|Ben A. Barres|
|Born||1955 (age 58–59)
West Orange, New Jersey, US
|Other names||Barbara Barres|
|Alma mater||M.I.T. (BS)
Dartmouth College (MD)
Harvard Medical School (PhD)
|Doctoral advisor||David Corey|
Ben A. Barres (born Barbara Barres, in 1955) is an American neurobiologist at Stanford University. His research focuses on the interaction between neurons and glial cells in the nervous system. Since 2008, he is Chair of the Neurobiology department at Stanford University School of Medicine. Born a female, he changed his sex to male in 1997, and became the first openly transgender scientist in the US National Academy of Sciences in 2013.
Early life and education
Barres was born Barbara Barres in West Orange, New Jersey. His father was a salesman. Educated at West Orange school, he excelled in mathematics and science. He was most impressed by his eighth-grade teacher Jeffrey Davis. He obtained a BS degree in biology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a medical degree (MD) from Dartmouth Medical School, neurology residency training at Weill Cornell, and a doctorate (PhD) in neurobiology from Harvard University. He did his postdoctoral training at University College London under Martin Raff. In 1993 he joined the faculty of neurobiology at the Stanford School of Medicine. In 2008 he was appointed to the Chair of Neurobiology.
He studies the development and function of glial cells in the mammalian central nervous system. He has pioneered novel methods to culture and purify glial cells from rodents' optic nerves (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) and the neurons they interact with (retinal ganglion cells). His research targets on the role of glia in the failure of the central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate.
Experience of sexism
Barres started to experience gender discrimination as a young Barbara in MIT. Once, after solving a difficult math problem that stumped many male students, he was charged with an accusation that it was solved for him by a boyfriend. He was the top student in the class, but found it hard to get a willing supervisor for research. He even lost a scholarship to a boy who had only one publication, while he already had six. While doing his PhD at Harvard, he was clearly told that he was to win a scientific competition. Between him and one boy, the Dean confided to him saying, “I have read both applications, and it’s going to be you; your application is so much better.” But the award was given to the boy, who dropped out of science a year later.
After sex change, he noticed that people who are not aware of his transsexuality treated him with respect much more than when he was a woman. After delivering his first seminar as a man, one scientist was overheard to comment, “Ben Barres gave a great seminar today, but his work is much better than his sister’s [believing Barbara to be his sister] work.” He recollected the events of his sex change as:
When I decided to change sex 15 years ago I didn't have role models to point to. I thought that I had to decide between identify and career. I changed sex thinking my career might be over. The alternative choice I seriously contemplated at the time was suicide, as I could not go on as Barbara.
Barres was critical of Lawrence Summers and others who have claimed that one reason there are fewer women than men in science and engineering professorships might be that fewer women than men had the very high levels of "intrinsic aptitude" that such jobs required. He speaks and writes openly about being a trans man and his experiences transitioning gender identity in 1997, and his experiences of being treated differently as a female scientist versus a male scientist.
Awards and honours
Barres' research awards include a Life Sciences Research Fellowship, the Klingenstein Fellowship Award, a McKnight Investigator Award, and a Searle Scholar Award. He has also won teaching awards: the Kaiser Award for Excellence in Teaching, and the Kaiser Award for Innovative and Outstanding Contributions to Medical Education. In 2008 he received the Mika Salpeter Lifetime Achievement Award. He is inducted member of the Reeve Foundation International Research Consortium on Spinal Cord Injury. He is the co-founder and Director of Annexon, Inc., and is Member of Scientific Advisory Board of Rinat Neuroscience Corporation. He is member and elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2011. In 2013 he was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences, becoming the first transgender member.
- Knowland, Daniel; Arac, Ahmet; Sekiguchi, Kohei J.; Hsu, Martin; Lutz, Sarah E.; Perrino, John; Steinberg, Gary K.; Barres, Ben A.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Agalliu, Dritan (2014). "Stepwise Recruitment of Transcellular and Paracellular Pathways Underlies Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in Stroke". Neuron 82 (3): 603–617. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.03.003. PMID 24746419.
- Barres, Ben A. (2013). "How to Pick a Graduate Advisor". Neuron 80 (2): 275–279. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.005.
- Schafer, Dorothy P.; Lehrman, Emily K.; Kautzman, Amanda G.; Koyama, Ryuta; Mardinly, Alan R.; Yamasaki, Ryo; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Greenberg, Michael E.; Barres, Ben A.; Stevens, Beth (2012). "Microglia Sculpt Postnatal Neural Circuits in an Activity and Complement-Dependent Manner". Neuron 74 (4): 691–705. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.026. PMID 22632727.
- Foo, Lynette C.; Allen, Nicola J.; Bushong, Eric A.; Ventura, P. Britten; Chung, Won-Suk; Zhou, Lu; Cahoy, John D.; Daneman, Richard; Zong, Hui; Ellisman, Mark H.; Barres, Ben A. (2011). "Development of a Method for the Purification and Culture of Rodent Astrocytes". Neuron 71 (5): 799–811. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.07.022. PMID 21903074.
- Dugas, Jason C.; Cuellar, Trinna L.; Scholze, Anja; Ason, Brandon; Ibrahim, Adiljan; Emery, Ben; Zamanian, Jennifer L.; Foo, Lynette C.; McManus, Michael T.; Barres, Ben A. (2010). "Dicer1 and miR-219 Are Required for Normal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination". Neuron 65 (5): 597–611. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.01.027. PMID 20223197.
- Barres, Ben A. (2010). "Neuro Nonsense". PLoS Biology 8 (12): e1001005. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001005.
- Barres, B (2008). "The Mystery and Magic of Glia: A Perspective on Their Roles in Health and Disease". Neuron 60 (3): 430–440. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.013. ISSN 0896-6273. PMID 18995817.
- Barres, Ben A. (2006). "Does gender matter?". Nature 442 (7099): 133–136. doi:10.1038/442133a. PMID 16848004.
- Barres, BA (2005). "Arrogance imperils plans for change at Harvard.". Nature 434 (7034): 697. PMID 15815603.
- Barres, Ben A; Yves-Alain Barde (2000). "Neuronal and glial cell biology". Current Opinion in Neurobiology 10 (5): 642–648. doi:10.1016/S0959-4388(00)00134-3. ISSN 0959-4388.
- "Ben Barres Professor of Neurobiology, of Developmental Biology and of Neurology". Stanford School o0f Medicine. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Trans News Editors (11 May 2013). "Neurobiologist Becomes First Transgender Scientist Selected For U.S. National Academy of Science Membership". Transnews (Trans Media Network). Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "A Conversation with Dr. Ben Barres". The Travis Roy Foundation. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Krattenmaker, Tom (10 March 1999). "The Highest Art". Princeton University. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- NIH, (Oct. 2008). Ben A. Barres, M.D., Ph.D.
- "Barres Laboratory". Reev Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Begley, Sharon (13 July 2006). "He, Once a She, Offers Own View On Science Spat". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Dean, Cornelia (18 July 2006). "Dismissing ‘Sexist Opinions’ About Women’s Place in Science". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Vedantam, Shankar (13 July 2003). "Male Scientist Writes of Life as Female Scientist". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Transgender Experience Led Stanford Scientist To Critique Gender Difference". ScienceDaily. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Maddox, Sam. "Barres Elected To National Academy of Sciences". Reeve Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner (2009) SuperFreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic Prostitutes, and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance p.47
- Sharon Begley, (July 13, 2006). He, Once a She, Offers Own View On Science Spat. Wall Street Journal
- Ben Barres, (March 17, 2008). "Some Reflections on the Dearth of Women in Science", Harvard University.
- Strobel, Gabrielle (2010). Research Funding in Neuroscience: A Profile of the McKnight Endowment Fund. Academic Press. pp. 77–. ISBN 9780080466538.
- Bates, Mary (27 February 2013). "Ben Barres: Glial Detective". BrainFacts.org. Society for Neuroscience.
- Maddox, Sam. "Stanford Scientist Ben Barres Joins Reeve Research Consortium". Reev Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Executive Profile Ben Barres M.D., Ph.D.". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- AAAS staff (6 December 2011). "AAAS Members Elected as Fellows". AAAS. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "National Academy of Sciences Members and Foreign Associates Elected". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 11 October 2014.