Belozersk

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Belozersk (English)
Белозерск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Town of Belozersk.jpg
Street in the town
Map of Russia - Vologda Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Vologda Oblast in Russia
Belozersk is located in Vologda Oblast
Belozersk
Belozersk
Location of Belozersk in Vologda Oblast
Coordinates: 60°02′00″N 37°46′00″E / 60.03333°N 37.76667°E / 60.03333; 37.76667Coordinates: 60°02′00″N 37°46′00″E / 60.03333°N 37.76667°E / 60.03333; 37.76667
Flag Belozersk.png
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Vologda Oblast[1]
Administrative district Belozersky District[1]
Town of district significance Belozersk[2]
Administrative center of Belozersky District,[1] town of district significance of Belozersk[2]
Municipal status (as of April 2010)
Municipal district Belozersky Municipal District[3]
Urban settlement Belozersk Urban Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Belozersky Municipal District,[3] Belozersk Urban Settlement[3]
Representative body City Council[4]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 9,616 inhabitants[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
First mentioned 862[7]
Previous names Beloozero (until 1777)[8]
Postal code(s)[9] 161200
Dialing code(s) +7 81756[citation needed]
Official website
Belozersk on WikiCommons

Belozersk (Russian: Белозе́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Belozersky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the southern bank of Lake Beloye, from which it takes the name, 214 kilometers (133 mi) northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 9,616 (2010 Census);[5] 10,975 (2002 Census);[10] 12,352 (1989 Census).[11]

History[edit]

Known as Beloozero (Белоо́зеро, lit. white lake) until 1777,[8] it was first chronicled in 862[7] as one of the five original Russian towns (the other four being Murom, Novgorod, Polotsk, and Rostov).[12] According to the Primary Chronicle, Sineus, a brother of Rurik, became the prince of Beloozero in 862.[13] However, most likely Sineus never existed.[13] On several occasions, the settlement was moved from one bank of the lake to another.[7]

In the 11th century, the region was still inhabited primarily by Finno-Ugric tribes who fiercely resisted Christianization.[citation needed] In 1071, local pagan priests rose in rebellion, which was put down by the Kievan commander Yan Vyshatich.[citation needed] The Primary Chronicle reports that the dead bodies of priests were suspended from an oak tree, until they were torn to pieces by a bear (regarded by pagans as a holy animal).[citation needed] In the 10th-13th centuries, the territory was controlled by the Novgorod Republic.[12] Beloozero was the seat of a small principality between 1238 and the 1370s, but subsequently between 1380 and 1384 became subordinate to the Grand Duchy of Moscow.[8][12] On July 10, 1612, Polish and Lithuanian vagabonds (Lisowczycy) captured Belozersk without fight, looting the town.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Beloozero was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate) and named one of the towns constituting the governorate.[14] In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off and Belozersk became the seat of Belozersk Province in Novgorod Governorate.[15] In 1776, the territory was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty.[8] In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and Belozersky Uyezd became a part of Novgorod Governorate.[15]

In June 1918, five uyezds of Novgorod Governorate, including Belozersky Uyezd, were split off to form Cherepovets Governorate, with the administrative center in Cherepovets.[16] On August 1, 1927, Cherepovets Governorate was abolished and its territory became Cherepovets Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.[16] At the same time, uyezds were abolished and Belozersky District was established.[16] On September 23, 1937, Belozersky District was transferred to newly established Vologda Oblast.[16]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Belozersk serves as the administrative center of Belozersky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Belozersky District as the town of district significance of Belozersk.[2]

As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Belozersk, together with four rural localities in Glushkovsky Selsoviet and two rural localities in Kunostsky Selsoviet of Belozersky District, is incorporated within Belozersky Municipal District as Belozersk Urban Settlement.[3]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The economy of Belozersk is based on timber industry and food industry.

Transportation[edit]

Belozersk is connected by all-seasonal roads with Cherepovets, Kirillov, and Lipin Bor (connecting further to Vytegra). There are also local roads.

The Belozersky Canal, a part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway (formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System), which connects the river courses of the Sheksna and the Kovzha, runs through Belozersk, bypassing Lake Beloye from the south.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The town of Belozersk is classified as a historical town by the Ministry of Culture of Russia, which implies certain restrictions on construction in the historical center.[17]

The medieval monuments in the town center are the Assumption Church (1552) and the Transfiguration Cathedral (1668). The wooden shrine of St. Elijah was built in 1690. The neighborhood is rich in old cloisters, such as Kirillo-Belozersky and Ferapontov Monasteries.

The Assumption Church in Belozersk
Belozersk Assumption Cathedral in 1909

Two of the most famous medieval icons were created in the 13th century in Belozersk: the Virgin of the White Lake and Saints Peter and Paul. They constitute an intermediate style between Novgorodian and Northern icon painting.

The Virgin of White Lake, the icon of the 13th century

The Belozersky Local Museum located in Belozersk is an umbrella organization which not only hosts ethnographic and historical exhibits, but also manages the most important architectural monuments in Belozersk such as the Transfiguration Cathedral.[18]

International relations[edit]

Belozersk has established a sister city relationship with the city of Skien in Norway.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #178
  2. ^ a b c Law #371-OZ
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #1107-OD
  4. ^ Полномочия Совета
  5. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 44. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ a b c d Н. В. Солдатова (2006). Г. В. Судаков, ed. Вологодская энциклопедия (in Russian). Вологда: ВГПУ, Русь. p. 57. ISBN 5-87822-305-8. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 
  9. ^ "List of postal codes" (in Russian). Russian Post. Retrieved August 3, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c Янин, Валентин Лаврентьевич (2008). Очерки истории средневекового Новгорода (in Russian). ISBN 978-5-9551-0256-6. 
  13. ^ a b Рюрик - Синеус - Трувор. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 
  14. ^ Указ об учреждении губерний и о росписании к ним городов (Russian)
  15. ^ a b Снытко, О. В.; et al. (2009). С .Д. Трифонов, Т. Б. Чуйкова, Л. В. Федина, А. Э. Дубоносова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727-1995 гг. Справочник (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. p. 16–23. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Справка об изменениях административно-территориального устройства и сети партийных и комсомольских органов на территории Вологодской области (1917–1991)" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 
  17. ^ Министерство культуры Российской Федерации. Приказ №418/339 от 29 июля 2010 г. «Об утверждении перечня исторических поселений». Вступил в силу 10 октября 2010 г. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №219, 29 сентября 2010 г.. (Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation. Order #418/339 of July 29, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Historic Settlements. Effective as of October 10, 2010.).
  18. ^ "Белозерский областной краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Белозерский областной краеведческий музей. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №1107-ОЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ Белозерского муниципального района, границах и статусе муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №2809-ОЗ от 5 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы области, устанавливающие границы и статус муниципальных образований области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №242, 11 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #1107-OZ of December 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of Belozersky Municipal District, on the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #2809-OZ of July 5, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Oblast, Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).