a freeway that has interchanges with US 68 and SR 540, skirts the northern edge of the city.

Campbell Hill[edit]

View westward from the U.S. Route 68 bridge over U.S. Route 33 on the north side of the city, near Campbell Hill.

To European settlers, Campbell Hill was first known as Hogue's Hill, perhaps a misspelling of the name of the person who first deeded the land in 1830, Solomon Rogue. In 1898, the land was sold to Charles D. Campbell, in whose name Campbell Hill is now known. Campbell sold the hill and surrounding land to August Wagner, who was the original brewer of Augustiner and Gambrinus beers. (These brands are now the trademarks of the Gambrinus Company of San Antonio, Texas, though the company has stopped production of these beers.)

In 1950, the family of August Wagner deeded Campbell Hill and the surrounding 57.5 acres to the U.S. government. The government then stationed the 664th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron on the hill in 1951. This military unit was responsible for monitoring for possible aerospace attacks from the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The 664th AC&WS and similar military units were eventually superseded by the North American Aerospace Defense Command (or NORAD), and the base in Bellefontaine was closed in 1969.

The Ohio Hi-Point Vocational-Technical District opened a school atop the hill in 1974. The school is now known as the Ohio Hi-Point Career Center.

Geography[edit]

Bellefontaine is located at 40°21′39″N 83°45′29″W / 40.36083°N 83.75806°W / 40.36083; -83.75806 (40.360878, -83.758126).[14] According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 10.04 square miles (26.0 km2), all land.[15]

Climate[edit]

The city of Bellefontaine is at the convergence of the humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) and humid continental (Köppen Dfa) climate zones according to the Köppen climate map. The region is characterized by four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold with mild periods, and summers are generally hot and muggy, with significant precipitation year round. The city is too far south to experience lake effect snow from the Great Lakes region, however it does experience more snow than surrounding areas due to the city's elevation. Traditionally, Bellefontaine's elevation excludes it from tornados and floods that affect the majority of the Miami Valley.

Demographics[edit]

St. Patrick's Catholic Church.
Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,222
1860 2,599 112.7%
1870 3,182 22.4%
1880 3,998 25.6%
1890 4,245 6.2%
1900 6,649 56.6%
1910 8,238 23.9%
1920 9,336 13.3%
1930 9,543 2.2%
1940 9,808 2.8%
1950 10,232 4.3%
1960 11,424 11.6%
1970 11,255 −1.5%
1980 11,798 4.8%
1990 12,142 2.9%
2000 13,069 7.6%
2010 13,370 2.3%
Est. 2012 13,197 −1.3%
Sources:[16][17][5][18]

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 13,069 people, 5,319 households, and 3,436 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,491.3 inhabitants per square mile (575.8/km2). There were 5,722 housing units at an average density of 652.9 per square mile (252.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 90.82% White, 5.13% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, and 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.12% of the population.

There were 5,319 households of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.4% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,189, and the median income for a family was $43,778. The per capita income for the city was $20,917. About 19.9% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.9% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those ages 65 and older.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 13,370 people, 5,415 households, and 3,420 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,331.7 inhabitants per square mile (514.2/km2). There were 6,115 housing units at an average density of 609.1 per square mile (235.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 90.1% White, 4.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population.

There were 5,415 households of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 36.8% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.01.

The median age in the city was 34.8 years. 27.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.3% were from 25 to 44; 24.7% were from 45 to 64; and 12.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.

Micropolitan statistical area[edit]

Bellefontaine is the center of the Bellefontaine Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This micropolis consists solely of Logan County, Ohio. The 2000 census[5] found 46,005 people in the micropolis, making it the 260th most populous such area in the United States. Among all U.S. statistical areas (CBSAs), the Bellefontaine micropolis ranks 622nd. In Ohio, the Bellefontaine micropolis is the 37th most populous CBSA, and the 21st most populous micropolitan statistical area.

By comparison, the least populous metropolitan area in the United States, Carson City, Nevada, has 52,457 residents. The least populous metropolitan area in Ohio is Sandusky, with 79,555 residents. The Bellefontaine micropolis is not as populous as these, but does have a greater population than some micropolitan statistical areas traditionally considered to be small regional cities. (Examples: El Dorado, Arkansas; Clovis, New Mexico; and Red Wing, Minnesota.)

Though official definitions of micropolitan statistical areas did not exist until 2003, the area now constituting the Bellefontaine micropolis grew in population by 8.7 percent between 1990 and 2000.

Government[edit]

Bellefontaine has an elected mayor and city council style of government.

Mayor

In November 2011, two candidates competed for the position of mayor: Democrat Mayor Adam Brannon, incumbent, Republican Fmr. Mayor Robert C. Lentz. Brannon defeated Lentz by an 848 vote margin, securing Brannon a second term.

City council
City offices

The Bellefontaine City Council consists of one president, four ward council members, and three council members at-large. In November 2011, the following members were elected:

  • Council President David Henry (R), without opposition
  • First Ward Councilman David Haw (D), incumbent, over Thomas M. Reynolds (R)
  • Second Ward Councilwoman Diane Hager (R), incumbent, without opposition
  • Third Ward Councilman Brian Evans (D), incumbent, without opposition
  • Fourth Ward Councilman Jerry Pitzer (D), incumbent, over Jonathan Kunze (R)
  • Councilman at Large Mark Fissel (D), incumbent, Deborah E. Baker (R), Allen D. Hadley (R), over Councilman at Large Peter Desoma (R), incumbent

The first meeting of the council, composed of these members, was held in January 2012. David Haw was elected president pro tempore of the council

Administration

In November 2011, the following administrators were elected

  • City Auditor Jack Reser (R), incumbent, over Chris Dinovo (D)
  • City Law Director Howard Traul (R), incumbent, without opposition

Sites of interest[edit]

Sign declaring McKinley Street to be the "World's Shortest Street".
Historic Holland Theatre.
  • McKinley Street — Whether or not this is the shortest street in the world is the point of some contention. The sign at the street's south end (at the intersection of Columbus Ave.) makes such a claim, although Ebenezer Place, in Wick, Scotland, has held the official record since November 2006.[19] The City of Bellefontaine's website places the length of McKinley Street at "about 20 feet", and while city's website does not make the claim of the world's shortest street, it does cite McKinley Street as "the shortest street in America".
  • Court Avenue - A small street in downtown, located adjacent to the Logan County Courthouse. It is known for being the first street in the United States to be paved with concrete.[20]
  • Holland Theater - A theater in Bellefontaine that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It opened in the 1930s as a live theater, but was later converted to a 5 screen megaplex before closing in 1998. In recent years, it has been reopened for events and performances for Bellefontaine and the surrounding area.
  • Campbell Hill, the highest elevated point in Ohio.
  • First brokerage house of Edward D. Jones, still houses an office of the brokerage he started.
  • First United Methodist Church, where Norman Vincent Peale got his start.

Logan County Historical Society[edit]

The Logan County Historical Society and museum is located in Bellefontaine. The original museum was housed in the McBeth School. McBeth school was built in 1919 as the last of the four elementary schools to be built in Bellefontaine at the turn of the century. The building was sold at public auction in 1957 to the Church of God and in 1971 McBeth school was purchased by the Logan County Historical Society for use as the Logan County Historical Museum. The historical society eventually grew out of the 3 story building and moved to its current home closer to Downtown Bellefontaine. McBeth School is now used as an apartment building.[21]

Today the museum includes the Orr mansion, former home of the local Orr family, as well as an extension to the mansion that includes history exhibits from around the county. The Mansion portion of the building has been completely restored by the historical society. Day-to-day operations in the museum and The Logan County Historical Society are supported by a Logan County tax levy and around donations received from visitors to the museum. Donations also can be contributed to the society to be used in historical displays. Recent donations include the 1950s era "house call" bag from local doctor George E. Nixon.[22]

Education[edit]

The Bellefontaine City Schools operate three elementary schools,one intermediate school, one middle school, and one high school in the area.[23] These schools have a combined enrollment of 2,840. In addition, the Ohio Hi-Point Career Center, located atop Campbell Hill, offers both secondary and post-secondary education. Enrolled at Ohio Hi-Point are 505 students. The neighboring Benjamin Logan Local School District campus also has a Bellefontaine address.

Several colleges and universities operate satellite campuses in the Bellefontaine area. These include:

Transportation[edit]

The Bellefontaine Regional Airport is located about 5 miles from the downtown business district. The airport replaced the Bellefontaine Municipal Airport in 2002 and is one of 2 new airports opened to the public in Ohio in the past 30 years.[24]

Media[edit]

The city is served by both print publishing and radio broadcasting.

The Bellefontaine Examiner is the daily local newspaper. It is the latest in a series of newspapers which have been published in Bellefontaine since 1831. It has a current daily circulation of approximately 9500 copies.[25]

Operating currently are WPKO, an FM radio station, and its sister station WBLL, an AM radio station. These stations are owned and operated by V-Tech Communications.[26]

Film[edit]

Bellefontaine is the scene of the well-known W.C. Fields comic movie from the 1930s, "The Old-Fashioned Way". In the movie, the 'Great McGonigle', played by Fields, leads his acting troop on a railroad tour of the U.S. hinterland. His troop has been in the railroad hub Bellefontaine before, because he pompously refers to it as 'dear old Bellefontaine', to which he and his fellow players ("martyrs to their art") are so glad to return. They have however the habit of skipping town without paying their boarding bill. Presumably it was Holland Theatre at which they put on their play. The movie is set in the late nineteenth century, just as the first motor cars arrived in Bellefontaine; one scene has everyone rushing to see one of them as it passes.

Notable people[edit]

Historical marker in downtown Bellefontaine marking the site of Blue Jacket's Town

References[edit]

  1. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  2. ^ a b "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  5. ^ a b c d "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ http://scrippsjschool.org/pronunciation/
  7. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  8. ^ Ohio History Central
  9. ^ a b Ohio History, Vol. 12, pg 169
  10. ^ History of Bellefontaine, City of Bellefontaine. Accessed 2009-10-31.
  11. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Bellefontaine, Ohio
  12. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bellefontaine". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  13. ^ Trostel, Scott D. (2005). The Columbus Avenue Miracle: Bellefontaine, Ohio's WW II Serviceman's Free Canteen. Cam-Tech Publishing. ISBN 0-925436-50-X. 
  14. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  15. ^ "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places – Ohio". United States Census. Retrieved 2012-10-19. 
  16. ^ "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio". 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  17. ^ "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  18. ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  19. ^ "Street measures up to new record". BBC News. 2006-11-01. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  20. ^ Cracked street's hereafter splits Bellefontaine, The Columbus Dispatch, 2008-06-01. Accessed 2008-10-10.
  21. ^ Logan County Historical Society, Published History of Logan County, 1982
  22. ^ http://www.logancountymuseum.org 2009-1-5.
  23. ^ "Bellefontaine City Schools". Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  24. ^ "AOPA's Boyer takes part in Ohio airport grand opening" (Press release). Aircraft owners and Pilots Association (USA). August 16, 2002. Retrieved November 7, 2014. 
  25. ^ http://www.echo-media.com/MediaDetailNP.asp?IDNumber=7016
  26. ^ http://www.fcc.gov/fcc-bin/fmq?call=WPKO

External links[edit]