Bengt-Åke Lundvall

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Bengt-Åke Lundvall (born in 1941) is professor at the Department of Business Studies at Aalborg University (Denmark) (since 1977) and at Sciences-Po in Paris, France, since 2007. He was also a visiting professor at the Tsinghua University in Beijing in 2004-06. According to the research carried by Fagerberg & Verspagen (2007) on innovation studies,[1] Lundvall is number 4 in "The most important sources of scholarly inspiration" (only after Schumpeter, Nelson, and Lundvall's mentor Freeman)

His research is organized around a broad set of issues related to the innovation system (in fact this concept was created by him in 1985[2]) and the learning economy. During 1992-95 he was Deputy Director at DSTI, OECD. He was involved in the preparation and follow up of the Lisbon Strategy 2000 and onwards. Lundvall has co-ordinated the IKE-group in Aalborg since 1977 and the Danish network DRUID 1996-2001. Since 2002 he coordinates the worldwide research network Globelics.

In close collaboration with Christopher Freeman, Bengt-Åke Lundvall developed the idea of innovation as an interactive process, in the first half of the eighties and the concept of National System of Innovation in the second half (Lundvall, 1985[3] and Lundvall, 1988). In the beginning of the nineties he developed the idea of "the learning economy" in collaboration with Björn Johnson (Lundvall and Johnson, 1994).[4]

Personal life[edit]

He admits that his high school experience during the 1960s was almost a failure. He was a college student of Law in 1964. He wrote a textbook on Marx in 1970. Something highly important was his involvement in the organization of Aalborg University during 1973-1977. A turning point in his career was his visit at the SPRU (UK) and Stanford (US) in the early 1980s.


  1. ^ Innovation studies an emerging discipline (or what)? A study of the global network of innovation scholars. Jan Fagerberg & Bart Verspagen 2006
  2. ^ Innovation System Research Where it came from and where it might go. By Bengt-Åke Lundvall 2007
  3. ^ Lundvall, B.-Å. (1985). Product Innovation and User–Producer Interaction. Aalborg University Press.
  4. ^ Lundvall, B.-Å.; Björn Johnson (1994). "The learning economy". Journal of Industry Studies 1 (2): 23–42.



  • Lorenz, E. and Lundvall, B.-Å. (eds.) (2006), How Europe’s economies learn, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Interakummerd, P. and Lauridsen J.V. (eds.) (2006), Asia’s innovation systems in transition, London, Elgar.
  • Christensen, J. L. and Lundvall, B.-Å. (eds.) (2004), Product Innovation, Interactive Learning and Economic Performance, Amsterdam, Elsevier. ISBN 0-7623-1156-8.
  • Gammeltoft, P. Lundvall, B.-Å., Muchie, M. Putting Africa First, Edward Elgar, 2003, ISBN 87-7307-699-6.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Conceição, P. & Heitor, M.V. Innovation, Competence Building and Social Cohesion in Europe, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003, ISBN 1-84064-980-1.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. Growth, Innovation and Social Cohesion: The Danish model, Cheltenham: Elgar Publisher, 2002. ISBN 1-84064-743-4.
  • Archibugi, D. & Lundvall, B.-Å., The Globalizing Learning Economy, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-924109-0.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Det danske innovationssystem: Et forskningsbaseret debatoplæg om innovationspolitiske udfordringer og handlemuligheder, København, Erhvervsudviklingsrådet, 1999.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. & Borras, S., The Globalising Learning Economy: Implications for Innovation Policy, Brussels, DG XII, 1999.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., (ed.), National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning, London: Pinter Publishers, 1992.
  • Næs Gjerding, A., et al., Den forsvundne produktivitet (Productivity lost - Danish industrial development in the middle of the eighties, 2 volumes), Copenhagen: DJØF Forlag, 1990.
  • Freeman, C. and Lundvall, B.-Å. (eds.), Small Nations Facing the Technological Revolution, London: Pinter Publishers, 1988.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Product Innovation and User-Producer Interaction, Aalborg: Aalborg University Press, 1985.

Articles in Journals

  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Arundel A., Edward Lorenz E., and Valeyre A. 'How Europe's economies learn: a comparison of work organization and innovation mode for the EU-15', Industrial and Corporate Change, 2007, doi:10.1093/icc/dtm035.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Innovation and Job Creationin the Learning Economy', in Thomas Bredgaard & Flemming Larsen (eds.) Employment Policy from Different Angles, DJØF Publishing, Copenhagen 2005, pp 505–522.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Introduction to 'technological infrastructure and international competitiveness' by Christopher Freeman', Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol 13, No 3, 2004, pp 531–539.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy', Economia e Politica Industriale : Rassegna trimestrale diretta da Sergio Vaccà / Vaccà, Sergio . Milano : FrancoAngeli s.r.l., 2003. (Nr. 117), pp 173–185.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Repensant la racionalitat de les polítiques científiques, tecnològiques i d'innovació des de la perspectiva del coneixement'. Coneixement i Societat, 2003, pp 6–25.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Transformation of Small Open Economies in the Globalising Learning Economy - The Danish Case', Transformations in Business & Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1 & 2, 2002, pp152–165.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Estados-nación, capital social y desarrollo económico. Un enfoque sistémico de la creación de conocimiento y el aprendizaje en la economiá global', Revista de Economía Mundial, No. 7, 2002, pp 69–90.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Johnson, B., and Lorenz, E, ‘Why all this fuss about codified and tacit Knowledge?’, Industrial and Corporate Change, No 2, 2002, pp. 245–62.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Johnson, B., Andersen, E.S., and B. Dalum (2002), ’National systems of production, innovation and competence building’, Research Policy, Vol. 31, pp. 213–231.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., Andersen, E. S., and Sorrn-Friese, H, 'Editorial', Research Policy, Vol. 31, pp 185–190.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'National Business Systems and National Systems of Innovation', Special Issue on Business Systems, International Studies of Management and Organization, Summer 1999.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. and Nielsen, P., 'Competition and transformation in the learning economy – illustrated by the Danish case', Revue d'Economie Industrielle, No.88, 1999, pp. 67–90.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Spatial Division of Labour and Interactive learning', in Revue d´Économie Régionale et Urbaine, No. 3, 1999, pp. 469–488.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Le politiche per 1´innovazione nell´ economia dell ´apprendimento', CUEN in Area Industria della Cultura, 1998, pp 177–202.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Why study national systems and national styles of innovation?', in Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1998, pp. 407–422.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Information Technology in the Learning Economy', in Communications & Strategies, No. 28, pp 117–192, 1997.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'L´economia dell´apprendimento. Una sfida alla teoria e alla politica economica', in Economia e Politica Industriale, Vol. 23, No. 89, pp 119–145, 1996.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. and Johnson, B., 'The Learning Economy', (with Johnson, B.) in Journal of Industry Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec. 1994, pp. 23–42.
  • Johnson, B. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Closing the Institutional gap', Revue d'Economie Industrielle, No. 59, 1er Trimestre, 1992.

Articles in books and anthologies

  • Lundvall, B.-Å and Borrás, S. 'Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy', in Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D. C. and Nelson, R. R. (eds): The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press: New York, 2005, pp 599–631. ISBN 978-0-19-926455-1.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å and Ernst, D. 'Information technology in the learning economy: challenges for developing countries', in Reinert, E. S. (ed.): Globalization, Economic Development and Inequality, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2004, pp 258–278. ISBN 1-85898-891-8.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å and Tomlinson, M. 'Le benchmarking international : un instrument d´apprentisage politique et stratégique', in Rodrigues, M. J. (ed.): Vers une société européenne de la connaissance La stratégie de Lisbonne (2000–2010), Editions de l' Université de Bruxelles, 2004, pp 199–226. ISBN 2-8004-1343-3
  • Johnson, B., Lundvall, B.-Å. National Systems of Innovation and Economic Development, in Gammeltoft, P. Lundvall, B.-Å., Muchie, M. Putting Africa First, Edward Elgar, 2003, ISBN 87-7307-699-6,
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Udfordringer for dansk industri' i Johansen, John, Riis, Jens Ove: Interaktive virksomheder. Dansk Industri, København, 2004
  • Johnson, B. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Promoting innovation systems as a response to the globalizing learning economy', in Cassiolato, J.E, Lastres, H.M.M. & Maciel, M.L. Systems of Innovation and Development, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2003. ISBN 1-84376-231-5.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Towards a learning society', in Lundvall, B.-Å., Conceição, P. & Heitor, M.V. Innovation, Competence Building and Social Cohesion in Europe, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2003, ISBN 1-84064-980-1, pp 3–16.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Broadening the analysis of innovation systems - competition, organisational change and employment dynamics in the Danish System', in Conceição, P., Heitor, M.V., Lundvall, B.-Å. Innovation, Competence Building and Social Cohesion in Europe, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2003, ISBN 1-84064-980-1, pp 144–179.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å, '¿Por qué la Nueva Economia es una economía del aprendizaje?' in Bianco, Carlo et al. Nuevas technologías de información y comunicación, Buenos Aires: Miño y Dávila srl, 2003. ISBN 84-95294-21-4, pp 39–54.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å, 'Den lærende økonomi - udfordringer for små og mellemstore virksomheder' in Voxted, Søren (red.), Bukh, P.N., Christensen, B.J., Hildebrandt, S., Larsen, H.H., Lundvall, B.-Å. Den ledelsesmæssige udfordring i små ogmellemstore virksomheder - en antologi i anledning af etablering af Handelshøjskolecenter, Frederiksberg, Samfundslitteratur, pp 19–56, 2002. ISBN 87-593-1015-4.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. (with co-author Mark tomlinson), 'International benchmarking as a policy learning tool' in Rodrigues, M. J. (ed.), The New Knowledge Economy in Europe, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002. ISBN 1-84064-719-1.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Innovation policy in the globalising learning economy', forthcoming in Archibugi, D. and Lundvall, B.-Å. (eds.), The globalising learning economy, Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-924109-0.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. (with co-author Archibugi), 'Introduction: Europe and the learning economy’, in Archibugi, D. and Lundvall, B.-Å. (eds.), The globalising learning economy, Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-924109-0.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Nye krav til færdighedsudviklingen: Hvordan klarer de ikke-erhversuddannede sig?', i Andersen, J.G &Jensen, P.H. (red.) Marginalisering integration vedlfærd. Aalborg Universitetsforlag, Aalborg, 2001. ISBN 87-7307-648-1.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Universitetet i den lærende økonomi', in Maskell, P. & Jensen, H.S. (eds.) Universiteter for fremtiden - universiteterne og videnssamfundet. Samfundslitteratur, Frederiksberg C, 2001. ISBN 87-90470-18-4.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Learning-by-comparing: Reflections on the use and abuse of international benchmarking', in Sweeney, G. (ed.), Innovation, Economic Progress and the Quality of Life, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2001. ISBN 1-84064-603-9.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. and Maskell, P. 'Nation States and Economic Development: From National Systems of Production to National Systems of Knowledge Creation and Learning', in Clark G.L., Feldman, M.P and Gertler M.S. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-823410-4.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å.,'Understanding the role of education in the learning economy: The contribution of economics, in OECD-CERI, Knowledge Management in the Learning Society, Paris, OECD, 2000. ISBN 92-64-17182-7.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å.,'The learning economy – implications for the knowledge base of health and education systems', in OECD-CERI, Knowledge Management in the Learning Society, Paris, OECD, 2000. ISBN 92-64-17182-7.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Commentary' to Pack, H. 'Research and Development in the Industrial Development Process', in Kim, L. and Nelson, R. R. (eds.), Technology, Learning, and Innovation, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-77987-1.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Introduction', National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning, in Martin, B.R. and Nightingale, P., The Political Economy of Science, Technology and Innovation, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2000, ISBN 1-85898-961-2, pp 524–543.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Innovation Policy and Economic Theory', in Schienstock, G. and Kuusi, O. (eds.), Transformation Towards a Learning Economy, Helsinki: Hakapaino Oy, 1999.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Technology Policy in the Learning Economy', in Archibugi, Michie, J & Howells, J. (eds.): Innovation Policy in a Global Economy, Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp 19–34.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'The Learning Economy: challenges to economic theory and policy', Nielsen, K. & Johnson, B. (eds.): Institutions and Economic Change, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publ., 1998. ISBN 1-85898-322-3
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Skærpet konkurrence, organisatorisk fornyelse og ændrede kvalifikationskrav', in Næss Gjerding, A. (ed.): Den fleksible virksomhed (The Flexible Firm), Copenhagen: Erhvervsudviklingsrådet, 1997. ISBN 87-90147-78-2.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Emploi et chomage dans une 'Economie qui apprend', in Meulders et al.: Pourquoi la Science?, Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 1997.
  • Foray, D. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Une introduction à l'economic fondée sur la connaisance', in Guilhon, B. (ed.): Economie de la Connaisance et des Organisations, Paris: l'Harmattan, 1997.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'The Role of National Innovation Systems', in Creativity, Innovation and Job Creation. OECD Proceedings, Paris 1997. ISBN 978-92-64-15424-7.
  • Andersen, E.S. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'National Innovation Systems and the Dynamics of the Division of Labor', in Edquist, C. (ed.): Systems of Innovation, London: Pinter Publishers, 1997. ISBN 1-85567-452-1.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Reflections on how to Analyse National Systems of Innovation', in Osmo, K. (ed.): Innovation Systems and Competitiveness, Helsinki: Taloustieto Oy, 1996. ISBN 951-561-178-4.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'National systems of innovation and input-output analysis' in DeBresson C. (ed.), Economic Interdependence and innovative activity, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 1996, pp. 356–363.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Commentary', in Andreasen, L.E. et al. (eds.): Europe's next step. Ilford: Frank Cass, pp. 305–308, 1995.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'For en kunskapsbaserad och kunskapsorienterad innovationspolitik', i Teknologiska System, Temanummer I rapport 1 '95, i Näringsdepartementets Skriftserie, Aktuellt om Näringspolitik och Ekonomi, Stockholm, pp. 75–83, 1995.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'The Global Unemployment Problem and National Systems of Innovation', in O'Doherty, D. (ed.): Globalisation, Networking and Small Firm Innovation, London: Graham&Trotman, pp. 35–48, 1995.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Standards in an innovative world', in Hawkins, R., Mansell R. and Skea J. (eds.): Standards, Innovation and Competitiveness, Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp 7–15, 1995.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Teknologipolitik og konkurrenceevne i 'the learning economy, in Jørgensen, H. og Rasmussen J.G. (eds.), Samarbejde -Festskrift til Reinhard Lund, Aalborg University Press, pp. 51–64, 1995.
  • Co-author of The OECD Jobs Study- Facts, Analysis, Strategies, OECD, 1994.
  • Co-author of 'Technological change and innovation', chapter 4 in the OECD Jobs Study - Evidence and Explanations, OECD, 1994.
  • Edquist, C. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Comparing the Danish and Swedish Systems of Innovation', in Nelson, R.R. (ed.): National Systems of Innovations: A Comparative Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 265–298, 1993.
  • Johnson, B. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Catching Up and Institutional Learning under Post-Socialism', in Hausner, J., Jessop, B. and Nielsen. K. (eds.): Institutional Frameworks of Market Economies, Avebury, pp. 68–88, 1993.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'User-producer relationships, national systems of innovation and internationalisation', in Foray, D. and Freeman, C. (eds.): Technology and the Wealth of Nations, Pinter Publishers, 1993.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Explaining Inter-firm Cooperation and Innovation - Limits of the Transaction Cost Approach' in Grabher, G.,
  • (ed.): The Embedded Firm: On the Socioeconomics of Industrial Networks, London: Routledge, 1992.
  • Johnson, B. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Flexibility and Institutional Learning', in Jessop, B. et al. (eds.): The Politics of Flexibility, Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1991.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Innovation, the organised market and the productivity slow-down', in OECD, Technology and Productivity, The Challenge for Economic Policy, OECD, Paris, pp. 447–458, 1991.
  • Johnson, B. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'The limits of the pure market economy' in Bohlin, J. et al. (eds.): Samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomi, Historia, Festskrift til Lars Herlitz, Göteborg: Daidalos, pp. 85–106, 1989.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Innovation as an Interactive Process - from User-Producer Interaction to National Systems of Innovation', in

Dosi, G. m.fl. (eds.): Technology and Economic Theory, London: Pinter Publishers, 1988.

  • Andersen, E.S. and Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Small national systems of innovation facing technological revolutions - an analytical framework' in Freeman, C. & Lundvall, B.-Å. (eds.): Small Nations Facing the Technological Revolution, London: Pinter Publishers, 1988.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'Technological Unemployment in a small open economy' in Lund R. et al.(eds.): Studies in Unemployment,

København, 1987.

Working Papers

  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'Nation States, social capital and economic development - a system's approach to knowledge creation and learning', Research Center on Development and International Relations (DIR), Aalborg University, Working Paper no. 135, 2006.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å 'Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy' DRUID Working Paper, No. 1, 2004. ISBN 87-7873-151-8.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. & Nielsen, P. 'Innovation, Learning Organizations and Industrial Relations' DRUID Working Papers, No. 7, 2003. ISBN 87-7873-139-9.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. 'The University in the Learning Economy', DRUID Working Papers, No. 6, 2002. ISBN 87-7873-122-4.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. & Kristensen, F.S. 'Organisational Change, Innovation and Human Resource Development as a Response to Increased Competition', DRUID Working Papers, No. 16, 1997. ISBN 87-7873-036-8.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å. & Ernst, D., 'Information Technology in the Learning Economy - Challenges for Developing Countries, DRUID Working Papers, No. 12, 1997. ISBN 87-7873-031-7.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'The social dimension of the learning economy', DRUID Working Papers, No. 1, 1996. ISBN 87-7873-000-7.
  • Lundvall, B.-Å., 'The learning economy - Challenges to economic theory and policy', No 9514 in BETA Working Papers, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, pp. 1–23, 1995.

External links[edit]