Belmont Stakes

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For the 2014 race, see 2014 Belmont Stakes.
Belmont Stakes
Grade I race
Belmont8 1999-05.jpg
The final and longest leg of the
United States Triple Crown
Location Belmont Park
Elmont, New York, U.S.
Inaugurated 1867 (147 years ago) (1867)
Race type Thoroughbred
Website belmontstakes.com
Race information
Distance 1 12 miles (12 furlongs)
Record 2:24, Secretariat (1973)
Surface Dirt
Track Left-handed
Qualification 3-year-olds
Weight Colt/Gelding: 126 pounds (57 kg); Filly: 121 pounds (55 kg)
Purse US$1.5 million
1st: $800,000

The Belmont Stakes is an American grade I stakes Thoroughbred horse race held every June at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York, United States, on Long Island. It is a 1.5 miles (2.4 km) horse race, open to three-year-old Thoroughbreds. Colts and geldings carry a weight of 126 pounds (57 kg); fillies carry 121 pounds (55 kg). The race, nicknamed The Test of the Champion, is the third and final leg of the Triple Crown and is held five weeks after the Kentucky Derby and three weeks after the Preakness Stakes, on a Saturday between June 5 and June 11. The 1973 Belmont Stakes and Triple Crown winner Secretariat holds the mile and a half stakes record (which is also a track and world record on dirt) of 2:24.

The attendance at the Belmont Stakes ranks fourth in North America, and typically trails only the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes and the Kentucky Oaks. The 2004 Belmont Stakes drew a television audience of 21.9 million viewers, and had the highest household viewing rate since 1977 when Seattle Slew won the Triple Crown.[1]

History[edit]

The first Belmont Stakes was held at Jerome Park Racetrack in The Bronx, built in 1866 by stock market speculator Leonard Jerome (1817–1891) and financed by August Belmont, Sr. (1816–1890), for whom the race was named. The race continued to be held at Jerome Park until 1890, when it was moved to the nearby facility, Morris Park Racecourse. The race remained there until the May 1905 opening of the new Belmont Park, 430 acres (1.7 km2) racetrack in Elmont, New York, on Long Island just outside the New York City borough of Queens.[2]

When anti-gambling legislation was passed in New York State, Belmont Racetrack was closed, and the race was cancelled in 1911 and 1912.

The first post parade in the United States was at the 14th Belmont, in 1880. Before 1921, the race was run in the clockwise tradition of English racing. Since then, the race has been run in the American, or counter-clockwise, direction. The winner of the Belmont Stakes is presented the August Belmont Trophy, one of the most prestigious trophies in the country.

Because of its length (one lap around the enormous Belmont main track), and because it is the final race of the Triple Crown, it is called the "Test of the Champion". Most three-year-olds are unaccustomed to the distance, and lack the experience, if not the stamina, to maintain a winning speed for so long. In a long race such as the Belmont, positioning of the horse and the timing of the move to chase for the lead can be critical.

The race was held at Aqueduct Racetrack from 1963 to 1967, while the track at Belmont was restored and renovated.

Evolution of the Triple Crown series[edit]

Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes, and then the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, eleven times the Preakness was run before the Derby. On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Preakness and the Derby were run on the same day. On eleven occasions, the Belmont Stakes was run before the Preakness Stakes.[3]

The Belmont Stakes is held on the first Saturday that falls on or after June 5. The Kentucky Derby is always held on the first Saturday in May; the Preakness Stakes is held two weeks later; and the Belmont Stakes is held three weeks after the Preakness. The earliest possible date for the Derby is May 1, and the latest is May 7; the earliest possible date for the Belmont is June 5, and the latest is June 11.

The first winner of the Triple Crown was Sir Barton, in 1919. On June 9, 1973, Secretariat won the Belmont Stakes by thirty-one lengths, in a record time of 2:24, becoming a U.S. Triple Crown champion that year. His record still stands as the fastest speed for the Belmont Stakes. Count Fleet won the race by the large margin of twenty-five lengths in 1943. 1989 winner Easy Goer ran the second fastest time of 2:26. Easy Goer also holds a Beyer Speed Figure of 122 for the race, the best of any Triple Crown race since these ratings were first published in 1987.[4]

Affirmed was the last winner of the Triple Crown, taking the Belmont Stakes in 2:26 4/5 on June 10, 1978. Ridden by eighteen-year-old Steve Cauthen, Affirmed defeated rival Alydar with Jorge Velasquez in the saddle. At the time the race was the third slowest start and the third fastest finish with the quarter in 25, the half in 50, 3/4 in 1:14, the mile in 1:37 2/5.

Belmont Park saw its largest crowd in its history when 120,139 people witnessed the Belmont Stakes in 2004 when Smarty Jones was seeking the Triple Crown but was upset by Birdstone. The largest crowd of the 20th century was in 1971 with over 80,000 people, supplemented by the city's Latino community, there to cheer on their new hero, Canonero II, the Venezuelan colt who had won the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes and was poised to win the U.S. Triple Crown. However, due to a foot infection that had bothered the horse for several days, Canonero II failed to win the Triple Crown when he struggled across the finish line in 4th place behind Pass Catcher, ridden by Walter Blum. Despite this loss, Canonero II was named the winner of the first Eclipse Award for Outstanding Three-Year-Old Male Horse.

Changes in distance[edit]

The Belmont Stakes was run at a mile and five furlongs from 1867 to 1873; a mile and a quarter in 1890, 1891, 1892, 1895, 1904 and 1905; a mile and a furlong in 1893 and 1894; a mile and three furlongs from 1896 to 1903 and from 1906 to 1925. The current distance of a mile and half was established in 1926.

Traditions[edit]

The Belmont Stakes is traditionally called "The Test of The Champion" or "Run for the Carnations" because the winning horse is draped with a blanket of white carnations after the race, in similar fashion to the blanket of roses and black-eyed susans for the Derby and Preakness, respectively. The winning owner is ceremonially presented with the silver winner's trophy, designed by Paulding Farnham for Tiffany and Co. It was first presented to August Belmont, Jr. in 1896 and donated by the Belmont family for annual presentation in 1926.

Despite the fact that the Belmont Stakes is the oldest of the Triple Crown races, its traditions have been more subject to change. Until 1996, the post parade song was "The Sidewalks of New York". From 1997 to 2009, the song was changed to broadcast a recording by Frank Sinatra of the "Theme from New York, New York" in an attempt to appeal to younger fans.[5] In 2010, the song was changed to Jay-Z's "Empire State of Mind"[6] before reverting to "Theme from New York, New York" from 2011[7] through the present. This tradition is similar to the singing of the state song at the post parades of the first two Triple Crown races: "My Old Kentucky Home" at the Kentucky Derby and "Maryland, My Maryland" at the Preakness Stakes.[2] The change of song gave rise to “the myth of Mamie O’Rourke,” a reference to a character in the lyrics of "The Sidewalks of New York." Some claim that changing the official Belmont song "cursed" the Triple Crown and was why no horse had won since Affirmed in 1978. Others note that there was no Triple Crown winner between 1979 and 1996, even though "Sidewalks" was still played.[8]

Along with the change of song in 1997, the official drink was also changed, from the "White Carnation" to the "Belmont Breeze."[9] The New York Times reviewed both cocktails unfavorably, calling the Belmont Breeze "a significant improvement over the nigh undrinkable White Carnation" despite the fact that it "tastes like a refined trashcan punch."[10]

Broadcasting history[edit]

From 1986 until 2005, the Triple Crown television rights comprised a single package. In late 2004, the New York Racing Association withdrew from that agreement to negotiate independently.[11] As a result of this NBC, who was the rights holder for all three events, was only able to keep its broadcast rights to the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. ABC regained the rights to the Belmont Stakes as part of a five-year contract that expired following the 2010 race; NBC has since regained the rights to the race.

Records[edit]

Speed record:

Record Victory Margin:

Most wins by a jockey:

Most wins by a trainer:

Most wins by an owner:

Other records:

  • Only James G. Rowe, Sr. and George M. Odom have won the Belmont Stakes as both jockey and trainer.
  • On June 5, 1993 Thoroughbred racing's all-time leading female jockey, Julie Krone, became the first woman to win a Triple Crown race when she rode to victory in the Belmont Stakes aboard Colonial Affair.
  • In 1984, Sarah Lundy became the first female trainer to saddle a horse in the Belmont Stakes.
  • The 2004 race had the biggest attendance in the park's history with 120,139.
  • Sarava, at odds of 70–1, upset War Emblem's bid for the Triple Crown.[13]
  • Braulio Baeza has the distinction of winning three Belmont Stakes over three different surfaces. He won in his Belmont Stakes debut on 65 to 1 long-shot Sherluck in 1961 at the old Belmont Park, won in 1963 on Chateaugay when the race was run at Aqueduct, and won in 1969 on Arts and Letters at the new Belmont Park.[14]

Filly Victories[edit]

Three fillies have won the Belmont: Ruthless in 1867, Tanya in 1905, and Rags to Riches in 2007. By comparison, three fillies have won the Kentucky Derby. On average, fillies have won between 2% and 3% of the Triple Crown races, with similar numbers for geldings; while about 95% of these races have been won by colts.

Foreign-born winners[edit]

Belmont Stakes winners[edit]

Belmont Stakes winners since 1867
Year Winner Jockey Trainer Owner Time*
2014 Tonalist Joel Rosario Christophe Clement Robert S. Evans 2:28.52
2013 Palace Malice Mike Smith Todd Pletcher Dogwood Stable 2:30.70
2012 Union Rags John Velazquez Michael Matz Phyllis M. Wyeth 2:30.42
2011 Ruler on Ice Jose Valdivia, Jr. Kelly Breen George and Lori Hall 2:30.88
2010 Drosselmeyer Mike Smith William Mott WinStar Farm LLC 2:31.57
2009 Summer Bird Kent Desormeaux Tim Ice Kalarikkal & Vilasini Jayaraman 2:27.54
2008 Da'Tara Alan Garcia Nick Zito Robert V. LaPenta 2:29.65
2007 Rags to Riches John Velazquez Todd Pletcher M. Tabor & D. Smith 2:28.74
2006 Jazil Fernando Jara Kiaran McLaughlin Shadwell Farm 2:27.81
2005 Afleet Alex Jeremy Rose Timothy Ritchey Cash is King LLC 2:28.75
2004 Birdstone Edgar Prado Nick Zito Marylou Whitney Stables 2:27.50
2003 Empire Maker Jerry Bailey Robert Frankel Juddmonte Farms 2:28.26
2002 Sarava Edgar Prado Kenneth McPeek New Phoenix Stable 2:29.71
2001 Point Given Gary Stevens Bob Baffert The Thoroughbred Corp. 2:26.80
2000 Commendable Pat Day D. Wayne Lukas Bob & Beverly Lewis 2:31.20
1999 Lemon Drop Kid Jose Santos Scotty Schulhofer Jeanne G. Vance 2:27.80
1998 Victory Gallop Gary Stevens W. Elliott Walden Prestonwood Farm 2:29.00
1997 Touch Gold Chris McCarron David Hofmans Frank Stronach 2:28.80
1996 Editor's Note Rene R. Douglas D. Wayne Lukas Overbrook Farm 2:28.80
1995 Thunder Gulch Gary Stevens D. Wayne Lukas Michael Tabor 2:32.00
1994 Tabasco Cat Pat Day D. Wayne Lukas Reynolds/Overbrook 2:26.80
1993 Colonial Affair Julie Krone Scotty Schulhofer Centennial Farms 2:29.80
1992 A.P. Indy Ed Delahoussaye Neil Drysdale Tomonori Tsurumaki 2:26.13
1991 Hansel Jerry Bailey Frank L. Brothers Lazy Lane Farm 2:28.00
1990 Go And Go Michael Kinane Dermot K. Weld Moyglare Stud Farm 2:27.20
1989 Easy Goer Pat Day C. R. McGaughey III Ogden Phipps 2:26.00
1988 Risen Star Ed Delahoussaye Louie J. Roussel III Louie J. Roussel III 2:26.40
1987 Bet Twice Craig Perret Jimmy Croll Blanche P. Levy 2:28.20
1986 Danzig Connection Chris McCarron Woody Stephens Henryk de Kwiatkowski 2:29.80
1985 Creme Fraiche Eddie Maple Woody Stephens Brushwood Stables 2:27.00
1984 Swale Laffit Pincay, Jr. Woody Stephens Claiborne Farm 2:27.20
1983 Caveat Laffit Pincay, Jr. Woody Stephens August Belmont IV 2:27.80
1982 Conquistador Cielo Laffit Pincay, Jr. Woody Stephens Henryk de Kwiatkowski 2:28.20
1981 Summing George Martens Luis Barrera Charles T. Wilson, Jr. 2:29.00
1980 Temperence Hill Eddie Maple Joseph B. Cantey Loblolly Stable 2:29.80
1979 Coastal Ruben Hernandez David A. Whiteley William Haggin Perry 2:28.60
1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm 2:26.80
1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William H. Turner, Jr. Karen L. Taylor 2:29.60
1976 Bold Forbes Angel Cordero, Jr. Laz Barrera E. Rodriguez Tizol 2:29.00
1975 Avatar Bill Shoemaker Tommy Doyle Arthur A. Seeligson, Jr. 2:28.20
1974 Little Current Miguel A. Rivera Lou Rondinello Darby Dan Farm 2:29.20
1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable 2:24.00
1972 Riva Ridge Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stud 2:28.00
1971 Pass Catcher Walter Blum Eddie Yowell October House Farm 2:30.40
1970 High Echelon John L. Rotz John W. Jacobs Ethel D. Jacobs 2:34.00
1969 Arts and Letters Braulio Baeza J. Elliott Burch Rokeby Stables 2:28.80
1968 Stage Door Johnny Heliodoro Gustines John M. Gaver, Sr. Greentree Stable 2:27.20
1967 Damascus Bill Shoemaker Frank Y. Whiteley, Jr. Edith W. Bancroft 2:28.80
1966 Amberoid William Boland Lucien Laurin Reginald N. Webster 2:29.60
1965 Hail To All Johnny Sellers Eddie Yowell Zelda Cohen 2:28.40
1964 Quadrangle Manuel Ycaza J. Elliott Burch Rokeby Stables 2:28.40
1963 Chateaugay Braulio Baeza James P. Conway Darby Dan Farm 2:30.20
1962 Jaipur Bill Shoemaker Bert Mulholland George D. Widener, Jr. 2:28.80
1961 Sherluck Braulio Baeza Harold Young Jacob Sher 2:29.20
1960 Celtic Ash Bill Hartack Thomas J. Barry Joseph E. O'Connell 2:29.20
1959 Sword Dancer Bill Shoemaker J. Elliott Burch Brookmeade Stable 2:28.40
1958 Cavan Pete Anderson Thomas J. Barry Joseph E. O'Connell 2:30.20
1957 Gallant Man Bill Shoemaker John A. Nerud Ralph Lowe 2:26.60
1956 Needles David Erb Hugh L. Fontaine D & H Stable 2:29.80
1955 Nashua Eddie Arcaro Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 2:29.00
1954 High Gun Eric Guerin Max Hirsch King Ranch 2:30.80
1953 Native Dancer Eric Guerin Bill Winfrey Alfred G. Vanderbilt II 2:28.60
1952 One Count Eddie Arcaro Oscar White Sarah F. Jeffords 2:30.20
1951 Counterpoint David Gorman Sylvester Veitch C. V. Whitney 2:29.00
1950 Middleground William Boland Max Hirsch King Ranch 2:28.60
1949 Capot Ted Atkinson John M. Gaver, Sr. Greentree Stable 2:30.20
1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm 2:28.20
1947 Phalanx Ruperto Donoso Sylvester Veitch C. V. Whitney 2:29.40
1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch 2:30.80
1945 Pavot Eddie Arcaro Oscar White Walter M. Jeffords, Sr. 2:30.20
1944 Bounding Home Gayle Smith Matt Brady William Ziegler, Jr. 2:32.20
1943 Count Fleet Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz 2:28.20
1942 Shut Out Eddie Arcaro John M. Gaver, Sr. Greentree Stable 2:29.20
1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm 2:31.00
1940 Bimelech Fred A. Smith William A. Hurley Edward R. Bradley 2:29.60
1939 Johnstown James Stout Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 2:29.60
1938 Pasteurized James Stout George M. Odom Carol Harriman Plunkett 2:29.40
1937 War Admiral Charley Kurtsinger George Conway Glen Riddle Farm 2:28.60
1936 Granville James Stout Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 2:30.00
1935 Omaha Willie Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 2:30.60
1934 Peace Chance Wayne D. Wright Pete Coyne Joseph E. Widener 2:29.20
1933 Hurryoff Mack Garner Henry McDaniel Joseph E. Widener 2:32.60
1932 Faireno Tommy Malley Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 2:32.80
1931 Twenty Grand Charley Kurtsinger James G. Rowe, Jr. Greentree Stable 2:29.60
1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 2:31.60
1929 Blue Larkspur Mack Garner Herbert J. Thompson Edward R. Bradley 2:32.80
1928 Vito Clarence Kummer Max Hirsch Alfred H. Cosden 2:33.20
1927 Chance Shot Earl Sande Pete Coyne Joseph E. Widener 2:32.40
1926 Crusader Albert Johnson George Conway Glen Riddle Farm 2:32.20
1925 American Flag Albert Johnson Gwyn R. Tompkins Glen Riddle Farm 2:16.80
1924 Mad Play Earl Sande Sam Hildreth Rancocas Stable 2:18.80
1923 Zev Earl Sande Sam Hildreth Rancocas Stable 2:19.00
1922 Pillory C. H. Miller Thomas J. Healey Richard T. Wilson, Jr. 2:18.80
1921 Grey Lag Earl Sande Sam Hildreth Rancocas Stable 2:16.80
1920 Man o' War Clarence Kummer Louis Feustel Glen Riddle Farm 2:14.20
1919 Sir Barton Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross 2:17.40
1918 Johren Frank Robinson Albert Simons Harry P. Whitney 2:20.40
1917 Hourless James H. Butwell Sam Hildreth August Belmont, Jr. 2:17.80
1916 Friar Rock Everett Haynes Sam Hildreth August Belmont, Jr. 2:22.00
1915 The Finn George Byrne Edward W. Heffner Henry C. Hallenbeck 2:18.40
1914 Luke McLuke Merritt Buxton John F. Schorr John W. Schorr 2:20.00
1913 Prince Eugene Roscoe Troxler James G. Rowe, Sr. Harry P. Whitney 2:18.00
1912 No race was held
1911
1910 Sweep James H. Butwell James G. Rowe, Sr. James R. Keene 2:22.00
1909 Joe Madden Eddie Dugan Sam Hildreth Sam Hildreth 2:21.60
1908 Colin Joe Notter James G. Rowe, Sr. James R. Keene N/A
1907 Peter Pan George Mountain James G. Rowe, Sr. James R. Keene N/A
1906 Burgomaster Lucien Lyne John W. Rogers Harry P. Whitney 2:20.00
1905 Tanya Gene Hildebrand John W. Rogers Harry P. Whitney 2:08.00
1904 Delhi George M. Odom James G. Rowe, Sr. James R. Keene 2:06.60
1903 Africander John Bullman Richard O. Miller Hampton Stable 2:21.75
1902 Masterman John Bullman John J. Hyland August Belmont, Jr. 2:22.60
1901 Commando Henry Spencer James G. Rowe, Sr. James R. Keene 2:21.00
1900 Ildrim Nash Turner H. Eugene Leigh H. Eugene Leigh 2:21.25
1899 Jean Bereaud Richard Clawson Sam Hildreth Sydney Paget 2:23.00
1898 Bowling Brook Fred Littlefield R. Wyndham Walden A. H. & D. H. Morris 2:32.00
1897 Scottish Chieftain Joe Scherrer Matt Byrnes Marcus Daly 2:23.25
1896 Hastings Henry Griffin John J. Hyland Blemton Stable 2:24.50
1895 Belmar Fred Taral Edward Feakes Preakness Stables 2:11.50
1894 Henry of Navarre Willie Simms Byron McClelland Byron McClelland 1:56.50
1893 Comanche Willie Simms Gus Hannon Empire Stable 1:53.25
1892 Patron William Hayward Lewis Stuart Lewis Stuart 2:17.00
1891 Foxford Edward R. Garrison M. Donavan C. E. Rand 2:08.75
1890 Burlington Pike Barnes Albert Cooper Hough Bros. 2:07.75
1889 Eric William Hayward John Huggins A. J. Cassatt 2:47.25
1888 Sir Dixon Jim McLaughlin Frank McCabe Dwyer Bros. Stable 2:40.25
1887 Hanover Jim McLaughlin Frank McCabe Dwyer Bros. Stable 2:43.50
1886 Inspector B Jim McLaughlin Frank McCabe Dwyer Bros. Stable 2:41.00
1885 Tyrant Paul Duffy C. Claypool James B. A. Haggin 2:43.00
1884 Panique Jim McLaughlin James G. Rowe, Sr. Dwyer Bros. Stable 2:42.00
1883 George Kinney Jim McLaughlin James G. Rowe, Sr. Dwyer Bros. Stable 2:42.50
1882 Forester Jim McLaughlin Lewis Stuart Appleby & Johnson 2:43.00
1881 Saunterer Tom Costello R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 2:47.00
1880 Grenada W. Hughes R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 2:47.00
1879 Spendthrift George Evans Thomas Puryear James R. Keene 2:42.75
1878 Duke of Magenta W. Hughes R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 2:43.50
1877 Cloverbrook C. Holloway Jeter Walden E. A. Clabaugh 2:46.00
1876 Algerine Billy Donohue Thomas W. Doswell Doswell & Co. 2:40.50
1875 Calvin Bobby Swim Ansel Williamson Hal P. McGrath 2:42.25
1874 Saxon George Barbee W. Prior Pierre Lorillard IV 2:39.50
1873 Springbok James G. Rowe, Sr. David McDaniel David McDaniel 3:01.75
1872 Joe Daniels James G. Rowe, Sr. David McDaniel David McDaniel 2:58.25
1871 Harry Bassett Walter Miller David McDaniel David McDaniel 2:56.00
1870 Kingfisher Edward D. Brown Rollie Colston Daniel Swigert 2:59.50
1869 Fenian C. Miller Jacob Pincus August Belmont 3:04.25
1868 General Duke Bobby Swim A. Thompson McConnell & Co. 3:02.00
1867 Ruthless Gilbert Patrick A. Jack Minor Francis Morris 3:05.00
  • Note: Timed to the 1/4 second 1867 to 1901 and 1903, to the 1/5 second 1902 and 1904 to 2001, then to the 1/100 since 2002 as well as in 1992.

A † designates a Triple Crown Winner.
A ‡ designates a filly.

Note: D. Wayne Lukas swept the 1995 Triple Crown with two different horses.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Viewership of 2008 Belmont Stakes". 
  2. ^ a b "Belmont Stakes Records & Traditions". New York Racing Association. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  3. ^ "Preakness Stakes". Turfnsport.com. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  4. ^ Beyer, Andrew (May 17, 2004). "On the Fast Track To History". The Washington Post. 
  5. ^ "Belmont Stakes Traditions". Horseracing.about.com. 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  6. ^ The Associated Press (June 4, 2010). "The Belmont Stakes singing a new tune". newsobserver.com. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  7. ^ The Associated Press (June 4, 2011). "Sinatra’s voice returns to Belmont Stakes". boston.com. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  8. ^ Scheinman, John (2014-05-30). "Five Myths About the Triple Crown". Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-05-30. 
  9. ^ "Belmont Stakes Traditions". Horseracing.about.com. 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  10. ^ Powell, Julie (June 8, 2005). "The Summer Cook; The Appetites Are Nearing the Gate". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-09. 
  11. ^ a b Scheinman, John (October 5, 2004). "ABC Will Broadcast Belmont Stakes Starting in 2006". The Washington Post. 
  12. ^ Novy, Eben (February 22, 2011). "NBC Gets Belmont TV Rights to Complete Horse Racing's Triple Crown Package". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-05-08. 
  13. ^ "Belmont Stakes Attendance, Wagering Set Records". BloodHorse.com. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  14. ^ Dandrea, Phil. Sham: Great Was Second Best. Acanthus Publishing. 

External links[edit]