Bentham & Hooker system

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An early taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants was published in :

G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker (1862–1883). Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita (three volumes).  (available online at Gallica and the Biodiversity Heritage Library).

Summary[edit]

The system recognises the following main groups:

  • DICOTYLEDONUM POLYPETALE vol I
    Series 1. THALAMIFLORÆ
    Series 2. DISCIFLORÆ
    Series 3. CALYCIFLORÆ
  • DICOTYLEDONES GAMOPETALÆ vol II
    Series 1. INFERÆ
    Series 2. HETEROMERÆ
    Series 3. BICARPELLATÆ
  • DICOTYLEDONES MONOCHLAMIDEÆ vol III
  • GYMNOSPERMEÆ vol III (1)
  • MONOCOTYLEDONES vol III (2)

Families and orders in the Bentham & Hooker system[edit]

Note that this system was published well before there were internationally accepted rules for botanical nomenclature. It indicates a family by "ordo"; an order is indicated by "cohors" (in the first two volumes) or "series" (in the third volume); in the first two volumes “series” refers to a rank above that of order. Terminations for families are not what they are now. Neither of these phenomena is a problem from a nomenclatural perspective: the ICBN provides for this.

Dicotyledons[edit]

Dicotyledons

  • DICOTYLEDONUM POLYPETALARUM Vol I
    SERIES I THALAMIFLORÆ
    COHORS I. RANALES
    I. RANUNCULACEÆ
    II. DILLENIACEÆ
    III. CALYCANTHACEÆ
    IV. MAGNOLIACEÆ
    V. ANONACEÆ [sic]
    VI. MENISPERMACEÆ
    VII. BERBERIDACEÆ
    VIII. NYMPHÆACEÆ
    COHORS II. PARIETALES
    IX. SARRACENIACEÆ
    X. PAPAVERACEÆ
    XI. CRUCIFERÆ
    XII. CAPPARIDEÆ
    XIII. RESEDACEÆ
    XIV. CISTINEÆ
    XV. VIOLARIEÆ
    XVI. CANELLACEÆ
    XVII. BIXINEÆ
    COHORS III. POLYGALINÆ
    XVIII. PITTOSPOREÆ
    XIX. TREMANDREÆ
    XX. POLYGALÆ
    XXa. VOCHYSIACEÆ
    COHORS IV. CARYOPHYLLINÆ
    XXI. FRANKENIACEÆ
    XXII. CARYOPHYLLEÆ
    XXIII. PORTULACEÆ
    XIV. TAMARISCINEÆ
    COHORS V. GUTTIFERALES
    XXV. ELATINEÆ
    XXVI. HYPERICINEÆ
    XXVII. GUTTIFERÆ
    XXVIII. TERNSTROEMIACEÆ
    XXIX. DIPTEROCARPEÆ
    XXX. CHLENACEÆ
    COHORS VI. MALVALES
    XXXI. MALVACEÆ
    XXXII. STERCULIACEÆ
    XXXIII. TILIACEÆ
    SERIES II. DISCIFLORÆ
    COHORS VII. GERANIALES
    XXXIV LINEÆ
    XXXV. HUMIRIACEÆ
    XXXVI. MALPIGHIACEÆ
    XXXVII. ZYGOPHYLLEÆ
    XXXVIII. GERANIACEÆ
    XXXIX. RUTACEÆ
    XL. SIMARUBEÆ [sic]
    XLI. OCHNACEÆ
    XLII. BURSERACEÆ
    XLIII. MELIACEÆ
    XLIV. CHAILLETIACEÆ
    COHORS VIII. OLACALES
    XLV. OLACINEÆ
    XLVI. ILICINEÆ
    COHORS IX. CELASTRALES
    XLVII. CELASTRINEÆ
    LVII. LEGUMINOSÆ
    LVIII. ROSACEÆ
    LIX. SAXIFRAGEÆ
    LX. CRASSULACEÆ
    LXI. DROSERACEÆ
    LXII. HAMAMELIDEÆ
    LXIII. BRUNIACEÆ
    LXIV. HALORAGEÆ
    COHORS XII. MYRTALES
    LXV. RHIZOPHOREÆ
    LXVI. COMBRETACEÆ
    LXVII. MYRTACEÆ
    LXVIII. MELASTOMACEÆ
    LXIX. LYTHRARIEÆ
    LXX. ONAGRARIEÆ
    COHORS XIII. PASSIFLORALES
    LXXI. SAMYDACEÆ
    LXXII. LOASEÆ
    LXXIII. TURNERACEÆ
    LXXIV. PASSIFLOREÆ
    LXXV. CUCURBITACEÆ
    LXXVI. BEGONIACEÆ
    LXXVII. DATISCEÆ
    COHORS XIV. FICOIDALES
    LXXVIII. CACTEÆ
    LXXIX. FICIOIDEÆ
    COHORS XV. UMBELLALES
    LXXX. UMBELLIFERÆ
    LXXXI. ARALIACEÆ
    LXXXII. CORNACEÆ
  • DICOTYLEDONES GAMOPETALÆ vol II
    SERIES I. INFERÆ
    COHORS I. RUBIALES
    LXXXIII. CAPRIFOLIACEÆ
    LXXXIV. RUBIACEÆ
    COHORS II. ASTERALES
    LXXXV. VALERIANEÆ
    LXXXVI. DIPSACEÆ
    LXXXVII. CALCEREÆ
    LXXXVIII. COMPOSITÆ
    COHORS III. CAMPANALES
    LXXXIX. STYLIDIEÆ
    LC. GOODENOVIEÆ
    XCI. CAMPANULACEÆ
    SERIES II. HETEROMERÆ
    COHORS IV ERICALES
    XCII. VACCINIACEÆ
    XCIII. ERICACEÆ
    XCIV. MONOTROPEÆ
    XCV. EPACRIDEÆ
    XCVI. DIAPENSIACEÆ
    XCVII. LENNOACEÆ
    COHORS V. PRIMULALES
    XCVIII. PLUMBAGINEÆ
    XCIX. PRIMULACEÆ
    C. MYRSINEÆ
    COHORS VI. EBENALES
    CI. SAPOTACEÆ
    CII. EBENACEÆ
    CIII. STYRACEÆ
    SERIES III. BICAPELLATÆ
    COHORS VII. GENTIANALES
    CIV. OLEACEÆ
    CV. SALVADORACEÆ
    CVI. APOCYNACEÆ
    CVII. ASCLEPIADEÆ
    CVIII. LOGANIACEÆ
    CIX. GENTIANEÆ
    COHORS VIII. POLEMONIALES
    CX. POLEMONIACEÆ
    CXI. HYDROPHYLLACEÆ
    CXII. BORAGINEÆ
    CXIII. CONVOLVULACEÆ
    CXIV. SOLANACEÆ
    COHORS IX. PERSONALES
    CXV. SCROPHULARINEÆ
    CXVI. OROBRANCHACEÆ
    CXVII. LENTIBULARIEÆ
    CXVIII. COLUMELLIACEÆ
    CXIX. GESNERACEÆ [sic]
    CXX. BIGNONIACEÆ
    CXXI. PEDALINEÆ
    CXXII. ACANTHACEÆ
    COHORS X. LAMIALES
    CXXIII. MYOPORINEÆ
    CXXIV. SELAGINEÆ
    CXXV. VERBENACEÆ
    CXXVI. LABIATÆ
    incertae sedis
    CXXVII. PLANTAGINEÆ
  • DICOTYLEDONES MONOCHLAMIDEÆ vol III
    Series I. Curvembryeæ
    CXXVIII. NYCTAGINEÆ
    CXXIX. ILLECEBRACEÆ
    CXXX. AMARANTACEÆ [sic]
    CXXXI. CHENOPODIACEÆ
    CXXXII. PHYTOLACCACEÆ
    CXXXIII. BATIDEÆ
    CXXXIV. POLYGONACEÆ
    Series II. Multiovulatæ Aquaticæ
    CXXXV. PODOSTEMONACEÆ
    Series III. Multiovulatæ Terrestres
    CXXXVI. NEPENTHACEÆ
    CXXXVII. CYTINACEÆ
    CXXXVIII. ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ
    Series IV. Micrembryeæ
    CXXXIX. PIPERACEÆ
    CXL. CHLORANTACEÆ
    CXLI. MYRISTICEÆ
    CXLII. MONIMIACEÆ
    Series V. Daphnales
    CXLIII. LAURINEÆ
    CXLIV. PROTEACEÆ
    CXLV. THYMELÆACEÆ
    CXLVI. PENÆACEÆ
    CXLVII. ELÆAGNACEÆ
    Series VI. Achlamydosporeæ
    CXLVIII. LORANTHACEÆ
    CXLIX. SANTALACEÆ
    CL. BALANOPHOREÆ
    Series VII. Unisexuales
    CLI. EUPHORBIACEÆ
    CLII. BALANOPEÆ
    CLIII. URTICACEÆ
    CLIV. PLATANACEÆ
    CLV. LEITNERIEÆ
    CLVI. JUGLANDEÆ
    CLVII. MYRICACEÆ
    CLVIII. CASUARINEÆ
    CLIX. CUPULIFERÆ
    Series VIII. Ordines anomali (incertae sedis)
    CLX. SALICINEÆ
    CLXI. LACISTEMACEÆ
    CLXII. EMPETRACEÆ
    CLXIII. CERATOPHYLLEÆ
  • GYMNOSPERMEÆ [sic] vol III (1)
    CLXIV. GNETACEÆ
    CLXV. CONIFERÆ
    CLXVI. CYCADACEÆ

Monocotyledons[edit]

Monocotyledons

  • Summary pp viii-xi
  • MONOCOTYLEDONES vol III (2) p. 448

Series I. Microspermæ p. 448[edit]

  • CLXVII. HYDROCHARIDEÆ p. 448
    CLXVIII. BURMANNIACEÆ
    CLXIX. ORCHIDEÆ p. 460

Series II Epigynæ p. 636[edit]

  • CLXX. SCITAMINEÆ p. 636
    CLXXI. BROMELIACEÆ p. 657
    CLXXII. HAEMODORACEÆ p. 671
    CLXXIII. IIRIDEÆ p. 681
    CLXXIV. AMARYLLIDEÆ p. 711 5 subtribes
    I Tribus Hypoxideae p. 716
    II Tribus Amarylleae p. 718
    III Tribus Alstroemerieae p. 735
    IV Tribus Agaveae p. 737
    V Tribus Vellosieae p. 739
    CLXXV. TACCACEÆ p. 740
    CLXXVI. DIOSCOREACEÆ p. 741

Series III Coronarieæ p. 746[edit]

  • CLXXVII. ROXBURGHIACEÆ p. 746
    CLXXVIII. LILIACEÆ p. 748 (20 tribes) Schema 748-763
    Tribus I Smilaceae p. 763
    Tribus II Asparageae p. 764
    Tribus III Luzuriageae
    Tribus IV Polygonateae p. 768
    Tribus V Convallariae
    Tribus VI Aspidistreae
    Tribus VII Hemerocalleae
    Tribus VIII Aloineae
  • ...
    Tribus X Asphodeleae p. 781 5 subtribes
    Tribus XI Johnsonieae p. 795
    Tribus XII Allieae p. 798 Schema p. 750 4 subtribes
    Subtribus I Agapantheae p. 798
    Subtribus II Euallieae p. 798
    Subtribus III Gilliesieae p. 804
    Subtribus IV Massonieae p. 806
    Tribus XIII Scilleae p. 807
    Tribus XIV Tulipeae p. 816
    Tribus XV Colchiceae
  • ...
    Tribus XX Veratreae p. 834
    CLXXIX. PONTEDERIACEÆ p. 836
    CLXXX. PHILYDRACEÆ p. 840
    CLXXXI. XYRIDEÆ p. 841
    CLXXXII. MAYACEÆ p. 843
    CLXXXIII. COMMELINACEÆ p. 844
    CLXXXIV. RAPATEACEÆ p. 857

Series VI Calycineæ p. 860[edit]

  • CLXXXV. FLAGELLARIEÆ
    CLXXXVI. JUNCACEÆ
    CLXXXVII. PALMÆ

Series V. Nudifloreæ p. 949[edit]

  • CLXXXVIII. PANDANEÆ
    CLXXXIX. CYCLANTHACEÆ
    CXC TYPHACEÆ
    CXCI. AROIDEÆ
    CXCII. LEMNACEÆ p. 1000

Series VI. Apocarpæ p.1001[edit]

  • CXCIII. TRIURIDEÆ
    CXCIV. ALISMACEÆ p. 1003
    CXCV. NAIADACEÆ [sic]

Series VII. Glumaceæ p. 1019[edit]

  • CXCVI. ERIOCAULEÆ
    CXCVII. CENTROLEPIDEÆ p. 1025
    CXCVIII. RESTIACEÆ
    CXCIX. CYPERACEÆ
    CC. GRAMINEÆ

See also[edit]