Bellevue Hospital Center

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Coordinates: 40°44′21″N 73°58′31″W / 40.7393°N 73.9753°W / 40.7393; -73.9753

Bellevue Hospital Center
New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation
Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital old building.jpg
The original Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital building
Geography
Location 462 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States
Organization
Care system Medicare, Medicaid, Public
Hospital type Teaching, psychiatric
Affiliated university New York University
Services
Emergency department Level I trauma center
Helipad East 34th Street Heliport (IATA: TSS)
Beds 861 general, 339 psychiatric (1200 beds total)
History
Founded March 31st, 1736
Links
Website nyc.gov/bellevue
Other links Hospitals in New York
An engraving from 1866 showing the city's first morgue, located in Bellevue
The "Cube", built in 1973 along the FDR Drive at the East River

Bellevue Hospital Center (sometimes called Bellevue) was founded on March 31, 1736 and is the oldest public hospital in the United States. Located on First Avenue in the Kips Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, Bellevue Hospital is also home to FDNY-EMS Battalion 8, formerly NYC*EMS Station 13. It has a reputation as being one of the best hospitals in the city.

It handles nearly 670,000 non-ER outpatient clinic visits, over 99,000 emergency visits[1] and some 26,000 inpatients each year. More than 80 percent of Bellevue’s patients come from the city’s medically underserved populations. Today, the hospital occupies a 25-story patient care facility with a state of the art ICU, digital radiology communication and a new modern outpatient facility. The hospital has an attending physician staff of 1,800 and an in-house staff of about 5,500. Steven Alexander became Bellevue Hospital Center's Executive Director in 2013.[2]

Reputation[edit]

Bellevue is famous from many literary, film and television references, and as the training ground for many of America's leaders in medicine. Affiliated with the New York University School of Medicine since 1968, Bellevue has been the site of many milestones in the history of medicine,[3] from the establishment of the first ambulance service and first maternity ward, to Nobel Prize-winning cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Bellevue is exceptionally well known for its psychiatric facilities and its emergency department, being named New York's #1 hospital in Emergency Care by New York Magazine.[4] It has opened a new ambulatory care building dedicated to serving over 300,000 outpatients a year. The hospital serves as a primary referral center for cardiac catheterization, catheter-based treatment of heart rhythm disorders, cardiovascular surgery, leprosy, neurosurgery, and physical rehabilitation.

As the flagship facility of New York City’s Health and Hospitals Corporation, Bellevue is open to patients of all backgrounds irrespective of ability to pay.

History[edit]

Hospital events[edit]

Bellevue was founded in 1736, at a time when New York City did not extend much farther north than Wall Street. It was established in what was then wilderness, almost 2 miles north of the settled region of Manhattan, in order to quarantine the sick. When the grid system of streets was established much later in 1811, the survey had to take Bellevue into account, and the placement of First Avenue on the grid is mainly due to the location of Bellevue. New York City purchased the Belle Vue farm and built the New York Almshouse that same year. In 1819, New York University faculty began to conduct clinical instruction at Bellevue Hospital. In 1849, an amphitheatre for clinical teaching and surgery opened. In 1861, the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, the first medical college in New York with connections to a hospital, was founded.

By 1873, the nation's first nursing school based on Florence Nightingale's principles opened at Bellevue, followed by the nation's first children's clinic in 1874 and the nation's first emergency pavilion in 1876; a pavilion for the insane—an approach considered revolutionary at the time—was erected within hospital grounds in 1879. Bellevue initiated a residency training program in 1883; it is still the model for surgical training worldwide. The Carnegie Laboratory, the nation's first pathology and bacteriology laboratory, was founded there a year later, followed by the nation's first men's nursing school in 1888. By 1892, Bellevue established a dedicated unit for alcoholics.

In 1902, the administrative Bellevue and Allied Hospitals organization were formed by the city, under president Dr. John W. Brannan. B&AH also included Gouverneur Hospital, Harlem Hospital, and Fordham Hospital.[5] BA&H opened doors to female and black physicians.[6] In the midst of a tuberculosis epidemic a year later, the Bellevue Chest Service was founded.

Bellevue opened the nation's first ambulatory cardiac clinic in 1911, followed by the Western Hemisphere's first ward for metabolic disorders in 1917. New York City's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner began on the second floor in 1918. German spy and saboteur Fritz Joubert Duquesne famously escaped the hospital prison ward in 1919 after having feigned paralysis for nearly two years.[7]

PS 106, the first public school for the emotionally disturbed children located in a public hospital, opened at Bellevue in 1935. In 1939, David Margolis began work on nine Work Projects Administration murals in entrance rotunda titled Materials of Relaxation, which were completed in 1941. Bellevue became the site of the world's first hospital catastrophe unit the same year; the world's first cardiopulmonary laboratory was established at Bellevue by Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards a year later, and the nation's first heart failure clinic opened, staffed by Eugene Braunwald, in 1952. In 1960. New York City's Office of the chief Medical Examiner moved out of the second floor and into its new building at 520 First Avenue, but still maintained close relations with Bellevue. In 1962, Bellevue established the first intensive care unit in a municipal hospital, and in 1964, Bellevue was designated as the stand-by hospital for treatment of visiting presidents, foreign dignitaries, injured members of the City’s uniformed services, and United Nations diplomats. Bellevue joined the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation as one of 11 acute care hospitals in 1970.

In 1981, Bellevue was certified as an official heart station for cardiac emergencies; a year later it was designated as a micro-surgical reimplantation center for the City of New York, by 1983 as a level one trauma center, and by 1988 as a head and spinal cord injury center. In 1990, it established an accredited residency training program in Emergency Medicine. The building that formerly served as the hospital's psychiatric facility started to be used as a homeless intake center and a men's homeless shelter in 1998. The publication of the Bellevue Literary Review, the first literary magazine to arise from a medical center, commenced in 2001; Bellevue Literary Press was founded six years later as a sister organization of the Bellevue Literary Review.

In April 2010, plans to redevelop it as a hotel and conference center connected to NYU Langone Medical Center fell through.[8] The aftermath of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 required evacuation of all patients due to power failure and flooding in the basement generators.[9][10]

Medical firsts and events[edit]

Multiple firsts were performed at Bellevue in its early years. In 1799, it opened the first maternity ward in the United States. By 1808, the world's first ligation of the femoral artery for an aneurysm was performed there, followed by the first ligation of the innominate artery ten years later.

Bellevue physicians promoted the "Bone Bill" in 1854, which legalized dissection of cadavers for anatomical studies; two years later they started to also popularize the use of the hypodermic syringe. In 1862, the Austin Flint murmur was named for Austin Flint, prominent Bellevue Hospital cardiologist.

By 1867, Bellevue physicians were instrumental in developing New York City's sanitary code, the first in the world. One of the nation's first outpatient departments connected to a hospital (the "Bureau of Medical and Surgical Relief for the Out of Door Poor") was established at Bellevue that year. In 1868, Bellevue physician Stephen Smith became first commissioner of public health in New York City; he initiated a national campaign for health vaccinations. A year later, Bellevue established the second hospital-based, emergency ambulance service in the United States.[11]

In 1889, Bellevue physicians were the first to report that tuberculosis is a preventable disease; five years later was the successful operation of the abdomen for a pistol shot wound. William Tillett discovered streptokinase, later used for the acute treatment of myocardial infarction, at Bellevue in 1933. Nina Starr Braunwald performed the first mitral valve replacement in 1960 at the hospital. In 1967, Bellevue physicians perform the first cadaver kidney transplant. In 1971, the first active immunization of serum hepatitis B was developed by Bellevue physicians. Bellevue played a key role in the development of the "Triple Drug Cocktail" or HAART, a breakthrough in the treatment of AIDS, in 1996. In October 2014, Bellevue took in an Ebola patient, Dr. Craig Spencer, an individual who worked with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) in Guinea a month prior during the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.

Deaths at Bellevue[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Freid.ama-assn.org
  2. ^ Nyc.gov
  3. ^ "Bellevue Hospital Center". New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  4. ^ New York Magazine
  5. ^ Annual Report, Volume 1, by New York (State). Dept. of Social Welfare, 1908, page 268
  6. ^ No One Was Turned Away : The Role of Public Hospitals in New York City since ... by Department of Urban Studies at Vassar College, 1999, page 67
  7. ^ "'Paralytic' Flees from Prison Ward; Captain Fritz Duquesne, Who Feigned Helplessness, Escapes from Bellevue". The New York Times. May 28, 1919. p. 16. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  8. ^ Rubinstein, Dana (April 15, 2010). "Bellevue Redevelopment Officially Dead". The New York Observer. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  9. ^ Ashley Jennings (October 31, 2012). "New York City's Bellevue Hospital Forced to Evacuate Patients After Sandy". ABC News. Retrieved October 31, 2012. 
  10. ^ The New York Times
  11. ^ Bell, Ryan Corbett (2009). The Ambulance: A History. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-3811-2. 

Further reading

External links[edit]