Benjamin Robbins Curtis

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Benjamin Robbins Curtis
BRCurtis.jpg
Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
In office
September 22, 1851[1] – September 30, 1857
Nominated by Millard Fillmore
Preceded by Levi Woodbury
Succeeded by Nathan Clifford
Personal details
Born (1809-11-04)November 4, 1809
Watertown, Massachusetts
Died September 15, 1874(1874-09-15) (aged 64)
Newport, Rhode Island
Religion Unitarian, then Episcopalian

Benjamin Robbins Curtis (November 4, 1809 – September 15, 1874) was an American attorney and United States Supreme Court Justice.

Curtis was the first and only Whig justice of the Supreme Court. He was also the first Supreme Court justice to have a formal legal degree and is the only justice to have resigned from the court over a matter of principle. He successfully acted as chief counsel for President Andrew Johnson during the first presidential impeachment trial and is notable as one of the two dissents in the Dred Scott decision.[2]

Biography[edit]

Benjamin Curtis was born November 4, 1809 in Watertown, Massachusetts, the son of Lois Ribbins and Benjamin Curtis, the captain of a merchant vessel. Young Curtis attended common school in Newton and beginning in 1825 Harvard College, where he won an essay writing contest in his junior year. He graduated in 1829, a member of Phi Beta Kappa.[3] He subsequently graduated from Harvard Law School in 1831 and was admitted to the bar the following year.

In 1834, he moved to Boston where he joined the law firm of Charles P Curtis Esquire.

In 1836, Curtis participated in the Massachusetts "freedom suit" of Commonwealth v. Aves on behalf of the defendant.[4] When New Orleans resident Mary Slater went to Boston to visit her father, Thomas Aves, she brought with her a young slave girl about six years of age, named Med. While in Boston, Slater fell ill and asked her father to take care of Med until she (Slater) recovered. The Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society and others sought a writ of habeas corpus against Aves, contending that Med became free by virtue of her mistress' having brought her voluntarily into Massachusetts. Aves responded to the writ, answering that Med was his daughter's slave, and that he was holding Med as his daughter's agent. Curtis was one of the attorneys who argued the case on behalf of Aves.

The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, through its Chief Justice, Lemuel Shaw, ruled that Med was free, and made her a ward of the court. The Massachusetts decision was considered revolutionary at the time. While previous decisions ruled that slaves voluntarily brought into a free state, and who resided there many years, became free, Aves was the first decision which held that a slave voluntarily brought into a free state became free from the first moment of arrival. The decision in this freedom suit engendered controversy and helped to alienate the South. It was in contrast to the Dred Scott decision, in which Curtis participated as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.[5]

Curtis became a Harvard Fellow in February 1846. In 1849, he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives.[6] Appointed chairman of a committee to reform state judicial procedures, they presented the Massachusetts Practice Act of 1851. "It was considered a model of judicial reform and was approved by the legislature without amendment."[7]

At the time, Curtis was viewed as a rival to Rufus Choate, and was thought to be the preeminent leader of the New England bar. He came from a politically connected family, and had studied under Joseph Story and John Hooker Ashmun[8] at Harvard Law School. His legal arguments were thought to be well-reasoned and persuasive. He was a Whig and in tune with their politics, and Whigs were in power. As a potential young appointee, he was thought to be the seed of a long and productive judicial career. He was appointed by the president, approved by the Senate, elevated to the bench, but was gone in six years.[9]

Curtis had 12 children and was three times married.[10]

Supreme Court service[edit]

Curtis received a recess appointment to the Supreme Court on September 22, 1851 by President Millard Fillmore, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Levi Woodbury. Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster persuaded Fillmore to nominate Curtis to the Supreme Court, and was his primary sponsor.[10] Formally nominated on December 11, 1851, Curtis was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 20, 1851, and received his commission the same day. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1854.[11]

He was the first Supreme Court Justice to have earned a law degree from a law school — his predecessors had either "read law" (a form of apprenticeship in a practicing firm) or had attended a law school without receiving a degree.[10][12]

His opinion in Cooley v. Board of Wardens 53 U.S. 299 (1852)[13] held that the Commerce Power extends to laws related to pilotage. States laws related to commerce powers can be valid so long as Congress is silent on the matter. This resolved a historic controversy over federal interstate commerce powers. To this day, it is an important precedent for resolving disputes.[10] The court interpreted Art. I, section 8, clause 3 of the Constitution, the Commerce Clause. The issue was whether states could regulate aspects of commerce or whether Congress retained exclusive jurisdiction to regulate commerce. Curtis concluded that the federal government enjoyed exclusive power to regulate commerce only when the thing regulated required national uniformity. Otherwise, states were permitted to regulate commerce.[12]

Curtis was notable as one of the two dissenters in the Dred Scott case, where he disagreed with essentially every holding of the court, and argued against the majority's denial of the slave Scott's bid for emancipation. See, dissenting opinion of Justice Benjamin Curtis, wherein he stated that there were African American citizens in both Southern and Northern states at the time: Therefore, they were among the "people of the United States" whom the Constitution addressed. Curtis also opined that since the majority had found that Scott lacked standing, the Court had no power to rule on the merits of his case.[10]

Curtis resigned from the court on September 30, 1857, because of the bitter feelings engendered by the Scott case.[12][14]

Others view the cause of his resignation as having been temperamental and financial. He did not like "riding the circuit" as Supreme Court Justices were then required to do. He was temperamentally estranged from the court, and was not inclined to work with others—he was not a 'team player', at least not on that team. The acrimony over the Dred Scott decision had blossomed into mutual distrust. He did not want to live on $6,500 per year, an amount much less than his earnings in private practice.[15][16][17]

Another source states, “a bitter disagreement and coercion by Roger Taney prompted Benjamin Curtis's departure from the Court in 1857."[18]

Although he remained on the Court for only six years, Curtis is generally considered to have been the only outstanding justice on the Taney Court in its later years, other than Taney himself.[10] He is the only Justice of the Supreme Court to have resigned on a matter of principle.[10]

Return to private practice[edit]

Upon his resignation, Curtis returned to his Boston law practice, becoming a "leading lawyer" in the nation. During the ensuing decade and a half, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court.[8]

In 1868, Curtis acted as chief counsel for President Andrew Johnson during the impeachment trial. He read the answer to the articles of impeachment, and it was "largely his work." His opening statement lasted two days, and was commended for legal prescience and clarity.[8][19] He successfully persuaded the Senate that an impeachment was a judicial act, not a political act, so that it required a full hearing of evidence. This precedent "influenced every subsequent impeachment."[10][12]

After the impeachment trial, Curtis declined President Andrew Johnson's offer of the position of U.S. Attorney General.[8] A highly recommended candidate for the Chief Justice position upon the death of Salmon P. Chase, Curtis did not receive the appointment.[8] He was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for U. S. senator from Massachusetts in 1874.[19] From his retirement from the bench in 1857 to his death in 1874, his aggregate professional income was about $650,000.[8]

Death and legacy[edit]

Curtis died in Newport, Rhode Island on September 15, 1874. He is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery, 580 Mount Auburn Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts.[20][21][22]

Curtis' daughter, Annie Wroe Scollay Curtis, married (on December 9, 1880) future Columbia University President and New York Mayor, Seth Low.[23] They had no children.

Published works[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Federal Judicial Center: Benjamin Robbins Curtis". 2009-12-09. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  2. ^ Famous Dissents - Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) PBS. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
  3. ^ Supreme Court Justices Who Are Phi Beta Kappa Members, Phi Beta Kappa website, accessed Oct 4, 2009
  4. ^ Commonwealth v. Aves, 18 Pick. 193 (Mass. 1836).
  5. ^ "Commonwealth v. Aves", retrieved 11-26-10
  6. ^ The Political Graveyard
  7. ^ Benjamin Robbins Curtis, Timeline of the Court, Supreme Court Historical Society.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Judge Benjamin R. Curtis, A Memoir of Benjamin Robbins Curtis, LL.D. With Some of his Professional and Miscellaneous Writings, Edited by Benjamin R. Curtis, Jr. (October 19, 1879). New York Times, New Publications,
  9. ^ Leach, Richard H. "Benjamin Robins Curtis, Judicial Misfit", The New England Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Dec., 1952), pp. 507-523
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Fox, John. "The First Hundred Years: Biographies of the Robes, Benjamin Robinson Curtis". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved May 13, 2012. .
  11. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter C". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d Benjamin Curtis at the Wayback Machine (archived July 24, 2008) michaelariens.com Archived July 24, 2008.
  13. ^ Cornell Law School, full text of Cooley v. Board of Wardens 53 U.S. 299 (1852).
  14. ^ Roger B. Taney at the Wayback Machine (archived May 16, 2008) michaelariens.com.
  15. ^ Friedman, Leon, and Fred L. Israel, eds. The Justices of the Supreme Court, 1789–1969: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Vol II. 1969. pp. 904–05.
  16. ^ Dickerman, Albert. "The Business of the Federal Courts and the Salaries of the Judges", 24 American Law Review 1 (Jan.–Feb. 1890). p. 86.
  17. ^ Van Tassel, Emily Field; Wirtz, Beverly Hudson; & Wonders, Peter, Why Judges Resign: Influences on Federal Judicial Service,1789 to 1992, pp. 13, 66, 123, 130, National Commission on Judicial Discipline and Removal, Federal Judicial Center
  18. ^ Vining Jr., Richard L.; Smelcer, Susan Navarro; Zorn, Christopher J. Emory, "Judicial Tenure on the U.S. Supreme Court, 1790-1868: Frustration, Resignation, and Expiration on the Bench", Public Law Research Paper, No. 06-10, January 26, 2010, pp. 9, 10
  19. ^ a b c Wilson, James Grant. "Benjamin Robbins Curtis", Appletons Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Christensen, George A. (1983) Here Lies the Supreme Court: Gravesites of the Justices, Yearbook at the Wayback Machine (archived September 3, 2005) Supreme Court Historical Society.
  21. ^ Benjamin Robbins Curtis memorial at Find a Grave.
  22. ^ Christensen, George A., Here Lies the Supreme Court: Revisited, Journal of Supreme Court History, Volume 33 Issue 1, Pages 17 - 41 (Feb 19, 2008), University of Alabama.
  23. ^ "Seth Low" by Gerald Kurland, New York, Twayne Publishers, 1971

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by
Levi Woodbury
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
September 22, 1851 – September 30, 1857
Succeeded by
Nathan Clifford