Ben & Jerry's

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Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Holdings, Inc.
Type Subsidiary
Industry Food Processing
Founded Burlington, Vermont
(May 5, 1978)
Founders Ben Cohen
Jerry Greenfield
Headquarters South Burlington, Vermont, U.S.
Key people Jostein Solheim CEO[1]
Ben Cohen co-founder
Jerry Greenfield co-founder
Products Ice cream
Parent Unilever NV
Website www.benjerry.com

Ben & Jerry's is an American ice cream company, a division of the Anglo-Dutch Unilever conglomerate, that manufactures ice cream, frozen yogurt, sorbet, and ice cream novelty products. These are manufactured by Ben & Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in Burlington, Vermont, United States, with the main factory in Waterbury, Vermont. It is best known as a premium ice cream brand, founded in 1978 in Burlington, Vermont.

History[edit]

Jerry Greenfield (left) and Ben Cohen (right) in 2010.

Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield were childhood friends from New York. While Jerry finished college, he found himself unable to make his way into medical school. Ben dropped out of college.[2] In 1977 Ben and Jerry completed a correspondence course on ice cream making from Pennsylvania State University's Creamery. Cohen has anosmia and so relied on "mouth feel". This led to the company's trademark chunks being mixed in with their ice cream.[3] On May 5, 1978, with a $12,000[4] investment the two business partners opened an ice cream parlor in a renovated gas station in downtown Burlington, Vermont. In 1979, they marked their anniversary by holding the first-ever free cone day, now an international annual celebration.[3]

In 1980, Ben and Jerry rented space in an old spool and bobbin mill on South Champlain Street in Burlington and began packing their ice cream in pints. In 1981, the first Ben and Jerry's franchise opened on Route 7 in Shelburne, Vermont (where Marco's Pizza is now). In 1983, Ben & Jerry’s ice cream was used to build “the world’s largest ice cream sundae” in St. Albans, Vermont; the sundae weighed 27,102 pounds (12,293 kg). That same year, the cows on their cartons were redesigned by local artist, Woody Jackson.[5]

In 1984, Häagen-Dazs wanted to limit distribution of Ben & Jerry’s in Boston, prompting Ben & Jerry’s to file suit against the parent company, Pillsbury, in its now famous “What’s the Pussy Afraid Of?” campaign. In 1987, Häagen-Dazs again tried to enforce exclusive distribution, and Ben & Jerry’s filed its second lawsuit against the Pillsbury Company. In 1985, the Ben & Jerry’s Foundation was established at the end of the year with a gift from Ben & Jerry's to fund community-oriented projects; it was then provided with 7.5% of the company’s annual pre-tax profits. In 1986, Ben & Jerry’s launched its “Cowmobile”, a modified mobile home used to distribute free scoops of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream in a unique, cross-country “marketing drive”—driven and served by Ben and Jerry themselves. The “Cowmobile” burned to the ground outside of Cleveland four months later, but there were no injuries. Ben said it looked like “the world’s largest baked Alaska”.[6]

In 1988, the two men won the title of U.S. Small Business Persons Of The Year, awarded by U.S. President Ronald Reagan.[7] Also that year, the first brownies were ordered from Greyston Bakery, which led to the development of the popular Chocolate Fudge Brownie flavor.[8] In 1992, Ben & Jerry’s joined in a co-operative campaign with the national non-profit Children's Defense Fund; the campaign goal was to bring children’s basic needs to the top of the national agenda. Over 70,000 postcards were sent to Congress concerning kids and other national issues. In 1995, they hired Robert Holland, Jr. as CEO after holding an essay contest as part of the search. Holland left after 20 months following philosophical differences and was replaced by Perry Odak in 1997.[9]

In 1989, Ben & Jerry’s revealed their opposition of the use of rGBH (recombinant bovine growth hormone) in all their products. This genetically engineered hormone is usually given to cows in order to boost milk production, but Ben & Jerry’s does not support this practice and is in favor of utilizing less chemically intensive ingredients for the safety of consumers and the environment.[10]

In 1994, Ben & Jerry's: The Inside Scoop, written by Fred "Chico" Lager, former CEO of Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream, was published. This book tracks the history of how Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream got started. The book focuses on "How Two Real Guys Built a Business with a Social Conscience and a Sense of Humor."[11]

Ben & Jerry's ice-cream branch at the United Square Shopping Mall in Singapore.

In April 2000, Ben & Jerry's sold the company to Anglo-Dutch multinational food giant Unilever.[12] Unilever said it hopes to carry on the tradition of engaging "in these critical, global economic and social missions". Although the founders' names are still attached to the product, they do not hold any board or management position and are not involved in day-to-day management of the company.[13]

In 2001, Ben & Jerry's U.S. completed the transition to "Eco-Pint" packaging, which packaged all pint flavors in environmentally friendly unbleached paperboard Eco-Pint containers, a decision it later reversed. The use of brown-kraft unbleached paperboard had been a critical first step toward a totally biodegradable pint made without added chlorine. Due to what they described as increasing supply, quality, and cost challenges, Ben & Jerry's discontinued their use of the Eco-Pint in 2006, transitioning to a pint container made out of a bleached paperboard that it said was more readily available with superior forming characteristics.[citation needed]

On Earth Day in 2005, when a vote in the U.S. Senate proposed the opening of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil drilling, Ben & Jerry's launched a protest by creating the largest ever Baked Alaska, which weighed 900 pounds (410 kg), and placed it in front of the U.S. Capitol Building.[14][15]

In March 2009, "CyClone Dairy"[16] launched an advertising campaign and a website to promote its milk products, which purportedly came exclusively from cloned cows.[17] On April 1, 2009 (April Fool's Day), Ben & Jerry's announced that it was behind this fake company. Ben & Jerry's had created the tongue-in-cheek hoax to raise awareness of the increasing presence of products from cloned animals within American food,[18][19] and to campaign for a tracking system of cloned-animal products.[20] The hoax was revealed on April Fool's Day with the message: "We believe you should have the right to choose which foods you eat – and not to eat cloned foods if you don’t want to. And that's why Ben & Jerry’s believes we need a national clone tracking system, so people and companies can know where their food is coming from."[21]

In 2010, Jostein Solheim, a Unilever executive from Norway, became the new CEO of the company and had this to say about the transition: "My mantra that I've repeated a hundred times since starting at Ben & Jerry's is: ‘Change is a wonderful thing,'" he said. "The world needs dramatic change to address the social and environmental challenges we are facing. Values led businesses can play a critical role in driving that positive change. We need to lead by example, and prove to the world that this is the best way to run a business. Historically, this company has been and must continue to be a pioneer to continually challenge how business can be a force for good and address inequities inherent in global business."[22]

On February 24, 2012, Ben & Jerry's released a new Greek Frozen Yogurt line, which comes in eight flavors: Strawberry Shortcake, Blueberry Vanilla Graham, Raspberry Fudge Chunk, Banana Peanut Butter,[23] and Vanilla (scoop shop exclusive):[24] On April 12, 2013 Pineapple Passionfruit, Vanilla Honey Caramel, and Liz Lemon were added to the Greek Yogurt line.[25]

In 2013, Ben & Jerry’s committed to making their products GMO-free in support of mandatory GMO labeling legislation.[26]

Original flavors and sundaes[edit]

A pint of Ben & Jerry's ice cream

Chubby Hubby consists of vanilla malt ice cream swirled with fudge and peanut butter, and containing pretzel nuggets covered in fudge and filled with peanut butter. For the month of September 2009, Ben and Jerry's, in partnership with Freedom to Marry, renamed Chubby Hubby to Hubby Hubby, in celebration of the legalization of same-sex marriage in the company's home state of Vermont. The carton featured the image of two men getting married beneath a rainbow.[27][28][29]

On March 13, 2012, Ben & Jerry’s announced it will be changing the name of one of its ice cream flavors in the UK in support of equal marriage rights for same-sex couples. Oh! My! Apple Pie! will become Apple-y Ever After and tubs will feature a gay couple atop a wedding cake decorated with rainbows.[30]

Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield appeared on the The Colbert Report on March 5, 2007 to promote their new ice cream flavor, Stephen Colbert's AmeriCone Dream, and their grassroots education and advocacy project, TrueMajority.

The company renamed a flavor, Yes Pecan, in reference to Barack Obama's victory in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election. They later decided in January 2009 to donate all proceeds made on the sale of that flavor to the Common Cause Education Fund.[31]

On March 2, 2011 Cohen and Greenfield appeared on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon and unveiled their new flavor of ice cream, Late Night Snack, whose carton features a picture of Jimmy Fallon on it.[32]

The Vermonster is a large ice cream sundae served in a "Vermonster Bucket" in Ben & Jerry's "scoop shops." Its ingredients are 20 scoops of ice cream, 4 bananas, 4 ladles of hot fudge, 3 chocolate chip cookies, 1 chocolate fudge brownie, 10 scoops of walnuts, 2 scoops each of 4 toppings of your choice, and whipped cream. It contains 14,000 calories, and 500 grams of fat. The Vermonster Challenge is an annual charity event held by Ben & Jerry's in which teams of four compete to finish a Vermonster and win free ice cream for a year.[33]

Girl in cow costume promoting Free Cone Day outside a Ben & Jerry's shop in Stockholm, Sweden

Free Cone Day is an annual event held between late March and early May, in which Ben & Jerry's scoop shops give out free ice cream cups and cones. The most recent event took place on Tuesday, April 8, 2014 from noon to 8 p.m. The first Free Cone Day was held on Saturday, May 5, 1979 by Ben and Jerry as a customer and staff appreciation event for the first anniversary of their store's opening.

Over one million free cones are given away each year, prompting the company's ad slogan "Be One In A Million." Charitable organizations are often present at the stores each year and enjoy a significant amount of fundraising success. Often, local celebrities show up at various stores, promoting the day and the charities there.[34] Sometimes the event is scheduled to coincide with Earth Day and sometimes volunteers are on hand with clipboards and voter registration forms to help those who would like to register to vote.

Controversies[edit]

Commercial[edit]

The Center for Science in the Public Interest, a consumer-advocacy group, urged Ben & Jerry's to stop labeling their ice cream as "all natural," due to the company's use of corn syrup, alkalised cocoa, and other chemically modified ingredients.[35] In September 2010, the company agreed to stop labeling their ice cream and frozen yogurt as "all natural."[36]

In 2011 Ben & Jerry's released a flavor named Schweddy Balls, in homage to the Saturday Night Live (SNL) skit of the same name. An American group named "One Million Moms" protested, saying that the name was too explicit for grocery store shelves—spokesperson Monica Cole explained to the media: "I realize it could be a lot worse, but are they going to progressively get worse if we don't say something? Maybe they'll think twice before they come up with another inappropriate name for ice cream." However, the expression of disdain was not unanimous among U.S. parents, as mother Gina Ragusa said to the Huffington Post: "We just think it's funny, that's all, and honestly we all really want to try it.", adding that she consistently checks for the item's availability at her local supermarket.[37]

Actor Alec Baldwin, who appeared in the SNL skit as baker Pete Schweddy, hosted the September 24, 2011 episode of the 37th season of the show and responded to the protests by stating that a new flavor called "Go Fudge Yourself" had been produced for those in opposition to the tribute. Following the initial release of the flavor, Baldwin informed the media that "thanks to Ben & Jerry's, the goodness of the Schweddy family recipe won't go with me to the great beyond," as he had previously feared that his association with the SNL episode would remain permanent until his death.[38]

Political[edit]

The interior of the Ben & Jerry's in Hoboken, New Jersey

Following rumors that suggested that Ben & Jerry's supported the defense of Mumia Abu-Jamal—who was convicted in 1982 of killing Philadelphia Police officer Daniel Faulkner[39] the company confirmed that Cohen did sign a petition, as a private citizen, asking that "the system of American justice be followed fully in the case."[40]

Controversy emerged in 2006 after the company released a flavor of ice cream called "Black and Tan." It had named the flavor after the alcoholic drink, which is made by mixing stout with pale ale, but the "Black and Tans" are also known as a paramilitary police force of British World War I veterans recruited during the Irish Revolution. At the time that the flavor was released, the Irish nationalist movement was still offended by the historical association of the title.[41]

In February 2012 a Ben & Jerry's franchise near Harvard University created a limited edition frozen yogurt flavor named "Taste the Lin-Sanity," in honor of Asian-American basketball player Jeremy Lin, a Harvard alumnus. At inception, the product contained vanilla frozen yogurt, lychee honey swirls and fortune cookie pieces, leading to a widely publicized controversy about racial stereotyping due to the association of the fortune cookie ingredient with Chinese culture. The latter ingredient was later replaced with waffle cookies, as the fortune cookies became soggy and the franchise received returns from customers. Ben & Jerry's general manager for Boston and Cambridge explained to the media: "we obviously weren't looking to offend anybody and the majority of the feedback about it has been positive." A basketball hoop was installed in the Harvard Square store, enabling successful customers to become eligible for a US$1 discount on the flavor.[42] Ben & Jerry's released an official statement shortly after the launch of the product, in which it said:

We are proud and honored to have Jeremy Lin hail from one of our fine, local universities and we are huge sports fans. Our intention was to create a flavor to honor Jeremy Lin's accomplishments and his meteoric rise in the NBA, and recognize that he was a local Harvard graduate. We try (to) demonstrate our commitment as a Boston-based, valued-led business and if we failed in this instance we offer our sincere apologies.[43]

Prior to the official apology from the ice cream company, a writer for sports media outlet ESPN published an article entitled "Stop the Linsanity insanity," in which he requested that those who were participating in the debate "Stop it." Lynn Hoppes wrote:

I was born in Vietnam to a Chinese woman and a U.S. military police officer and have lived most of my life in the United States. I don't know how to use chopsticks. I don't know any Chinese words. I can't tell the difference between Korean, Chinese or Japanese -- when it comes to the spoken word, the written word or physical appearance.[44]

Hoppes suggested that the American public should allow the story "play itself out" and concluded with a claim that the incident had taken "political correctness to new heights."[44]

In late April 2014, Ben & Jerry's signed onto the "Fight for the Reef" campaign, a partnership between the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)-Australia and the Australian Marine Conservation Society (AMCS). The campaign collects online donations to fund a "legal fighting team" and displayed nearly 60,000 supporters on its website on 11 May 2014.[45] In early April 2014, the company withdrew the popular Phish Food flavour in Australia due to the aquatic association and the potential for awareness-raising. The product withdrawal decision followed tours around select parts of the nation that involved Ben & Jerry's representatives distributing free ice cream to highlight the reef damage issue.[46]

In response, Environment Minister Andrew Powell said that he would be contacting parent corporation Unilever, explaining, "The only people taking a scoop out of the reef is Ben and Jerry’s and Unilever. If you understand the facts, you’d want to be boycotting Ben and Jerry’s". The Australian public was also informed by Australian Ben & Jerry's brand manager Kalli Swaik, who stated to the Brisbane Times newspaper: "Ben & Jerry’s believes that dredging and dumping in world heritage waters surrounding the marine park area will be detrimental to the reef ecology. It threatens the health of one of Australia’s most iconic treasures."[46]

Premier Campbell Newman, of Australian state Queensland, informed a radio station that he believed that Ben & Jerry's was involved in the dissemination of misinformation: "a company is bound by consumer law and can’t make false and misleading statements and they are making false and misleading statements when it comes to this."[47] A state senator, Matthew Canavan, confirmed he raised the issue in writing with the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) and said to the Courier Mail newspaper:

Ben & Jerry’s can campaign on whatever issue they like but as a company they have an obligation to tell Australians the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Australia has strict laws to protect consumers against misleading and deceptive behaviour. These mistruths could cost jobs and development in regional Queensland. It’s irresponsible behaviour from a company that should know better.[47]

Global locations[edit]

Ben and Jerry's has locations around the world.[48]

Wages[edit]

Ben & Jerry's used to have a policy that no employee's rate of pay shall exceed five times that of entry-level employees.[50] In 1995, entry-level employees were paid $12 hourly, and the highest paid employee was President and Chief Operating Officer Chuck Lacy, who earned $150,000 annually. When Ben Cohen resigned as Chief Executive Officer and Ben & Jerry's announced the search for a new CEO in 1995, the company ended the five-to-one-ratio policy.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ben & Jerry's new CEO". Ben & Jerry's Press Release. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2007. 
  2. ^ "Our History". Ben & Jerry's. 
  3. ^ a b "Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream – History". Ben & Jerry's. 
  4. ^ "Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream – History". Ben & Jerry's. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Dan Chu and Martha Babcock. "The Whole Country Cowtows as Artist Woody Jackson Makes His Big Moove Toward Udder Success", People magazine, August 28, 1989
  6. ^ "Jerry Greenfield". Celebrity Websites. March 2005. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008. 
  7. ^ Ben Jerry's founders are named Small Business Persons of the Year, Palm Beach Post, May 10, 1988
  8. ^ "Baking In The Glory". Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved July 21, 2008. 
  9. ^ Staff report (January 3, 1997). Ben & Jerry's Appoints Former Gun Exec as CEO. Los Angeles Times
  10. ^ "Issues We Care About". http://www.benjerry.com/. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  11. ^ Lager, Fred "Chico". Ben & Jerry's: The Inside Scoop. 1st ed. New York: Crown Publishers, 1994. Print.
  12. ^ "The Globalization of Ben & Jerry's". Common Dreams. Retrieved April 13, 2000. 
  13. ^ "Coneheads". Boston Phoenix. 14 August 2003. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  14. ^ http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_9.1.2.cfm
  15. ^ http://www.benjerry.com/features/baked_alaska/index.cfm
  16. ^ CyClone Dairy
  17. ^ "Perfect Cows. Perfect Milk". Cyclone Dairy. Archived from the original on April 25, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  18. ^ "FDA’S flawed approach to assessing the safety of food from animal clones" (PDF). Center for Food Safety. March 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  19. ^ Paynter, Ben (October 16, 2007). "Cloned Beef (and Pork and Milk): It's What's for Dinner". Wired. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Take Action: Tell Congress to create a tracking system for cloned animals!". Ga3.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream – Cow Cloning". Ben & Jerry's. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Jostein Solheim". Food Processing. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Ben&Jerry's Greek Frozen Yogurt". Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved June 1, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Ben&Jerry's "Our Flavors"". Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved June 1, 2013. 
  25. ^ http://todaysloser.com/ben-jerrys-announces-new-2013-flavors/
  26. ^ "Our History". http://www.benjerry.com/. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  27. ^ Moore, Matthew (September 2, 2009). "Ben and Jerry's renames ice cream Hubby Hubby in celebration of gay marriage". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2009. 
  28. ^ Daley, Bill (September 2, 2009). "Hubba hubba! Hubby Hubby ice cream introduced". Chicago Tribune ((leisureblogs.chicagotribune.com)). Retrieved September 2, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream – Flavors – HubbyHubby". Ben & Jerry's. September 1, 2009. Archived from the original on March 19, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Ice cream giant supports gay marriage with new flavor". www.dangerousminds.net. March 13, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2012. ""Ice cream giant Ben and Jerry’s has announced today it will be changing the name of one of its ice cream flavours in the UK in support of equal marriage rights for gays.'" 
  31. ^ Strzemien, Anya (January 9, 2009). "Yes Pecan!: Ben & Jerry's Announces Obama Ice Cream". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream - Late Night Snack". 
  33. ^ Walsh, Erica (October 2009). "Extreme Pig Outs: Meals That Will Blow Your Mind and Tip the Scale". Travel Channel. 
  34. ^ VegasNews.com (April 22, 2009). "Ben & Jerry’s 31st Annual "Free Cone Day" Serves More Than 7,300 Scoops & Raises Money for Local Charities". Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
  35. ^ Clark, Andrew (September 28, 2010). "Ben and Jerry's admits ice-cream with a liberal conscience not 'all natural'". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Ben & Jerry's Takes 'All Natural' Claims Off Ice Cream Labels". NPR. September 27, 2010. Archived from the original on September 30, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2010. 
  37. ^ Reitz, Stephanie (October 21, 2011). "Supermarkets Give Ben & Jerry's 'Schweddy Balls' The Cold Shoulder". Huffington Post. 
  38. ^ "Alec Baldwin sets record hosting "SNL"". CBS News. 26 September 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  39. ^ "The FOP's Boycott for Daniel Faulkner". BreakTheChain.org. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Support Home Page". Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  41. ^ Bowcott, Owen (April 19, 2006). "Ben & Jerry's new flavour leaves bad taste". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved August 6, 2009. 
  42. ^ Rocheleau, Matt (February 24, 2012). "Ben & Jerry's launches 'Lin-Sanity' flavor, takes out fortune cookie ingredient". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 24, 2012. ""There seemed to be a bit of an initial backlash about it, but we obviously weren't looking to offend anybody and the majority of the feedback about it has been positive," he said." 
  43. ^ "Ben & Jerry's sorry for fortune cookies". ESPN.com. February 26, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012. ""We offer a heartfelt apology if anyone was offended by our handmade Lin-Sanity flavor," Ben & Jerry's said in a statement." 
  44. ^ a b Lynn Hoppes (27 February 2012). "Stop the Linsanity insanity". ESPN. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  45. ^ "Home". Fight for the Reef. Australian Marine Conservation Society. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  46. ^ a b AAP (29 April 2014). "Ben and Jerry's ice cream hurting reef: Qld govt". The Brisbane Times. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  47. ^ a b Sarah Vogler (1 May 2014). "LNP refers ice cream company Ben and Jerry’s to ACCC over Barrier Reef campaign". The Courier Mail. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  48. ^ "International Locations". Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved September 21, 2012. 
  49. ^ "Ben&Jerry's Romania". Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  50. ^ http://www.baltimoresun.com/business/bal-bz.ex.payequity15may15,0,7160910.story?page=2
  51. ^ Carlin, Peter (February 5, 1995). "Pure Profit – For Small Companies That Stress Social Values as Much as the Bottom Line, Growing Up Hasn't Been an Easy Task. Just Ask Ben & Jerry's, Patagonia and Starbucks". Los Angeles Times. 

Further reading[edit]

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