Benjamin Butler (politician)
|Benjamin Franklin Butler|
|Portrait by Brady-Handy studio, 1870s|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 5th, 6th & 7th district
March 4, 1867 – March 4, 1875
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1879
|Preceded by||John B. Alley
Nathaniel P. Banks
John K. Tarbox
|Succeeded by||Daniel W. Gooch
Charles P. Thompson
William A. Russell
|33rd Governor of Massachusetts|
January 4, 1883 – January 4, 1884
|Preceded by||John D. Long|
|Succeeded by||George D. Robinson|
|Born||November 5, 1818
Deerfield, New Hampshire
|Died||January 11, 1893 (aged 74)
|Resting place||Hildreth Family Cemetery
|Spouse(s)||Sarah Hildreth (1844–1876)|
|Allegiance||United States of America
|Commands||Department of Virginia
Army of the James
|Battles/wars||American Civil War
Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as the 33rd Governor of Massachusetts. In 1868, as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Butler had a prominent role in the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. As Chairman of the House Committee on Reconstruction, Butler authored the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant, that gave federal authority to prosecute and destroy the Klan in the South. Butler authored, along with Sen. Charles Sumner, the Civil Rights Act of 1875, signed into law by President Grant. This law, a final act of Reconstruction, gave African American U.S. citizens the right to public accommodation such as hotels, restaurants, lodging, and public entertainment establishments.
During the American Civil War, he served as a major general in the Union Army. His policies regarding slaves as contraband so they could have freedom, his administration of occupied New Orleans, his ineffectual leadership in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, and the fiasco of Fort Fisher rank him as one of the most controversial political generals of the war. Butler was the first Eastern Union General to declare runaway Virginia slaves "contraband of war"; refusing to return them to their masters. He was widely reviled for years after the war by Southern whites, who gave him the nickname "Beast Butler." Although considered a hostile Union Army general while commanding New Orleans, Butler, through his Christian charity, made efforts to care for the poor and needy, giving $1,000 of his personal money to purchase food for those who were starving. As all business activity was shut down, Butler gave railroad and steam loading permits to operators, relieving the city of starvation. Butler received permission from the city to employ the poor to clean up the streets and under the supervision of Col. T.B. Thorpe, a million dollars of land was added to the state from the Mississippi River deposits. At the request of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, Butler was relieved of duty on January 8, 1865 having failed to capture Fort Fisher.
Early life 
Benjamin Franklin Butler was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, the sixth and youngest child of John Butler and Charlotte Ellison Butler. His father served under General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and later became a privateer, dying of yellow fever in the West Indies not long after Benjamin was born. He was named after Founding Father Benjamin Franklin. His elder brother, Andrew Jackson Butler (1815–1864), would serve as a colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War and joined him in New Orleans. Butler's mother was a devout Baptist who encouraged him to read the Bible and prepare for the ministry. In 1827, at the age of nine, Butler was awarded a scholarship to Phillips Exeter Academy, where he spent one term. He was described by a schoolmate as "a reckless, impetuous, headstrong, boy", and regularly got into fights.
Butler's mother moved the family in 1828 to Lowell, Massachusetts, where she operated a boarding house for workers at the textile mills. He attended the public schools there, from which he was almost expelled for fighting, the principal describing him as a boy who "might be led, but could not be driven." He attended Waterville (now Colby) College in pursuit of his mother's wish that he prepare for the ministry, but eventually rebelled against the idea. In 1836 he sought permission to go instead to West Point for a military education, but did not receive one of the few places available. He continued his studies at Waterville, where he sharpened his rhetorical skills in theological discussions, and began to adopt Democratic political views. He graduated in August 1838.
Butler returned to Lowell, where he clerked and studied law with a local lawyer. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1840, and opened a practice in Lowell. He quickly gained a reputation as a dogged criminal defense lawyer who seized on every misstep of his opposition to gain victories for his clients, and also became a specialist in bankruptcy law. His trial work was so successful that it received regular press coverage, and he was able to expand his practice into Boston. After an extended courtship he married Sarah Hildreth, a stage actress and daughter of Dr. Israel Hildreth of Lowell, on May 16, 1844. They had four children: Paul (1845–1850), Blanche (1847), Paul (1852) and Ben-Israel (1855). His law partners included Sarah's brother Fisher, and her brother-in-law W. P. Webster.
Entry into politics 
Butler's success as a lawyer enabled him to purchase shares in Lowell's Middlesex Mill Company when they were cheap. Although he generally represented workers in legal actions, he also sometimes represented mill owners. This adoption of both sides of an issue manifested when he became more politically active. He first attracted general attention by advocating the passage of a law establishing a ten-hour day for laborers, but he also opposed labor strikes over the matter. He instituted the ten-hour day at the Middlesex Mills.
Butler, as a Democrat, supported the Compromise of 1850 and regularly spoke out against abolition. However, at the state level he supported the coalition of Democrats and Free Soilers that elected George S. Boutwell governor in 1851. This garnered him enough support to win election to the state legislature in 1852. His support for Franklin Pierce as president, however, cost him the seat the next year. He was elected a delegated to the 1853 state constitutional convention with strong Catholic support, and was elected to the state senate in 1858 (a year dominated by Republican victories in the state). Butler was nominated for governor in 1859, and ran on a pro-slavery, pro-tariff platform; he narrowly lost to incumbent Republican Nathaniel Prentice Banks.
In the 1860 Democratic National Convention at Charleston, South Carolina, Butler initially supported John C. Breckenridge, but then shifted his support to Jefferson Davis, believing that only a moderate Southerner could keep the Democratic party from dividing. A conversation he had with Davis prior to the convention convinced him that Davis might be such a man, and he gave him his support before the convention split. Butler ended up supporting Breckenridge over Douglas against state party instructions, ruining his standing with the state party apparatus. He was nominated for governor in the 1860 election by a Breckenridge splinter of the state party, but trailed far behind other candidates.
Civil War 
Although he sympathized with the South, Butler stated that "I was always a friend of southern rights but an enemy of southern wrongs", and sought to serve in the Union army. His military career prior to the Civil War began as a third lieutenant in the Massachusetts state militia in 1839. He was promoted to brigadier general of the militia in 1855 after Governor Henry J. Gardner tried unsuccessfully to remove him from his post by reorganizing the militia. These ranks were closely associated with his political positions and Butler received little practical military experience to prepare him for the coming conflict.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected president in November 1860, Butler traveled to Washington, D.C. When a secessionist South Carolina delegation arrived there, he recommended to lame duck President James Buchanan that they be arrested and charged with treason. Buchanan refused the idea. Butler also met with Jefferson Davis, and learned that he was not the Union man Butler had previous thought he was. Butler then returned to Massachusetts, where he warned Governor John A. Andrew that hostilities were likely, and that the state militia should be readied. He took advantage of this mobilization to secure a contract with the state for his mill to supply heavy cloth to the militia. Military contracts would constitute a significant source of profits for Butler's mill throughout the war.
Butler also worked to secure a leadership position should the militia be deployed. First, he offered his services to Governor Andrew in March 1861. When the call for militia finally arrived in April, Massachusetts was only asked for three regiments, but Butler managed to parlay this to include a request for a brigadier. He telegraphed Secretary of War Simon Cameron, with whom he was acquainted, suggesting that Cameron issue a request for a brigadier and general staff from Massachusetts, which soon afterward appeared on Governor Andrew's desk. He then used banking contacts to ensure that loans which would be needed to fund the militia operations would be conditioned on his appointment. Despite Andrew's desire to assign the brigadier position to Ebenezer Peirce, the bank insisted on Butler, and he was sent south to ensure the security of transportation routes to Washington.
Baltimore and Virginia operations 
A major railroad connection from the Northeast passed through Baltimore, which was threatened by rioting, and it was unclear whether Maryland, a slave state, would stay in the Union. Butler arrived with the 8th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment by steamer at Annapolis on April 20, 1861. He employed his expert negotiation skills with Governor Thomas H. Hicks and, by April 22, his regiment had disembarked and was put to work repairing damaged railroad tracks around Baltimore. At the same time, the 7th New York Infantry arrived and Butler assumed command of the entire force; his military career would be characterized by his eagerness to assume authority in the absence of official instructions. While Butler remained at Annapolis, the New Yorkers were among the first Union troops to march into Washington following President Lincoln's initial call for volunteers. On May 13, Butler's remaining force occupied Baltimore without opposition. On May 14, Union artillery and scores of camps crowned Federal Hill and Union troops patrolled the streets, further supported by the heavy artillery in Fort McHenry. Butler's reward for his aggressive but unauthorized premature action was to be relieved of command by a livid General Winfield Scott. However, Lincoln appointed him one of the first major generals of U.S. Volunteers, ranking from May 16, 1861. (Also on that day, appointments were given to John A. Dix and Nathaniel P. Banks. Both appeared on the promotion order before Butler, making him the third highest ranking major general of volunteers.)
Butler was assigned command of Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia, and of the Department of Virginia. On May 27, 1861, Major General Butler sent a force 8 miles (13 km) north to occupy the lightly defended adjacent town of Newport News, Virginia at Newport News Point, an excellent anchorage for the Union Navy. This force established and significantly fortified Camp Butler and a battery at Newport News Point that could cover the entrance to the James River ship canal and the mouth of the Nansemond River. By May 29, 1861, Butler's force which included the 1st Vermont Infantry, Colonel John A. Bendix's 7th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment (a regiment of German speakers), the 4th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Scott's Life Guards, and a detachment of U.S. Regulars to man artillery, completed the mission. On June 8, 1861, the camp, which was commanded by Colonel Phelps of the 1st Vermont Infantry, also was reinforced by the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment (Hawkin's Zouaves). Butler also further occupied and expanded Camp Hamilton, started by Colonel Dimick in the equally lightly defended, adjacent town of Hampton, Virginia, just beyond the confines of the fort and within the range of its guns. After Colonel Abram Duryee of the 5th New York Infantry commanded Camp Hamilton for a week, on June 4, 1861, Massachusetts militia Brigadier General Ebenezer Peirce assumed command. In the conduct of other minor tactical operations in Virginia in the early months of the war, Butler was almost uniformly unsuccessful.
On June 10, 1861, six weeks before the Battle of First Bull Run, a Union Army force under Butler's command suffered a humiliating, albeit minor in retrospect, defeat at the Battle of Big Bethel. Butler devised a plan for a night march and operation against Confederate forces at nearby Little Bethel and Big Bethel. Butler chose not to lead the force in person, for which he was later criticized. The plan proved too complex for his untrained or nearly untrained subordinates and troops to carry out, especially at night, and was further marred by the failure of staff to communicate all passwords and precautions, a friendly fire incident during the night which gave away the Union position and by the Union force advancing without knowledge of the layout or strength of the Confederate positions. The commander in the field, the Massachusetts militia general, Ebenezer Peirce, received the most criticism for the failed operation. With the withdrawal of many of his men for use elsewhere, Butler was unable to maintain the camp at Hampton although his forces did retain the camp at Newport News.
While in command at Fort Monroe, Butler declined to return to their owners fugitive slaves who had come within his lines, on the grounds that, as laborers for building fortifications and other military activities, they were contraband of war, thereby justifying granting these slaves a relative freedom, in spite of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. The U.S. Congress later mandated that other Union commanders refuse to return slaves to their former masters, based on the fact that their former masters now saw themselves as residing in a foreign country, thus invalidating the Fugitive Slave Act there. Butler promptly received official approval for his act from President Lincoln (through Secretary of War Cameron). Furthermore, emancipation of slaves held by the enemy was firmly rooted in the laws of war.
New Orleans 
Later in 1861, Butler commanded an expeditionary force that, in conjunction with the United States Navy, took Forts Hatteras and Clark in North Carolina. He directed the first Union expedition to Ship Island, off the Mississippi Gulf Coast, in December 1861. In May 1862, he commanded the force that conducted the capture of New Orleans after its occupation by the Navy after the Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip. In the administration of that city he showed great firmness and political subtlety. He devised a plan for poor relief, demanded oaths of allegiance from anyone who sought any privilege from government, and confiscated weapons.
In an ordinary year, it was not unusual for as much as 10% of the city's population to die of yellow fever. In preparation, Butler imposed strict quarantines and introduced a rigid program of garbage disposal. As a result, in 1862, only two cases were reported.
Many of his acts, however, were unpopular. Most notorious was Butler's General Order No. 28 of May 15, 1862, that if any woman should insult or show contempt for any officer or soldier of the United States, she shall be regarded and shall be held liable to be treated as a "woman of the town plying her avocation", i.e., a prostitute. This was in response to women in the town who were pouring buckets of their own urine on Union soldiers, and who at the time could get away with anything as respectable women. Butler's order had no sexual connotation; rather, it permitted soldiers to not treat women performing such acts as ladies. If a woman punched a soldier, he could punch her back. The order stopped all of their behavior, without arresting anyone or firing a bullet, but provoked protests both in the North and the South, and also abroad, particularly in England and France. He was nicknamed "'Beast' Butler" or alternatively "'Spoons' Butler," the latter nickname derived for his alleged habit of pilfering the silverware of Southern homes in which he stayed. While no proof exists that Butler was corrupt it is possible that he knew of the illegal activities of his brother Andrew, also in the army in New Orleans.
Butler censored New Orleans newspapers. When editor of the Commercial Bulletin William Seymour asked Butler what would happen if the newspaper ignored his censorship, an angry Butler reportedly stated "I am the military governor of this state — the supreme power — you cannot disregard my order, Sir. By God, he that sins against me, sins against the Holy Ghost." When Seymour published a favorable obituary of his father, who had been killed serving in the Confederate army in Virginia, Butler confiscated the newspaper and imprisoned Seymour for three months. He also closed The Picayune when it ran an editorial that he found offensive. Historian John D. Winters wrote that most of the newspapers "were allowed to reopen later but were so rigidly controlled that all color and interest were drained away" and that churches that planned a special day of prayer and fasting for the Confederacy were forbidden from doing so. Several clergymen were placed under arrest for refusing to pray for President Lincoln. The Episcopal churches were closed, and their three ministers were sent to New York City under military escort.
On June 7 Butler executed William B. Mumford, who had torn down a United States flag placed by Admiral Farragut on the United States Mint in New Orleans. Most, including Mumford and his family, expected Butler to pardon him; the general refused, but promised to care for his family if necessary. (After the war Butler fulfilled his promise, paying off a mortgage on Mumford's widow's house and helping her find government employment.) For the execution and General Order No. 28 he was denounced (December 1862) by Confederate President Jefferson Davis in General Order 111 as a felon deserving capital punishment, who if captured should be reserved for execution.
Butler also took aim at foreign consuls in New Orleans. He ordered the seizure of $800,000 that had been deposited in the office of the Dutch consul, imprisoned the French Champagne magnate Charles Heidsieck, and took particular aim at George Coppell of Great Britain, whom he suspended for refusal to cooperate with the Union. Instead, Butler accused Coppell of giving aid to the Confederate cause. U.S. Secretary of State William Henry Seward sent Reverdy Johnson to New Orleans to investigate complaints of foreign consuls against certain Butler policies. Even when told by President Lincoln to restore a sugar shipment claimed by Europeans, Butler undermined the order. He also imposed a strict quarantine to protect against yellow fever, which had the added impact of delaying foreign commerce and bringing complaints to his headquarters from most foreign consuls.
With the Federal occupation, runaway slaves and slaves from abandoned plantations arrived in large numbers in New Orleans. These unattached persons had to be fed and housed. A Union officer complained of "a big problem" with the new arrivals. John D. Winters wrote that "Soldiers resented the fact that the pampered Negro was given better tents, equal rations, and was allowed to tear down more fences for sleeping boards than were the soldiers. General Phelps [an abolitionist] had organized a few squads of Negroes and drilled them daily. ... Not knowing what to do with so many Negroes, Butler at first returned the runaway slaves to their masters. But still the contrabands came. Some of them were employed as cooks, nurses, washwomen, and laborers. ... [Finally] Butler ordered ... the exclusion of all unemployed Negroes and whites from his lines."
Although Butler's governance of New Orleans was popular in the North (where it was seen as a successful stand against recalcitrant secessionists), some of his actions, notably those against the foreign consuls, concerned President Lincoln, who authorized his recall in December 1862. Butler was replaced by Nathaniel Banks. The necessity of taking sometimes radical actions, and the support he received in Radical Republican circles drove Butler to change political allegiance. He also sought revenge against the more moderate Secretary of State Seward, who he believed to be responsible for his recall.
Army of the James 
Butler's popularity with the radicals meant that Lincoln could not readily deny him a new posting. Lincoln considered sending him to position in the Mississippi River area in early 1863, and categorically refused to send him back to New Orleans. He finally gave Butler command of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina in November 1863. In January 1864 Butler played a pivotal role in the creation of six regiments of U.S. Volunteers recruited from among Confederate prisoners of war ("Galvanized Yankees") for duty on the western frontier. In May, the forces under his command were designated the Army of the James. General Ulysses S. Grant, who did not think highly of Butler's military skills, ordered him to attack in the direction of Petersburg from the east, destroying the rail links supplying Richmond and distracting Robert E. Lee, in conjunction with attacks Grant would make from the north. Rather than striking immediately at Petersburg as ordered, Butler's offensive bogged down east of Richmond in the area called the Bermuda Hundred, immobilized by the greatly inferior force of Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard, and he was unable to accomplish any of his assigned objectives. But it was his mismanagement of the expedition against Fort Fisher, North Carolina, that finally led to his recall by General Grant.
Fort Fisher and the demise of Butler's military service 
Butler's status as a key political ally of President Abraham Lincoln prevented General Grant from removing him from military service prior to the presidential election of November 1864. Indeed Lincoln had asked Butler to serve as his Vice President in early 1864. After the election, however, Grant wrote to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in early 1865 asking free rein to relieve Butler from military service. Since Stanton was traveling outside Washington, D.C., at the time, Grant appealed directly to Lincoln for permission to terminate Butler. In General Order Number 1, Lincoln relieved Butler from command of the Department of North Carolina and Virginia and ordered him to report to Lowell, Massachusetts.
Grant informed Butler on January 8, 1865, and named Major General Edward O. C. Ord to replace him as commander of the Army of the James. The grounds given by Grant were vague, but Butler focused his defense on his failure to take Fort Fisher, and used his considerable political connections to get a hearing before the Joint Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War in mid-January 1865. At his hearing Butler produced charts and duplicates of reports by subordinates to prove he had been right to call off his attack of Fort Fisher, despite orders from General Grant to the contrary. Butler claimed the fort was impregnable. To his embarrassment, news of the fall of Fort Fisher came during the committee hearings—a follow-up expedition led by Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry captured the fort on January 15—and Butler's military career was over.
Postbellum political career 
Butler was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from 1867 to 1875 and again in 1877 to 1879. Despite his pre-war allegiance as a Democrat, in Congress he was conspicuous as a Radical Republican in Reconstruction legislation, and was opposed to the policies of President Andrew Johnson.
Butler was selected in 1868 to be one of the managers of the impeachment of President Johnson before the Senate. Although Thaddeus Stevens was the principal guiding force behind the impeachment effort, he was aging and ill at the time, and Butler stepped in to become the main organizing force in the prosecution. The case was focused primarily on Johnson's removal of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton in violation of the Tenure of Office Act, and was weak because the constutionality of the law had not been decided. The trial was a somewhat uncomfortable affair, in part because the weather was hot and humid, and the chamber was packed. The prosecution's case was a humdrum recitation of facts already widely known, and it was attacked by the defense's William Evarts, who drowned the proceedings by repeatedly objecting to Butler's questions, often necessitating a vote by the Senate on whether or not to allow the question. Johnson's defense focused on the point that his removal of Stanton fell within the bounds of the Tenure of Office Act. Despite some missteps by the defense, and Butler's vigorous cross-examination of defense witnesses, the impeachment failed by a single vote. In the interval between the trial and the Senate vote, Butler sought without success substantive evidence that Johnson operatives were working to bribe undecided Senators. After acquittal on the first article voted on, Senate Republicans voted to adjourn for ten days, seeking time to possibly change the outcome on the remaining articles. During this time Butler established a House committee to investigate the possibility that four of the seven Republican Senators who voted for acquittal had been improperly influenced in their votes. He uncovered some evidence that promises of patronage had been made and that money may have changed hands, but was unable to decisively link these actions to any specific Senator.
Butler wrote the initial version of the Civil Rights Act of 1871 (aka the Ku Klux Klan Act). After his bill was defeated, Rep. Samuel Shellabarger of Ohio drafted another bill—only slightly less sweeping than Butler's—which successfully passed both houses and became law upon Grant's signature on April 20. Along with Republican Senator Charles Sumner, Butler proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1875, a seminal and far-reaching law banning racial discrimination in public accommodations. The Supreme Court of the United States declared the law unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases (1883). Racial minorities in the United States would have to wait nearly a century before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 would reenact and expand the provisions of the law Butler backed.
He exercised a marked influence over President Grant and was regarded as his spokesman in the House. He was one of the foremost advocates of the payment in greenbacks of the government bonds. During his time in the House, he served as chairman of the Committee on Revision of the Laws in the 42nd Congress and the Judiciary Committee in the 43rd Congress.
Butler was a wealthy industrialist who founded the United States Cartridge Company of Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1872, Butler was one of several high-profile investors who were deceived by Philip Arnold in a famous diamond and gemstone hoax.
Butler ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts as an independent in 1878, and also, in 1879, when he ran on the Democratic and Greenback tickets, but, in 1882, he was elected by the Democrats, who won no other state offices. From 1883 to 1884, he was Governor of Massachusetts. As governor, he appointed the first Irish-American judge, and the first African-American judge—George Lewis Ruffin. He also appointed the first woman to executive office, Clara Barton, to head the Massachusetts Reformatory for Women. As presidential nominee of the Greenback and Anti-Monopoly parties, he polled 175,370 votes in the presidential election of 1884. He had bitterly opposed the nomination by the Democratic party of Grover Cleveland and tried to defeat him by throwing his own votes in Massachusetts and New York to the Republican candidate, James G. Blaine.
Butler's income as a lawyer was estimated at $100,000 per year shortly before his death. He was an able but erratic administrator, and a brilliant lawyer. As a politician, he excited bitter opposition, and was charged, apparently with justice, with corruption and venality in conniving at, and sharing, the profits of illicit trade with the Confederates carried on by his brother at New Orleans and by his brother-in-law in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, while General Butler was in command.
Butler died while attending court in Washington, D.C.. He is buried in his wife's family cemetery, behind the main Hildreth Cemetery in Lowell. His daughter Blanche married Adelbert Ames, a Mississippi governor and senator who had served as a general in the United States Army during the Civil War. Butler's descendants include the famous scientist Adelbert Ames, Jr., suffragist and artist Blanche Ames Ames, Butler Ames, and George Plimpton.
The inscription on Butler's monument reads, "the true touchstone of civil liberty is not that all men are equal but that every man has the right to be the equal of every other man - if he can."
Since 2004, a "Benjamin F. Butler Society" has met at the Hildreth family cemetery in early November to celebrate the birthday of General Butler, and to replace the American flag that flies over the cemetery. This is the only time of year the family plots, behind two locked gates and fenced off from the public cemetery, are open to the public.
See also 
- List of American Civil War generals
- List of Massachusetts generals in the American Civil War
- Massachusetts in the American Civil War
- Schlup-Ryan (2003), Historical Dictionary of the Gilded Age, p. 73
- Rucker-Alexander (2010), Encyclopedia of African American History, p. 669–700
- Finkleman (2006), Encyclopedia of African American History, p. 277
- Bland (1879), Life of Benjamin F. Butler, p. 87
- Bland (1879), Life of Benjamin F. Butler, pp. 87–88
- Bland (1879), Life of Benjamin F. Butler, p. 89
- Catton (1969), Grant Takes Command, pp. 402–403
- West (1965), pp. 8–9
- LAW REPORTS.; The Will of Col. A. J. Butler. Surrogate's Court--May 31... - Article Preview - New York Times (dated June 1, 1864)
- West (1965), pp. 9–10
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- West (1965), pp. 13–16
- West (1965), pp. 17–23
- West (1965), p. 27
- Hearn (2000), p. 13
- Hearn (2000), p. 19
- Hearn (2000), p. 14
- Quarstein (2011), p. 29
- Hearn (2000), p. 18
- Dupree (2008), p. 11
- Hearn (2000), p. 20
- Hearn (2000), p. 21
- Jones, Terry L. (2012-05-18). "The Beast in the Big Easy". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- Hearn (2000), p. 23
- Hearn (2000), p. 24
- Hearn (2000), p. 25
- Quarstein (2011), p. 31
- Lossing, Benson John and William Barritt. Pictorial history of the civil war in the United States of America, Volume 1. Philadelphia, George W. Childs, 1866. OCLC 1007582. Retrieved May 1, 2011. pp. 501–502
- Quarstein, John V. and Dennis P. Mroczkowski. Fort Monroe: the Key to the South. Charleston, SC: Tempus Publications, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7385-0114-7. pp. 38–40
- Lossing (1866), p. 502
- Quarstein (2000), p. 48
- Lossing (1866), p. 505
- Poland, Jr., Charles P. The Glories Of War: Small Battles and Early Heroes Of 1861. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 1-4184-5973-9. pp. 232–233
- Quarstein (2000), p. 49
- New York Times: "How Slavery Really Ended in America" April 1, 2011.
- Mississippi History Now: Union Soldiers on Ship Island During the Civil War
- Robert S. Holtzman, "Ben Butler in the Civil War," The New England Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Sep. 1957), pp. 330–345
- William Dana Orcutt, "Ben Butler and the 'Stolen Spoons,' North American Review, CCVII, 66 (January, 1918).
- Winters, p. 131
- Winters, pp. 128–129
- Winters, p. 143
- Trefousse (1969), p. 242
- Trefousse (1969), p. 281
- Trefousse (1969), pp. 281–282
- Trefousse (1969), pp. 242–244
- Brown, pp. 65–67
- Foote, pp. 739–740
- Trelease, Allen (1971). White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. pp. 387ff. ISBN 0-8071-1953-9.
- "U.S. Cartridge Company". Lowell Land Trust. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
- "A Tour of the Grounds of the Massachusetts State House". Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- Lowell MA event Nov 1st - Find A Grave Forums
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Butler, Benjamin Franklin.|
- Brown, Dee (1985) . The Galvanized Yankees. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6075-X.
- Butler, Benjamin F. The Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major-General B. F. Butler: Butlers Book. New York: A. M. Thayer & Co., 1892.
- Catton, Bruce. The Centennial History of the Civil War. vol. 1, The Coming Fury. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961. ISBN 0-641-68525-4.
- Dupree, Stephen (2008). Planting the Union Flag in Texas: The Campaigns of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks in the West. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 9781585446414. OCLC 153772989.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 3, Red River to Appomattox. New York: Random House, 1974. ISBN 0-394-74913-8.
- Hearn, Chester (2000) . When the Devil Came Down to Dixie: Ben Butler in New Orleans. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 9780807126233. OCLC 45756792.
- Lossing, Benson John and William Barritt. Pictorial history of the civil war in the United States of America, Volume 1. Philadelphia, George W. Childs, 1866. OCLC 1007582. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Parton, James. Butler in New Orleans. New York: Mason Brothers, 1863.
- Poland, Jr., Charles P. The Glories Of War: Small Battles and Early Heroes Of 1861. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 1-4184-5973-9.
- Quarstein, John V. and Dennis P. Mroczkowski. Fort Monroe: the Key to the South. Charleston, SC: Tempus Publications, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7385-0114-7.
- Quarstein, John V (2011). Big Bethel: The First Battle. Charleston, SC: History Press. ISBN 9781609493547. OCLC 710903915.
- Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Rum, Romanism & Rebellion: The Making of a President, 1884. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-8078-2524-2.
- Trefousse, Hans L (1957). Ben Butler: The South Called Him Beast!. New York: Twayne. OCLC 371213.
- Trefousse, Hans L (1969). The Radical Republicans: Lincoln's Vanguard for Racial Justice. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. OCLC 170051.
- Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
- West, Richard Sedgewick (1865). Lincoln's Scapegoat General: A Life of Benjamin F. Butler, 1818–1893. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 241783.
- Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963. ISBN 0-8071-0834-0.
- Benjamin Butler (politician) at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved on 2008-02-12
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Benjamin Franklin Butler (politician)|
- Benjamin F. Butler in Encyclopedia Virginia
- Story of the bust of Butler at the Smithsonian Institution
- Image of Benjamin Butler from "1888 Presidential Possibilities" card set
- Private and official correspondence of Gen. Benjamin F. Butler : during the period of the Civil War Vol. I at archive.org,Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV, Vol. V
- Official Massachusetts biography
- Goodheart, Adam (April 1, 2011). "How Slavery Really Ended in America". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011. Account of Butler's sheltering of slaves at Fort Monroe.
|Commander of the Army of the James
April 28, 1864 – January 8, 1865
|United States House of Representatives|
John B. Alley
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 5th congressional district
March 4, 1867 – March 4, 1873
Daniel W. Gooch
Nathaniel P. Banks
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 6th congressional district
March 4, 1873 – March 4, 1875
John K. Tarbox
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 7th congressional district
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1879
William A. Russell
John D. Long
|Governor of Massachusetts
January 4, 1883 – January 3, 1884
George D. Robinson
|Party political offices|
James Baird Weaver
|Greenback Party presidential candidate