|Molar mass||108.14 g·mol−1|
|Density||1.044 g cm−3|
|Melting point||−15.2 °C (4.6 °F; 257.9 K)|
|Boiling point||205.3 °C (401.5 °F; 478.4 K)|
|3.50 g/100 mL (20 °C)
4.29 g/100 mL (25 °C)
|Solubility||soluble in benzene, methanol, chloroform, ethanol, ether, acetone|
|Vapor pressure||0.18 kPa (60 °C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|Dipole moment||1.67 D|
|217.8 J/K mol|
Std enthalpy of
|Flash point||101 °C (214 °F; 374 K)|
|436 °C (817 °F; 709 K)|
LD50 (Median lethal dose)
|1250 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often abbreviated "Bn" (not to be confused with "Bz" which is used for benzoyl), thus benzyl alcohol is denoted as BnOH. Benzyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor. It is a useful solvent due to its polarity, low toxicity, and low vapor pressure. Benzyl alcohol is partially soluble in water (4 g/100 mL) and completely miscible in alcohols and diethyl ether.
- C6H5CH2Cl + NaOH → C6H5CH2OH + NaCl
- C6H5CH2OH + NCCHCH2 → C6H5CH2N(H)C(O)CHCH2
Benzyl alcohol is used as a general solvent for inks, paints, lacquers, and epoxy resin coatings. It is also a precursor to a variety of esters, used in the soap, perfume, and flavor industries. It is also used as a photographic developer.
Use in health care
Benzyl alcohol is used as a bacteriostatic preservative at low concentration in intravenous medications, cosmetics and topical drugs.
Benzyl alcohol has nearly the same refraction index of quartz and wool fibre. If a clear quartz object is immersed in benzyl alcohol, it becomes almost invisible. This has been used as a method to non-destructively recognize if an object is made of true quartz or not (see crystal skull). Similarly, white wool immersed in benzyl alcohol also becomes almost invisible clearly revealing contaminants such as dark and medullated fibres and vegetable matter.
Benzyl alcohol is only a mild acute toxin with an LD50 of 1.2 g/kg in rats. It oxidizes rapidly in healthy individuals to benzoic acid, conjugated with glycine in the liver, and excreted as hippuric acid. Very high concentrations can result in toxic effects including respiratory failure, vasodilation, hypotension, convulsions, and paralysis.
Benzyl alcohol has been reported to cause skin allergy.
Benzyl alcohol is not considered to be a carcinogen and no data are available regarding teratogenic or reproductive effects.
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