Benkovac

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Benkovac
Town
Street in Benkovac
Street in Benkovac
Benkovac is located in Croatia
Benkovac
Benkovac
Location of Benkovac in Croatia
Coordinates: 44°02′04″N 15°36′46″E / 44.03444°N 15.61278°E / 44.03444; 15.61278
Country Croatia
County Zadar
Government
 • Mayor Branko Kutija (HDZ)
Area
 • Total 514 km2 (198 sq mi)
Population (2001)[1]
 • Total 9,786
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website http://www.benkovac-bastina.net
Serb Orthodox church
the Benkovac municipality within the Zadar County

Benkovac is a town and municipality in the interior of Zadar County, Croatia.

Geography[edit]

Benkovac is located where the plain of Ravni Kotari and the karstic plateau of Bukovica meet, 20 km from the town of Biograd na Moru and 30 km from Zadar. The Zagreb-Split motorway and Zadar-Knin railway pass through the town. It borders the municipalities of Novigrad, Posedarje, Obrovac, Lišane Ostrovičke, Kistanje and Stankovci.

Demography[edit]

According to the 2001 census, the municipality had 9,786 inhabitants of which 90.4% were Croats and 7.5% Serbs. Before the war in Croatia, Serbs made up about 57%, and Croats about 41%, however Croats only held 18% of the jobs in the local government,[2] which led to high tensions in the 1990s. During the Operation Storm (Oluja), almost all of the Serbs fled,[3] and after the war many Bosnian Croat refugees settled the area.

According to the Austrian Census in 1900, the town of Benkovac consisted of 356 Catholics and 156 Orthodox, with area surrounding Benkovac it included 8,119 Catholics and 5,981 Orthodox. [1] The 1910 census recorded a total of 810 residents, 388 of which were Catholic and 422 Orthodox. Both censuses were conducted according to religion and language (Serbo-Croatian).

The population of Benkovac itself is 2,622 (census 2001), the rest is distributed in 38 villages surrounding it.

History[edit]

The first traces of human life in the Benkovac area were found around the village of Smilčić that belonged to the Danilo culture. Before Roman conquest the area was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians. During the Roman Civil war the Liburnians sided with Caesar. The Romans mention the following Liburnian settlements :Nedinum (Nadin), Carinium (Karin), Varvaria (Bribir) and Asseria (Podgrađe). In 7th century the area was settled by Croats. The area of Benkovac was at the crossroads of four Croatian župas - Novljanska, Sidraška, Bribirska and Karinska. Near the village of Šopot, an inscription from the 9th century was found that mentions Branimir as a Croatian Duke.

In 1409 King Ladislaus of Naples sold his rights of Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice and the Benkovac area became a border region. New fortresses around the border were built - Korlat, Kličevica, Polača, and behind them Benković i Perušić. The fortress of Benković was named after the family of nobles that built it and the city of Benkovac was established. In 1527 Benkovac became part of the Ottoman Empire. It was soon settled by Croats-Bunjevci and Orthodox Serbs & Vlahs. In 1683 Benkovac became part of the Venice Republic.

Until 1918, the town (with bilingual name BENKOVAC - BENCOVAZ) was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), in the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Dalmatia.[4] The name was BENCOVACZ before 1867.[5]

From 1929 to 1939, Benkovac was part of the Littoral Banovina and from 1939 to 1941 of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The area was bombed by the Allies during World War II.[6]

During the Croatian War of Independence, Benkovac was a center of unrest and hostilities between Croats and Serbs. On March 17, 1990, tensions erupted when groups of local Serbs rebelled against the decision of the Croatian government to disarm local police in which Serbs were most of the employees. During that time Croatian government continued arming police force and paramilitary in villages with a Croatian majority. Tensions continued to boil, and five months later, Benkovac was included in the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Five years later on August 5, Benkovac was retaken by the Croatian army during Operation Storm.

Economy[edit]

Economy is based on agriculture especially viticulture and exploitation of wider known Benkovac building stone. Benkovac has also annual cattle fare and vinary.

Towns and villages[edit]

The following settlements are part of Benkovac:[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.dzs.hr/hrv/censuses/census2001/Popis/H01_01_03/h01_01_03_zup13-0175.html
  2. ^ Tanner, Marcus. Croatia: A nation forged in war. Yale University Press, 1997.
  3. ^ ICTY - Gotovina Case - Judgement Summary p. 3
  4. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  5. ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
  6. ^ Orao njivu u Nadinu pa naišao na avionsku bombu

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°02′04″N 15°36′46″E / 44.03444°N 15.61278°E / 44.03444; 15.61278