Belleville was laid out in 1829. The community experienced growth soon after by the building of the National Road through it, but declined in the 1850s when the new railroad missed it by more than a mile.
Belleville is located at 39°40′38″N86°29′18″W / 39.67722°N 86.48833°W / 39.67722; -86.48833, between Plainfield and Stilesville at the junction of US 40 and SR 39. The Deer Creek Golf Club is located one mile south of the town. Also, located in the heart of town is the Belleville Farm Market, which was established in 1952. Locally grown products are sold from April through October, including plants, produce, honey, jellies and more.