Ben Hecht

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ben Hecht
Ben Hecht.jpg
Hecht, 1949
Born (1894-02-28)February 28, 1894
New York City, United States
Died April 18, 1964(1964-04-18) (aged 70)
New York City, US
Spouse(s)
  • Marie Armstrong (1916–1926; divorced; 1 child)
  • Rose Caylor (1926–1964; his death; 1 child) (1898–1979)

Ben Hecht (/ˈhɛkt/; 1894–1964) was an American screenwriter, director, producer, playwright, journalist and novelist. Called "the Shakespeare of Hollywood", he received screen credits, alone or in collaboration, for the stories or screenplays of some seventy films and as a prolific storyteller, authored thirty-five books and created some of the most entertaining screenplays and plays in America. Film historian Richard Corliss called him "the Hollywood screenwriter", someone who "personified Hollywood itself." The Dictionary of Literary Biography - American Screenwriters calls him "one of the most successful screenwriters in the history of motion pictures." Born in Brooklyn, his family moved to Wisconsin. At the age of 16, Hecht ran away to Chicago, where in his own words he "haunted streets, whorehouses, police stations, courtrooms, theater stages, jails, saloons, slums, madhouses, fires, murders, riots, banquet halls, and bookshops" and "tasted more than any fit belly could hold".[1] In the 1910s and early 20s, Hecht became a noted journalist, foreign correspondent, and literary figure.

Later, Hecht was the first screenwriter to receive an Academy Award for Original Screenplay, for the movie Underworld (1927). The number of screenplays he wrote or worked on that are now considered classics is, according to Chicago's Newberry Library, "astounding," and included films such as, Scarface (1932), The Front Page, Twentieth Century (1934), Barbary Coast (1935), Nothing Sacred (1937), Some Like It Hot, Gone with the Wind, Gunga Din, Wuthering Heights, (all 1939), His Girl Friday (1940), Spellbound (1945), Notorious (1946), Monkey Business, A Farewell to Arms (1957), Mutiny on the Bounty (1962), and Casino Royale (released posthumously, in 1967). He also provided story ideas for such films as Stagecoach (1939). In 1940, he wrote, produced, and directed, Angels Over Broadway, which was nominated for Best Screenplay. In total, six of his movie screenplays were nominated for Academy Awards, with two winning.

He became an active Zionist shortly before the Holocaust began in Germany, and as a result wrote articles and plays about the plight of European Jews, such as, We Will Never Die in 1943 and A Flag is Born in 1946.[2] Of his seventy to ninety screenplays, he wrote many anonymously to avoid the British boycott of his work in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The boycott was a response to Hecht's active support of paramilitary action against British forces in Palestine and sabotaging British property there (see below), during which time a supply ship to Palestine was named the S. S. Ben Hecht.

He could produce a screenplay in two weeks and, according to his autobiography, never spent more than eight weeks on a script. Yet he was still able to produce mostly rich, well-plotted, and witty screenplays. His scripts included virtually every movie genre: adventures, musicals, and impassioned romances, but ultimately, he was best known for two specific types of film: crime thrillers and screwball comedies. Despite his success, however, he disliked the effect that movies were having on the theater, American cultural standards, and on his own creativity. In 1983, 19 years after his death, Ben Hecht was posthumously inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.[3]

Early years[edit]

Hecht was born in New York City, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants. Hecht’s father, Joseph Hecht, was a garment worker whose specialty was cutting cloth to patterns. He and his future wife, Sarah Swernofsky, had immigrated to the Lower East Side from Minsk, Belarus, then part of the Russian Empire. The family language was Yiddish. The Hechts married on the Lower East Side in 1892 and Ben was born the next year.[4] :107

The family moved to Racine, Wisconsin, where Ben attended high school. When Hecht was in his early teens he would spend the summers with an uncle in Chicago. On the road much of the time, his father did not have much effect on Hecht’s childhood, and his mother was busy managing the store outlet in downtown Racine. Film author Scott Siegal wrote, "He was considered a child prodigy at age ten, seemingly on his way to a career as a concert violinist, but two years later was performing as a circus acrobat.".[5]

After graduating from high school in 1910, at age sixteen Hecht moved to Chicago, running away to live there permanently. He lived with relatives, and started a career in journalism. He found work as a reporter, first for the Chicago Journal, and later with the Chicago Daily News.[6] He was an excellent reporter who worked on several Chicago papers.[7] After World War I, Hecht was sent to cover Berlin for the Chicago Daily News. There he wrote his first and most successful novel, Erik Dorn (1921). It was a sensational debut for Hecht as a serious writer.[4]:108

The 1969 movie, Gaily, Gaily, directed by Norman Jewison and starring Beau Bridges as "Ben Harvey", was based on his life during his early years working as a reporter in Chicago. The film was nominated for three Oscars. The story was taken from a portion of his autobiography, A Child of the Century.

Writing career[edit]

Journalist[edit]

Hecht in 1919

From 1918 to 1919 Hecht served as war correspondent in Berlin for the Chicago Daily News. According to Barbara and Scott Siegel, "Besides being a war reporter, he was noted for being a tough crime reporter while also becoming known in Chicago literary circles.".[5]

In 1921, Hecht inaugurated a Daily News column called, One Thousand and One Afternoons in Chicago. While it lasted, the column was enormously influential. His editor, Henry Justin Smith, later said it represented a new concept in journalism:

"the idea that just under the edge of the news as commonly understood, the news often flatly unimaginatively told, lay life; that in this urban life there dwelt the stuff of literature, not hidden in remote places, either, but walking the downtown streets, peering from the windows of sky scrapers, sunning itself in parks and boulevards. He was going to be its interpreter. His was to be the lens throwing city life into new colors, his the microscope revealing its contortions in life and death."[8]

While at the Chicago Daily News, Hecht famously broke the 1921 "Ragged Stranger Murder Case" story, about the murder of Carl Wanderer's wife, which led to the trial and execution of war hero Carl Wanderer. In Chicago, he also met and befriended Maxwell Bodenheim, an American poet and novelist, later known as the King of Greenwich Village Bohemians, and with whom he became a lifelong friend.

After concluding One Thousand and One Afternoons, Hecht went on to produce novels, plays, screenplays, and memoirs, but none of these eclipsed his early success in finding the stuff of literature in city life. Recalling that period, Hecht wrote, "I haunted streets, whorehouses, police stations, courtrooms, theater stages, jails, saloons, slums, madhouses, fires, murders, riots, banquet halls, and bookshops. I ran everywhere in the city like a fly buzzing in the works of a clock, tasted more than any fit belly could hold, learned not to sleep, and buried myself in a tick-tock of whirling hours that still echo in me."[1]

Playwright[edit]

Beginning with a series of one-acts in 1914, he began writing plays. His first full-length play was, The Egotist, and it was produced in New York in 1922. While living in Chicago, he met fellow reporter Charles MacArthur and together they moved to New York to collaborate on their play, The Front Page. It was widely acclaimed and had a successful run on Broadway of 281 performances, beginning August,1928. In 1931 it was turned into a successful film, which was nominated for three Oscars.

Novelist and short-story writer[edit]

Besides working as reporter in Chicago, "he also contributed to literary magazines including the Little Review. After World War I he was sent by the Chicago Daily News to Berlin to witness the revolutionary movements, which gave him the material for his first novel, Erik Dorn (1921). ... A daily column he wrote, 1001 Afternoons in Chicago, was later collected into a book, and brought Hecht fame." These works enhanced his reputation in the literary scene as a reporter, columnist, short story writer, and novelist. After leaving the News in 1923 he started his own newspaper, The Chicago Literary Times.[9]

According to biographer, author Eddy Applegate, "Hecht read voraciously the works of Gautier, Adelaide, Mallarmé, and Verlaine, and developed a style that was extraordinary and imaginative. The use of metaphor, imagery, and vivid phrases made his writing distinct... again and again Hecht showed an uncanny ability to picture the strange jumble of events in strokes as vivid and touching as the brushmarks of a novelist."[10]

"Ben Hecht was the enfant terrible of American letters in the first half of the twentieth century," wrote author Sanford Sternlicht. "If Hecht was consistently opposed to anything, it was to censorship of literature, art, and film by either the government or self-appointed guardians of public morality." He adds, "Even though he never attended college, Hecht became a successful novelist, playwright, journalist, and screenwriter. His star has sunk below the horizon now, but in his own lifetime Hecht became one of the most famous American literary and entertainment figures..."[4]:107

Eventually Hecht became associated with the writers Sherwood Anderson, Theodore Dreiser, Maxwell Bodenheim, Carl Sandburg, and Pascal Covici. He knew Margaret Anderson and contributed to her Little Review, the magazine of the Chicago "literary renaissance," and to Smart Set.[10]

A Child of the Century

In 1954 Hecht published his autobiography, A Child of the Century, which, according to literary critic Robert Schmuhl, "received such extensive critical acclaim that his literary reputation improved markedly during the last decade of his life... Hecht's vibrant and candid memoir of more than six hundred pages restored him to the stature of a serious and significant American writer."[11] Novelist Saul Bellow commented about the book for the New York Times: "His manners are not always nice, but then nice manners do not always make interesting autobiographies, and this autobiography has the merit of being intensely interesting... If he is occasionally slick, he is also independent, forthright, and original. Among the pussycats who write of social issues today he roars like an old-fashioned lion."[12]

Ghostwriting Marilyn Monroe's biography

Besides working on novels and short stories (see book list), he has been credited with ghostwriting books, including Marilyn Monroe's autobiography My Story. "The reprint of Marilyn Monroe's memoir, My Story, in the year 2000, by Cooper Square Press, correctly credits Ben Hecht as an author, ending a period of almost fifty years in which Hecht's role was denied...Hecht himself publicly denied writing it until much later..."[13]

According to Monroe biographer, Sarah Churchwell, Monroe was "persuaded to capitalize on her newfound celebrity by beginning an autobiography. It was born out of a collaboration with journalist and screenwriter Ben Hecht, hired as a ghostwriter..."[14] :77 Churchwell adds that the truths in her story were highly selective. "Hecht reported to his editor during the interviews that he was sometimes sure Marilyn was fabricating. He explained, 'When I say lying, I mean she isn’t telling the truth. I don’t think so much that she is trying to deceive me as that she is a fantasizer.'"[14]:106

Screenwriter[edit]

Caricature of Ben Hecht

Film historian Richard Corliss writes that "Ben Hecht was the Hollywood screenwriter...[and] it can be said without too much exaggeration that Hecht personifies Hollywood itself." Movie columnist Pauline Kael added that "between them, Hecht and Jules Furthman wrote most of the best American talkies."[15]:5 His movie career can be defined by about twenty credited screenplays he wrote for Hawks, Hitchcock, Hathaway, Lubitsch, Wellman, Sternberg, and himself. He wrote many of those with his two regular collaborators, Charles MacArthur and Charles Lederer.

While living in New York in 1926, he received a telegram from screenwriter friend Herman J. Mankiewicz, who had recently moved to Los Angeles. "Millions are to be grabbed out here and your only competition is idiots", it read. "Don't let this get around." As a writer in need of money, he traveled to Hollywood as Mankiewicz suggested.[5]

Working in Hollywood

He arrived in Los Angeles and began his career at the beginning of the sound era by writing the story for Josef von Sternberg's gangster movie Underworld in 1927. For that first screenplay and story he won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in Hollywood's first Academy award ceremony.[5] Soon afterward, he became the highest paid screenwriter in Hollywood..."[6] Hecht spent from two to twelve weeks in Hollywood each year, "during which he earned enough money (his record was $100,000 in one month, for two screenplays) to live on for the rest of the year in New York, where he did what he considered his serious writing," writes film historian Carol Easton.[16]:173 Nonetheless, later in his career, "he was a writer who liked to think that his genius had been stifled by Hollywood and by its dreadful habit of giving him so much money."[17]:267

Yet his income was as much a result of his skill as a writer as well as his early jobs with newspapers. As film historians Mast and Kawin wrote, "The newspaper reporters often seemed like gangsters who had accidentally ended up behind a typewriter rather than a tommy gun; they talked and acted as rough as the crooks their assignments forced them to cover... It is no accident that Ben Hecht, the greatest screenwriter of rapid-fire, flavorful tough talk, as well as a major comic playwright, wrote gangster pictures, prison pictures, and newspaper pictures."[18]

Hecht became one of Hollywood's most prolific screenwriters, able to write a full screenplay in two to eight weeks. According to Samuel Goldwyn biographer, Carol Easton, in 1931, with his writing partner Charles MacArthur, he "knocked out The Unholy Garden in twelve hours. Hecht subsequently received a fan letter from producer Arthur Hornblow, Jr.:

'After reading your magnificent script, Mr. Goldwyn and I both wish to go on record with the statement that if The Unholy Garden isn't the finest motion picture Samuel Goldwyn has ever produced, the fault will be entirely ours. You have done your part superbly." It was produced exactly as written, and "became one of the biggest, yet funniest, bombs ever made by a studio."[16]:174
Censorship, profit, and art

Despite his monetary success, however, Hecht always kept Hollywood at arms's length. According to film historian Gregory Black, "he did not consider his work for the movies serious art; it was more a means of replenishing his bank account. When his work was finished, he retreated to New York."[19]

At least part of the reason for this was due to the industry's system of censorship. Black writes, "as Mankiewicz, Selznick, and Hecht knew all too well, much of the blame for the failure of the movies to deal more frankly and honestly with life, lay with a rigid censorship imposed on the industry . . . [and] on the content of films during its golden era of studio production." Because the costs of production and distribution were so high, the primary "goal of the studios was profit, not art. . .[and] fearful of losing any segment of their audiences, the studios either carefully avoided controversial topics or presented them in a way that evaded larger issues," thereby creating only 'harmless entertainment' ".[19]

According to historian David Thomson, "to their own minds, Herman Mankiewicz and Ben Hecht both died morose and frustrated. Neither of them had written the great books they believed possible."[17]:170

with Howard Hawks

In an interview with director Howard Hawks, with whom Hecht worked on many films, Scott Breivold elicited comments on the way they often worked:

Breivold. Could you explain how the day-to-day writing goes on a script?
Hawks. "Well, when Hecht and MacArthur and I used to work on a script, we’d sit in a room and work for two hours and then we’d play backgammon for an hour. Then we’d start again and one of us would be one character and one would be another character. We’d read our lines of dialogue and the whole idea was to try to stump the other people, to see if they could think of something crazier than you could."[20]
with David O. Selznick

According to film historian Virginia Wexman, "David Selznick had a flair for the dramatic, and no one knew that better than Ben Hecht. The two collaborated on some of Hollywood’s biggest hits – movies like Gone With the Wind and Notorious and Duel in the Sun – and often enough the making of those films was as rife with conflict as the films themselves..."[21]:89

Nothing Sacred is probably the "most famous of all the Carole Lombard films next to My Man Godfrey," wrote movie historian James Harvey. And it impressed people at the time with its evident ambition ... "and Selznick determined to make the classiest of all screwball comedies, turned to Lombard as a necessity, but also to Ben Hecht, nearly the hottest screenwriter in Hollywood at the time, especially for comedy. ... it was also the first screwball comedy to lay apparent claim to larger satiric meanings, to make scathing observations about American life and society."[22]:219

In an interview with Irene Selznick, ex-wife of producer David O. Selznick, she discussed the other leading screenwriters of that time:

"They all aspired to be Ben. The resourcefulness of his mind, his vitality were so enormous. His knowledge. His talent and ambition. He could tear through things, and he tore through life. They'd see this prodigious output of Ben's, and they'd think, 'Oh, hell, I'm a bum.' I think it must have been devastating. Ben did it to MacArthur, who died in time to save his reputation. And I'd hate to have been Herman [Mankiewicz], caught between Kaufman and Hecht."[23]:160
with Ernst Lubitsch

According to James Harvey, Ernst Lubitsch felt uneasy in the world of playwright Noël Coward. "If Coward could write his play for three particular actors, he reasoned to an interviewer, why couldn’t it be rewritten for three others? It was at this point … that he turned to Ben Hecht...to work with him on the screenplay for Design for Living." It was the only Lubitsch-Hecht collaboration. Harvey adds, "Though Lubitsch must have been reassured by Hecht’s taking the job. No writer in Hollywood had better credentials in the tough, slangy, specifically American style that Lubitsch wanted to impart to the Coward play. And together they transformed it."[22]:57

Styles of writing[edit]

According to Siegel, "The talkie era put writers like Hecht at a premium because they could write dialogue in the quirky, idiosyncratic style of the common man. Hecht, in particular, was wonderful with slang, and he peppered his films with the argot of the streets. He also had a lively sense of humor and an uncanny ability to ground even the most outrageous stories successfully with credible, fast-paced plots."[5] "Ben Hecht," his friend Budd Schulberg wrote many years ago, "seemed the personification of the writer at the top of his game, the top of his world, not gnawing at doubting himself as great writers were said to do, but with every word and every gesture indicating the animal pleasure he took in writing well."[1]

"Movies," Hecht was to recall, "were seldom written. In 1927 they were yelled into existence in conferences that kept going in saloons, brothels, and all-night poker games. Movie sets roared with arguments and organ music."[24]

He was best known for two specific and contrasting types of film: crime thrillers and screwball comedies.[5] Among crime thrillers, Hecht was responsible for such films as The Unholy Night (1929), the classic Scarface (1932), and Hitchcock's Notorious. Among his comedies, there were The Front Page, which led to many remakes, Noël Coward's Design for Living (1933), Twentieth Century, Nothing Sacred, and Howard Hawks's Monkey Business (1952).

Film historian Richard Corliss wrote, "it is his crisp, frenetic, sensational prose and dialogue style that elevates his work above that of the dozens of other reporters who streamed west to cover and exploit Hollywood's biggest 'story': the talkie revolution.[15]:6

Personal life[edit]

Married life[edit]

He married Marie Armstrong in 1915, when he was twenty-one years of age, and they had a daughter, Edwina, who became actress Edwina Armstrong. He later met Rose Caylor, a writer, and together they left Chicago (and his family) in 1924, moving to New York. He was divorced from Armstrong in 1925. He married Caylor that same year, and they remained married until Hecht's death in 1964.[25] In 1943, they had a daughter Jenny Hecht, who also became an actress. She died of a drug overdose in March 1971, at age twenty-seven.

Civil rights activism[edit]

According to Hecht historian Florice Whyte Kovan, he became active in promoting civil rights early in his career. "...in the early 1920s, Hecht organized campaigns against the Ku Klux Klan, whose lynchings of minorities, primarily blacks, terrorized the American South and North... Artists and writers joined the effort, blending civil rights into the arts and literary scene...

"Hecht wrote enough stories about black-white dynamics to form a small collection, including To Bert Williams, a richly symbolic obituary to the eminent vaudevillian, the thought provoking The Miracle...In the same period, circa May–June 1923, Hecht ... collaborated on a musical with Dave Payton (Peyton), jazz pianist and music critic for the black newspaper the Chicago Defender...He broke taboos by publishing a regular column, Black-belt Shadows, about Chicago and broader AfroAmerica by young William Moore -- with the then-daring editorial note: 'This column is conducted by a Negro journalist'. A factor in his willingness to work with blacks on occasion was his first playwriting experience: his collaborator was a young black student.

"Hecht film stories featuring black characters included Hallelujah, I'm a Bum, co-starring Edgar Conner as Al Jolson's sidekick in a politically savvy, rhymed dialogue over Richard Rodgers music." Jolson, a noted blackface performer and star of The Jazz Singer, was also active in promoting racial equality on the Broadway stage.

"Hecht's most important race film historically was the Frank Capra message film The Negro Soldier, a feature length tribute shown to the armed forces and civilians during World War II."[26]

Supporting allies during WWII[edit]

Hecht was among a number of signers of a formal statement, issued in July, 1941, calling for the "utmost material assistance by our government to England, the Soviet Union, and China." Among those who signed were former Nobel Prize winners in science, and others persons eminent in education, literature, and the arts. It advocated "the protection of civil liberties and the rights of labor, ... the elimination of all forms of racial and religious discrimination from our public and private life ... [and] the world-wide defense of human liberty ... There can be no victory over Hitlerlism abroad if democracy is destroyed at home."

Later that year, he had his first large-scale musical collaboration with symphonic composer Ferde Grofe on their patriotic cantata, Uncle Sam Stands Up.[27]

Jewish activism[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Zionism § Jewish American Zionism.

Hecht claimed that he had never experienced anti-Semitism in his life, and claimed to have had little to do with Judaism, but nevertheless, "was drawn back to the Lower East Side late in life and lived for a while on Henry Street, where he could absorb the energy and social consciousness of the ghetto," wrote author Sanford Sternlicht.[4]

His indifference to Jewish issues changed when he met Peter Bergson, who was drumming up American assistance for the Zionist group the Irgun. Hecht wrote in his book, Perfidy, that he used to be a scriptwriter until his meeting with Bergson, when he accidentally bumped into history - i.e. the burning need to do anything possible to save the doomed Jews of Europe (paraphrase from Perfidy). As Hecht relates it in Child of the Century, he didn't feel particularly Jewish in his daily life until Bergson shook him out of his assimilated complacency: Bergson invited Hecht to ask three close friends whether, in their opinion, Hecht was an American or a Jew. All three replied that he was a Jew, Hecht says.

Like many stories Hecht told about his life, that tale may be apocryphal, but after meeting Bergson, Hecht quickly became a member of his inner circle and dedicated himself to some of the goals of the group, particularly the rescue of Europe's Jews.

Hecht "took on a ten year commitment to publicize the atrocities befalling his own religious minority, the Jews of Europe and the quest for survivors, to find a permanent home in the Middle East."[26] In 1943, during the midst of the Holocaust, he predicted, in a widely published article in Reader's Digest magazine, "Of these 6,000,000 Jews [of Europe], almost a third have already been massacred by Germans, Romanians, and Hungarians, and the most conservative of scorekeepers estimate that before the war ends at least another third will have been done to death."[28]

Also in 1943, "out of frustration over American policy and outrage at Hollywood's fear of offending its European markets," he organized and wrote a pageant, We Will Never Die, which was produced by Billy Rose and Ernst Lubitsch and with the help of composer Kurt Weill and staging by Moss Hart. The pageant was performed at Madison Square Garden for two shows in front of 40,000 people in March, 1943. It then traveled nationwide, including a performance at the Hollywood Bowl. Hecht was disappointed nonetheless. As Weill noted afterward, ""The pageant has accomplished nothing. Actually, all we have done is make a lot of Jews cry, which is not a unique accomplishment."[29]:237

New York City opening of A Flag is Born at the Alvin Playhouse
A Flag is Born

Hecht wrote the script for the Bergson Group’s production of A Flag is Born, which opened on September 5, 1946 at the Alvin Playhouse in New York City.

The play starred Marlon Brando and Paul Muni during its various productions. The proceeds from the play were used to purchase a ship that was renamed the S. S. Ben Hecht, which carried 900 refugees to Palestine in March, 1947. The British Navy captured the ship after it docked and sent 600 of its passengers to detention camps in Cyprus. The S. S. Ben Hecht later became the flagship of the Israeli Navy.[30][31]

After the war ended he continued work for the establishment of the state of Israel. Six months after the establishment of Israel by the United Nations, Bergson and Hecht officially dissolved the organization which produced the fund-raising play, followed by a dinner in New York City where Menachem Begin appeared, saying, "I believe that my people, liberated and re-assembled in its country, will contribute its full share toward the progress of all mankind ... [and predicted] that all of Palestine eventually would be free and that peace and brotherhood would prevail among Arabs and Jews alike."[32]

Thanks to his fund-raising, speeches, and jawboning, Sternlicht writes, "Ben Hecht did more to help Jewish refugees from the Holocaust and to ensure the survival of the nascent state of Israel than any other American Jew in the twentieth century". As much as anything, it was the abiding love of his Jewish parents and Rose Hecht that motivated the writer to become arguably "the most effective propagandist the Jewish state ever had." In 1964, at Hecht’s funeral service at Temple Rodeph Shalom in New York City, among the eulogists was Menachem Begin, the future Prime Minister of Israel.[4]

Blacklisted in the UK

From 1948 to 1951, Hecht's films were boycotted by the British cinema industry. This was a result of "his intemperate utterances on the Palestine problem," according to one source.[33] In May 1947, ten months after Irgun had blown up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, killing 91 people, including civilians, Hecht addressed Jewish militants thus: 'Every time you blow up a British arsenal, or wreck a British jail, or send a British railroad sky high, or rob a British bank, or let go with your guns at the British betrayers and invaders of your homeland, the Jews of America make a little holiday in their hearts.'[34] Most of his films were refused UK screenings or had his name removed from the credits.[6][33]

Notable screenplays[edit]

Underworld (1927)

Underworld was the story of a petty hoodlum with political pull; it was based on a real Chicago gangster Hecht knew. "The film began the gangster film genre that became popular in the early 1930s."[6] And along with Scarface, "were the alpha and omega of Hollywood's first gangster craze."[15]:6 In it, he "manages both to congratulate journalism for its importance and to chastise it for its chicanery, by underlining the newspapers' complicity in promoting the underworld image."[15]:10

"Like so many of his films, Underworld and Scarface are 'stories' that ace-reporter Hecht loved to cover, as much for the larger-than-life qualities of his headliners as for the enormity of their crimes. Love-hate ... fascination-revulsion ... exposé-glorification ... these are the polarities that make Hecht's best films deliciously ambiguous."[15]:6 "Hecht's introduction, which is nothing if not moody and Sandburgian, describes 'A great city in the dead of night - streets lonely, moon-flooded - buildings empty as the cliff-dwellings of a forgotten age."[15]:6

Hecht was noted for confronting producers and directors when he wasn't satisfied with the way they used his scripts. For this film, at one point he demanded that its director, Josef von Sternberg, remove his name from the credits since Sternberg unilaterally changed one scene. Afterward, however, he relented and took credit for the film's story, which went on to win the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay - the first year the awards were presented.[6]

The Front Page (1931)

After contributing to the original stories for a number of films, he worked without credit on the first film version of his original 1928 play The Front Page. It was produced by Howard Hughes and directed by Lewis Milestone in 1931. James Harvey writes, "it is Hecht and MacArthur’s Chicago ... that counts most deeply in the imagination of Hollywood. And their play, the first of the great newspaper comedies, did more to define the tone and style, the look and the sound of Hollywood comedy than any other work of its time."[22]:86

Of the original play, theater producer and writer Jed Harris writes, "...here is a play which reflects miraculously the real as well as the literary personalities of the playwrights. Every line of it glows with a demoniacal humor, sordid, insolent, and mischievous to the point of down right perversity, in which one instantly recognizes the heroic comic spirit of its authors... Both Hecht and MacArthur owe their literary origins to the newspapers of Chicago. Famous crime reporters, their talents were first cradled in the recounting of great exploits in arson, rape, murder, gang war, and municipal politics. Out of a welter of jail breaks, hangings, floods, and whore-house raidings, they have gathered the rich, savory characters who disport themselves on the stage to Times Square Theatre."[35]

Scarface (1932)

After ushering in the beginning of the gangster films with Underworld, his next film became one of the best films of that genre. Scarface was directed by Howard Hawks, with "Hecht the wordsmith and Hawks the engineer...",[15]:8 who became "one of the few directors with whom Hecht enjoyed working."[6] It starred Paul Muni playing the role of an Al Capone-like gangster. "Scarface's all-but-suffocating vitality is a kind of cinematic version of tabloid prose at its best."[15]:10

The story of how Scarface came to be written represents Hecht's writing style in those days. Film historian Max Wilk interviewed Leyland Hayward, an independent literary agent, who, in 1931, managed to convince Hecht that a young oil tycoon in Texas named Howard Hughes wanted him to write the screenplay to his first book. Hayward wrote about that period:

"So I went back to Hughes, and told him I’d been able to persuade Hecht to do his script; I told him Ben’s terms, - $1,000 per day - and Howard didn’t blink an eye. He nodded, and said 'Okay-it’s a deal. But you tell Hecht I want a real tough shoot-‘em up script that'll knock the audience out of its seats, okay?'[24]
"So Ben went to work,” added Hayward. Hayward was to receive 10% of Hecht’s fees as his commission. "He was a hell of a fast writer – sometimes too fast. I didn’t even know how fast he could go... At the end of the first day I went back to Ben’s house. There he was, typing away... I said 'Ben – please slow down.' Over the next few days, 'while watching the accumulated pages of Hecht’s script growing higher and higher, 'I couldn’t slow the guy down!' sighed Hayward, who only made his commission for each day Hecht worked.
"I came by his home the next day... 'I’ve got an idea. I’m going to finish this damn thing tomorrow,' Ben told me. 'Ben—for God’s sake!' I said. 'Can’t you slow down a little? Hughes isn’t interested in you setting some sort of a speed record for writing!'"
But it was as if young Hayward had set out to flag down an army tank. Nothing stopped Hecht. On the night of the ninth day, Hayward arrived with his daily payment from Hughes, to find Hecht lounging in a chair, enjoying a highball.
"Hecht waved at his stack of manuscript. 'Done', he announced. 'Finished the damn thing'.
"Nine thousand dollars – for the screenplay of Scarface? sighed Hayward. ... Hughes was tickled with Ben’s script; he showed it to Howard Hawks. Hawks loved it, and then they picked up this wonderful young actor from New York, Paul Muni, to play the lead. The picture went out and cleaned up – made a bundle for Hughes… And if old Ben really outsmarted himself on that one... he didn’t care. He was on to something else. Ben was always on to something else."[24]
Twentieth Century (1934)

For his next film, Twentieth Century, he wrote the screenplay in collaboration with Charles MacArthur as an adaptation of their original play from 1932. It was directed by Howard Hawks, and starred John Barrymore and Carole Lombard. It's a comedy about a Broadway producer who was losing his leading lady to the seductive Hollywood film industry, and will do anything to win her back.

It's "a fast-paced, witty film that contains the rapid-fire dialogue for which Hecht became famous. It is one of the first, and finest, of the screwball comedies of the 1930s."[6]

Viva Villa! (1934)

This was the story about Mexican rebel, Pancho Villa, who takes to the hills after killing an overseer in revenge for his father's death. It was directed by Howard Hawks and starred Wallace Beery. Although the movie took liberties with the facts, it became a great success, and Hecht received an Academy Award nomination for his screenplay adaptation.

In a letter from the film's producer, David O. Selznick, to studio head Louis B. Mayer, Selznick discussed the need for a script rewrite:[36]:70

"I have arranged with Ben Hecht to do the final script of Viva Villa!... On the quality we are protected not merely by Hecht's ability, but by the clause that the work must be to my satisfaction. It may seem like a short space of time for a man to do a complete new script, but Hecht is famous for his speed, and did the entire job on Scarface in eleven days."
Barbary Coast (1935)

Barbary Coast was also directed by Howard Hawks and starred Miriam Hopkins and Edward G. Robinson. The film takes place in late nineteenth century San Francisco with Hopkins playing the role of a dance-hall girl up against Robinson, who runs the town.

Nothing Sacred (1938)

Nothing Sacred became Hecht's first project after he and Charles MacArthur closed their failing film company, which they started in 1934. The film was adapted from his play, Hazel Flagg, and starred Carole Lombard as a small-town girl diagnosed with radium poisoning. "A reporter makes her case a cause for his newspaper. The story "allowed Hecht to work with one of his favorite themes, hypocrisy (especially among journalists); he took the themes of lying, decadence, and immorality and made them into a sophisticated screwball comedy."[6]

Gunga Din (1939)

Gunga Din was co-written with Charles MacArthur and became "one of Hollywood's greatest action-adventure films."[6] The screenplay was based on the poem by Rudyard Kipling, directed by George Stevens and starred Cary Grant and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.. In 1999 the film was deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress.

Wuthering Heights (1939)

After working without credit on Gone with the Wind in 1939, he co-wrote (with Charles MacArthur) an adaptation of Emily Brontë's novel, Wuthering Heights. Although the screenplay was cut off at the story's half-way point, as it was considered too long, it was nominated for an Academy Award.[6]

It's a Wonderful World (1939)

Movie historian James Harvey notes that in some respects It’s a Wonderful World is an even more accomplished film –the comedy counterpart to the supremely assured and high-spirited work Van Dyke had accomplished with San Francisco (1936). "Ben Hecht, another speed specialist, wrote the screenplay (from a story by Hecht and Herman Mankiewicz); it’s in his Front Page vein, with admixtures of It Happened One Night and Bringing Up Baby, as well as surprising adumbrations of the nineteen-forties private-eye film.[22]:335

Angels Over Broadway (1940)

Angels Over Broadway was one of only two movies he directed, produced, and wrote originally for film, the other was Specter of the Rose (1946). Angels Over Broadway was considered "one of his most personal works."[15]:21 It starred Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. and Rita Hayworth and was nominated for an Academy Award. "The dialogue as well as the script's descriptive passages are chock full of brittle Hechtian similes that sparkle on the page, but turn leaden when delivered. Hecht was an endlessly articulate raconteur. In his novels and memoirs, articulation dominates..."[15]:19

In the script, he experimented with "reflections of life - as if a ghost were drifiting in the rain." These "reflections" of sidewalks, bridges, glass, and neon make the film a visual prototype of the nineteen-forties film noir.[15]:21

Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945) and Notorious (1946)

For Alfred Hitchcock he wrote a number of his best psycho-dramas and received his final Academy Award nomination for Notorious. He also worked without credit on Hitchcock's next two films, The Paradine Case (1947) and Rope (1948). Spellbound, the first time Hitchcock worked with Hecht, is notable for being one of the first Hollywood movies to deal seriously with the subject of psychoanalysis.

Monkey Business (1952)

In 1947 he teamed up with Charles Lederer and co-wrote three films: Her Husband's Affairs, Kiss of Death, and Ride the Pink Horse. In 1950 he co-wrote The Thing without credit. They again teamed up to write the 1952 screwball comedy, Monkey Business, which became Hecht's last true success as a screenwriter.[6]

Uncredited films[edit]

Among the better-known films he helped write without being credited are Gone with the Wind, The Shop Around the Corner, Foreign Correspondent, His Girl Friday (the second film version of his play The Front Page), The Sun Also Rises, Mutiny on the Bounty, Casino Royale (1967), and The Greatest Show on Earth.

Often, the only evidence of Hecht's involvement in a movie screenplay has come from letters.

The following are snippets of letters discussing The Sun Also Rises, based on the novel by Ernest Hemingway:[36]:444–445

Letter by David O. Selznick to Hecht, 12/19/1956: "My present feeling is that eighty per cent of the script is eighty percent right, and that twenty per cent of it is eighty per cent wrong. That's pretty damn good, considering the time we spent on it, even though it was twice as long as you normally spend. So let's really try to do a job that will be ... something that we can be proud of for many years to come ..."
Letter by Selznick to John Huston, 3/4/1957: "It is certainly not demeaning your talent to say that I don't think there is anybody alive who can come in on a job at the last minute and revise, without serious danger, work to which two old hands like Ben and myself have devoted many, many months of most careful work and devoted effort. . . it is also true that I have never seen Ben or anyone else bring to a job more thorough analysis, more willingness to rewrite, than he has."

The following letter discusses Portrait of Jennie (1948):[36]:390–391

Letter by Selznick to Hecht, 11/24/1948: "Dear Ben: Very many thanks in advance for coming to the rescue again . . . the audience was enchanted ... and it set the mood beautifully for the picture . . . It needs the type of cinematic foreward journalese of which you are the only master I know . . . In any event, I shall be eagerly awaiting your redraft, which can take an entirely different form ... either actual or Hechtian creations..."
Gone with the Wind (1939)

For original screenplay writer Sidney Howard, film historian Joanne Yeck writes, "reducing the intricacies of Gone with the Wind's epic dimensions was a herculean task...and Howard's first submission was far too long, and would have required at least six hours of film; ... [producer] Selznick wanted Howard to remain on the set to make revisions...but Howard refused to leave New England [and] as a result, revisions were handled by a host of local writers, including Ben Hecht..."[37] "Producer David O. Selznick replaced the film's director three weeks into filming and then had the script rewritten. He sought out director Victor Fleming, who, at the time, was directing The Wizard of Oz. Fleming was dissatisfied with the script, so Selznick brought in famed writer Ben Hecht to rewrite the entire screenplay within five days."[38] Hecht was not credited, however, for his contribution, and Sidney Howard received the Academy Award for Best Screenplay.

In a letter from Selznick to film editor O'Shea [10/19/1939], Selznick discussed how the writing credits should appear, taking into consideration that Sidney Howard died a few months earlier after a farm-tractor accident at his home in Massachusetts:

"To Mr. O'Shea: Some time ago, it was my intention ot have, in addition to the Sidney Howard credit on Gone With the Wind, a list of contributing writers. I would rather now abandon this idea, first because while it is true that Sidney Howard did only a portion of the script ... [but] because I don't want to deprive Sidney Howard, and more particularly his widow, of any of the glory that may be attendant upon his last job."[36]:216

In a letter [9/25/1939] from Selznick to Hecht, regarding writing introductory sequences and titles, which were used to set the scene and condense the narrative throughout the movie, Selznick wrote,

"Dear Ben: There are only seven titles needed for Gone With the Wind and I am certain you could bat them out in a few minutes, especially since a few of them can be based on titles you wrote while you were here. Will you do these for me in accordance with your promise?... Very anxious to get picture into laboratory at once and would appreciate it if you could tackle them immediately upon their receipt"[36]:214
His Girl Friday (1940)

"His Girl Friday remains not just the fastest-talking romantic comedy ever made, but a very tricky inquiry into love's need for a chase (or a dream) and the sharpest pointer to uncertain gender roles."[17]:221

The D.C. Examiner writes, "Director Howard Hawks’ 1940 classic “His Girl Friday” is not just one of the funniest screwball comedies ever made, it is also one of the finest film adaptations of a stage play. "Hawks took Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur’s Broadway hit “The Front Page,” the best play about newspapers ever written, and, by changing the gender of a major character, turned it into a romantic comedy. The new script was by Hecht (uncredited) and Charles Lederer."

Casino Royale (1967)

Hecht wrote the first screenplay for Ian Fleming's first novel, Casino Royale. Although the final screenplay and film was made into a comedy spoof, Hecht's version was written as a straight Bond adventure, states spy novelist Jeremy Duns, who recently discovered the original lost scripts. According to Duns, Hecht's version included elements hard to imagine in a film adaptation, adding that "these drafts are a master-class in thriller-writing, from the man who arguably perfected the form with Notorious."[39] Hecht wrote that he has "never had more fun writing a movie," and felt the James Bond character was cinema’s first "gentleman superman" in a long time, as opposed to Hammett and Chandler’s "roughneck supermen."

A few days before the final screenplay was announced to the press, Hecht died of a heart attack at his home.[39]

Duns compares Hecht's unpublished screenplay with the final rewritten film:

"All the pages in Hecht’s papers are gripping, but the material from April 1964 is phenomenal, and it’s easy to imagine it as the basis for a classic Bond adventure. Hecht’s treatment of the romance element is powerful and convincing, even with the throwaway ending, but there is also a distinctly adult feel to the story. It has all the excitement and glamour you would expect from a Bond film, but is more suspenseful, and the violence is brutal rather than cartoonish."[39]

Quotes[edit]

Excerpts: on movies and writers[edit]

Magazine advertisement for Gaily, Gaily, the 1969 biographical film of Hecht directed by Norman Jewison.

from "Elegy for Wonderland", by Ben Hecht, Esquire Magazine, March 1959[40]

"The factors that laid low so whooping and puissant an empire as the old Hollywood are many. I can think of a score, including the barbarian hordes of Television. But there is one that stands out for me in the post-mortem.... The factor had to do with the basis of movie-making: ‘Who shall be in charge of telling the story.’ ...

“The answer Hollywood figured out for this question was what doomed it. It figured out that writers were not to be in charge of creating stories. Instead, a curious tribe of inarticulate Pooh-Bahs called Supervisors and , later, Producers were summoned out of literary nowhere and given a thousand scepters. It was like switching the roles of teacher and pupil in the fifth grade. The result is now history. An industry based on writing had to collapse when the writer was given an errand-boy status. ... “Time is a circus, always packing up and moving away.” ...

“The writer is a definite human phenomenon. He is almost a type – as pugilists are a type. He may be a bad writer – an insipid one or a clumsy one – but there is a bug in him that keeps spinning yarns; and that bulges his brow a bit, narrows his jaws, weakens his eyes and gives him girl children instead of boys. Nobody but a writer can write. People who hang around writers for years – as producers did – who are much smarter and have much better taste, never learn to write. ...

“Most of my script-writing friends – I never had more than a handful—took eagerly to the bottle or the analyst’s couch, filled their extravagant ménages with threats of suicide, hurled themselves into hysterical amours. And some of them actually died in their forties and fifties. Among these were the witty Herman Mankiewicz and F. Scott Fitzgerald, the fine novelist. ...

“I have known a handful of producers who actually were equal or superior to the writers with whom they worked. These producers were a new kind of nonwriting writer hatched by the movies—as Australia produced wingless birds. They wrote without pencils or even words. Using a sort of mime-like talent, they could make up things like writers.

“When I come to put down their names, there weren’t many. David O. Selznick, Sam Goldwyn, Darryl Zanuck, Walter Wanger, Irving Thalberg seem to exhaust the list…Ninety per cent of the producers I have known were not bright. They were as slow-witted and unprofessional toward making up a story as stockbrokers might be, or bus drivers. Even after twenty or thirty years of telling writers what and how to write, they were still as ignorant of writing as if they had never encountered the craft.

“Out of the seventy movies I’ve written some ten of them were not entirely waste product. These were Underworld, The Scoundrel, Wuthering Heights, Viva Villa, Scarface, Specter of the Rose, Actors and Sin, Roman Holiday, Spellbound, Nothing Sacred.

Screenplays[edit]

  • "It's gonna be just like war!" an editor exults. "That's it! War! You put that in the lead. 'WAR - GANG WAR!'" Scarface (1932)
  • "The actual facts are so simple. I love you. You love me. You love Otto. I love Otto. Otto loves you. Otto loves me. There now! Start to unravel from there." Design for Living (1933)
  • "They're a symbol of the whole town, pretending to fight, love, weep, and laugh all the time - and they're phonies, all of them. And I head the list...their phony hearts were dripping with the milk of human kindness." Nothing Sacred (1937)
  • "Three years ago, the white hope of the theatre. Today, a mug. That's New York for you. Puts you on a Christmas tree, and then - the alley." Angels Over Broadway (1940)
  • "Gibbons is a man full of pain and violence. On this night, there is a Witch's Sabbath in his heart. Storms are blowing his world to bits and great troubles are pounding him on a reef." Angels Over Broadway (1940)
  • "The only place I felt at home was in your heart. You were the only light that didn't go out on me." Angels Over Broadway (1940)
  • "Keep those lights burning, cover them with steel, build them in with guns, build a canopy of battleships and bombing planes around them and, hello, America, hang on to your lights, they're the only lights in the world." Foreign Correspondent (1940)
  • "You're such a nice boy, what do you want to go off and get killed in the War for?" Miracle in the Rain (1956)

Books[edit]

  • "Writing a good movie brings a writer about as much fame as steering a bicycle. It gets him, however, more jobs. If his movie is bad it will attract only critical tut-tut for him. The producer, director, and stars are the geniuses who get the hosannas when it's a hit. Theirs are also the heads that are mounted on spears when it's a flop." (from Let's Make the Hero a MacArthur)
  • "In Hollywood, a starlet is the name for any woman under thirty who is not actively employed in a brothel."
  • "The honors Hollywood has for the writer are as dubious as tissue-paper cuff links."
  • "People's sex habits are as well known in Hollywood as their political opinions, and much less criticized."
  • When asked by his new wife's discomfited parents, "Why didn't you tell us you were a Jew?", Hecht responded "I was afraid you would think I was bragging."
  • "Trying to determine what is going on in the world by reading newspapers is like trying to tell the time by watching the second hand of a clock."
  • "There is nothing as dull as an intellectual ally after a certain age." (A Guide for the Bedevilled)
  • "The only practical way yet discovered by the world for curing its ills is to forget about them." (Perfidy)
  • "Like the actor, authority has faith in its false whiskers. But its deepest faith is in the human illusion. People will hang on to illusion as eagerly as life itself." (Perfidy)
  • "Of the things men give each other the greatest is loyalty."
  • "Movies are one of the bad habits that have corrupted our century. They have slipped into the American mind more misinformation in one evening than the Dark Ages could muster in a decade."
  • "A movie is never any better than the stupidest man connected with it."
  • "The movies are an eruption of trash that has lamed the American mind and retarded Americans from becoming cultured people."
  • How My Egoism Died from A Child of the Century

Academy Award nominations[edit]

Screenplays[edit]

Books (partial list)[edit]

  • 1001 Afternoons in Chicago, McGee/Covici, (1922); University of Chicago Press, (2009) ISBN 978-0-226-32274-2
  • Fantazius Mallare, a Mysterious Oath, 174 pp., Pascal Covici (1922)
  • The Florentine Dagger: A Novel for Amateur Detectives w/ illustrations by Wallace Smith, 256 pp. Boni & Liveright (1923)
  • Kingdom of Evil, 211pp., Pascal Covici (1924)
  • Broken Necks {Containing More 1001 Afternoons}, 344pp., Pascal Covici (1926)
  • Count Bruga, 319 pp., Boni & Liveright (1926)
  • A Jew in Love, 341 pp., Covici, Friede (1931)
  • The Book of Miracles, 465 pp., Viking Press (1939)
  • A Guide for the Bedevilled, 276 pages, Charles Scribner's Sons (1944), 216 pp. Milah Press Incorporated (September 1, 1999) ISBN 0-9646886-2-X
  • The Collected Stories of Ben Hecht, 524 pp., Crown (1945)
  • Perfidy (with critical supplements), 281 pp. (plus 29 pp.), Julian Messner (1962); about the 1954–1955 Kastner trial in Jerusalem
  • Concerning a Woman of Sin, 222 pp., Mayflower (1964)
  • Gaily, Gaily, Signet (1963) (November 1, 1969) ISBN
  • A Child of the Century 672 pp. Plume (1954) (May 30, 1985) ISBN
  • The Front Page, Samuel French Inc Plays (January 1, 1998) ISBN
  • The Champion From Far Away (1931)
  • Actor's Blood (1936)
  • A Treasury Of Ben Hecht: Collected Stories And Other Writings (1959, anthology)
  • Erik Dorn
  • I Hate Actors!
  • 1001 Afternoons in New York
  • The Sensualists
  • Winkelberg (play)
  • Miracle in the Rain
  • Letters From Bohemia
  • Gargoyles
  • The Egoist

Musical contributions[edit]

  • Uncle Sam Stands Up (1941) Hecht contributed the lyrics and poetry to this patriotic cantata for baritone solo, chorus, and orchestra composed by Ferde Grofe, written during the height of World War II.
  • We Will Never Die (1943) a pageant he composed with Kurt Weill, with staging by Moss Hart, written partly because of Hecht's consternation with American foreign policy in Europe concerning the Holocaust and Hollywood's fear of offending European (Axis) markets.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Eszterhas, Joe. The Devil’s Guide to Hollywood: The Screenwriter as God, Macmillan (2006)
  2. ^ Medoff, Rafael. "Ben Hecht's "A Flag is Born", David S. Wyman Institute, April 2004
  3. ^ "Theater Hall of Fame Gets 10 New Members". New York Times. May 10, 1983. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Sternlicht, Sanford V.. The Tenement Saga: The Lower East Side and Early Jewish American writers, Terrace Books (2004)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Siegel, Scott, and Siegel, Barbara. The Encyclopedia of Hollywood, 2nd ed. (2004) Checkmark Books
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Clark, Randall. Dictionary of Literary Biography - American Screenwriters (1984) Gale Research
  7. ^ "The Chicago Literary Hall of Fame - Author Details". Chicagoliteraryhof.org. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  8. ^ Kerrane, Kevin, Yagoda, and Ben. The Art of Fact: A Historical Anthology of Literary Journalism, Simon and Schuster (1998)
  9. ^ Kovan, Florice Whyte, Rediscovering Ben Hecht, (2000) Volume 2: Art & Architecture on 1001 Afternoons Snickersnee Press [1]
  10. ^ a b Applegate, Eddy. Literary Journalism: A Biographical Dictionary of Writers and Editors, Greenwood Publishing Group (1996)
  11. ^ Schmuhl, Robert. "History, Fantasy, Memory", Illinois Historical Journal, Vol 83, Autumn 1990
  12. ^ Bellow, Saul. New York Times Review of Books, June 13, 1954
  13. ^ Kovan, Florice Whyte, A Ghost Materilized - Ben Hecht Finally Credited on Marilyn Monroe's Memoir, (2001) Snickersnee Press [2]
  14. ^ a b Churchwell, Sarah. “The Many Lives of Marilyn Monroe”, Macmillan (2005)
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Corliss, Richard, Talking Pictures, (1974) Overlook Press
  16. ^ a b Easton, Carol, The Search for Sam Goldwyn, (1976) William Morrow and Company
  17. ^ a b c Thomson, David, The Whole Equation - A History of Hollywood, (2005) Alfred A. Knopf
  18. ^ Mast, Gerald, and Kawin, Bruce, A Short History of the Movies, (2006) Pearson Longman
  19. ^ a b Black, Gregory D. Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies, Cambridge University Press (1996) pg. 5
  20. ^ Hawks; Howard, Breivold, Scott. Howard Hawks - Interviews, University Press of Mississippi (2006)
  21. ^ Wexman, Virginia Wright. “Film and Authorship”, Rutgers University Press (2003)
  22. ^ a b c d Harvey, James. Romantic Comedy in Hollywood from Lubitsch to Sturges, Da Capo Press (1998)
  23. ^ Meryman, Richard, Mank - the Wit, World, and Life of Herman Mankiewicz, (1978) William Morrow
  24. ^ a b c Wilk, Max. “Schmucks with Underwoods: Conversations with Hollywood’s Classic Screenwriters”, Hal Leonard Corp. (2004)
  25. ^ http://norman.hrc.utexas.edu/fasearch/findingAid.cfm?eadid=00488
  26. ^ a b Kovan, Florice Whyte, Some Notes on Ben Hecht's Civil Rights Work , the Klan and Related Projects, [3]
  27. ^ "FULL WAR AID URGED" New York Times, July 28, 1941
  28. ^ Hecht, Ben, Reader's Digest, Remember Us, February, 1943
  29. ^ Bach, Steven. Dazzler: The Life and Times of Moss Hart, Capo Press (2001)
  30. ^ Porter, Darwin. Brando Unzipped, Blood Moon Productions (2006) p.120
  31. ^ The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies
  32. ^ "Former Irgun Leader Sees Palestine Unity With Brotherhood Among Jews and Arabs" New York Times, November 30, 1948
  33. ^ a b " Ben Hecht's Films Face London Boycott" New York Times, Oct. 24, 1948
  34. ^ Clarke, Peter (2007) The Last Thousand Days of the British Empire Penguin, London ISBN 978-0-14-102005-1
  35. ^ Harris, Jed, The Front Page: From Theater to Reality (Introduction), (2002) Smith & Kraus Publishing Inc.
  36. ^ a b c d e Selznick, David O. Memo from David O. Selznick, The Viking Press (1972)
  37. ^ Yeck, Joanne, Dictionary of Literary Biography (1984) Gale Reaearch
  38. ^ Keelor, Josette, Northern Virginia Daily.com, A new play by Ron Hutchinson, "Moonlight and Magnolias" depicts the five day marathon by Hecht, Selznick and director Victor Fleming to create the screenplay for "Gone with the Wind." [4] Behind the Scenes, August 1, 2008
  39. ^ a b c Duns, Jeremy. "Casino Royale: discovering the lost script" The Telegraph, U.K. March 2, 2011
  40. ^ Hecht, Ben, Esquire Magazine, March 1959

References[edit]

  • Bleiler, Everett, The Checklist of Fantastic Literature (1948) Shasta Publishers
  • Bluestone, George, From Novels Into Film (1968) Berkeley: University of California Press
  • Fetherling, Doug, The Five Lives of Ben Hecht (1977) Lester & Orpen
  • Halliwell, Leslie, Who's Who in the Movies (2006) Harper Collins
  • MacAdams, William, "Ben Hecht: The Man Behind the Legend" (1990) Scribner; "Ben Hecht" (1995) Barricade
  • Thomson, David, A Biographical Dictionary of Film (1995) Alfred A. Knopf
  • Wollen, Peter, Signs and Meaning in the Cinema (1969) Indiana University Press

External links[edit]