Bench memorandum

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A Bench Memorandum (pl. bench memoranda) (also known as a bench memo) is a short and neutral memo which summarizes the facts, issues, and arguments of a court case. Bench memos are used by the judge as a reference when preparing for the trial, when hearing the lawyers' arguments, when drafting a decision, and just generally to give the judge an idea of what the arguments given by each side in the court case will be.[1] Bench memos are generally written by the judge's law clerk, although lawyers can also submit their own memos that argue their case, making sure that the memo remains neutral.[2][3]