Berar Subah

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Berar Subah
वर्हाड
Subah of the Mughal Empire

1596–1724
Capital Ellichpur
History
 -  Ceded to the Mughal emperor Akbar 1596
 -  The Nizam of Hyderabad becomes the de jure sovereign of Berar 1724
Area 29,340 km2 (11,328 sq mi)
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

The Berar Subah was one of the Subahs of the Mughal Empire in Dakhin (Deccan) from 1596 to 1724.

Origin of name[edit]

According to the Ain-i-Akbari, the original name of Berar was Waradatat (the banks of Varada River).[1]

History[edit]

Before the Mughal occupation, Berar was part of the Nizam Shahi sultanate of Ahmadnagar. It was ceded to the emperor Akbar by Chand Bibi in 1596, unable to stand against the imperial forces led by prince Murad. After this initial victory Prince Murad settled in Berar with Balapur as his headquarters. Near Balapur he founded a new city named Shahpur and constructed a beautiful palace for himself. As his relationship was deteriorating with Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, the commander of the army, Akbar recalled Khan-i-Khanan and sent his trusted friend Abul Fazl to help him. Murad died in 1598. After his death, Prince Daniel was given the charge as governor of Berar, Ahmadnagar and Khandesh, Khan-i- Khanan was sent along with Daniel. Akbar died in 1605.[2]

In 1611, the southern provinces of Ahmadnagar, Berar and Khandesh defied Mughal sovereignty under Malik Ambar. Jahangir sent Man Singh and others to crush the revolt. Man Singh died a natural death on 6 July 1614 at Ellichpur. During Jahangir’s rule, Malik Ambar till his death in 1626 recovered a substantial part of the Deccan from the Mughals including Berar. In 1628, the first year of reign of Shah Jahan, Berar again came under the Mughal sway.

In 1636, the Mughal possessions in Dakhin (Deccan) were divided into 4 Subahs. Berar was one of them with Ellichpur as its capital and Gavilgad as its main fort. Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of four Deccan Subahs for the first time and he occupied the post for eight years (till 1644). He was again appointed viceroy for the second time in 1653 and he remained in that post till 1657.[3] During Aurangzeb’s reign, Berar was successively overrun by the Maratha rulers Shambhaji in 1680 and Rajaram in 1698. In 1720, Maratha Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath obtained the grant of the right to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi from Berar from the Mughal emperor.

In 1724, when Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah declared independence, the existence of Berar as a Mughal Subah came to an end. It became (though nominally) a part of Nizam’s state.[4]

The Royal Mughal family of Berar[edit]

Royal title Mirza & Beg

  • His Highness Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of Emperor Mirza Azam
  • His Highness Prince Mohammed Beg Feroz Bakht Mirza, son of Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Bulaqui Mirza, son of Prince Mirza Feroz Bakht
  • His Highness Prince Sultan Bahaddur Aduli Mirza, son of Mirza Bulaqui Baig Bahaddur
  • His Highness Prince Sardar Baig Mirza, son of Aduli Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Qadar Baig Mirza, son of Aduli Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Hatam Baig Mirza, son of Sardar Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Umrao Baig Mirza, son of Sardar Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Hasan Baig Mirza, son of Umrao Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Alam Baig Mirza, son of Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince MuqadderBaig Mirza, son of Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Dr.Hasan Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Khaleeque Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince ADV.Wasique Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Saquib AlamBaig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince ADV.Anzar Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Fauwwaz Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Numan Baig Mirza, son of Dr. Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Afzal Baig Mirza, son of Khaleeque Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shahnawaz Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Muqadder Baig Mirza, son of Saquib Alam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mehboob Baig Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Qader Baig Mirza, son of Mehboob Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Roshan Baig Mirza, son of Mehboob Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shafaqat Baig Mirza, son of Qader Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sharafat Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shabaz Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sulaiman Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak I son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Rasheed son of Mirza Abdur Razzak
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak II a.k.a Mohammed Rizwan Mirza son of Mirza Abdul Rasheed
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Gibran son of Mohammed Rizwan Mirza

Genealogical Table[edit]

                                       MIRZA AZAM (alijah) s/o Aurangzeb(Subah BERAR Deccan)                              
     _______________(JAHAN ZEB BANU MOTHER d/o DaraShikoh& NadiraBanu)______     
    |                      |                   |                            |
   BEDAR BAKHT MIRZA     JAWAN BAKHT   SIKANDARSHAN MIRZA       NAJIBUNNISA BEUM
    |
   MIRZA FEROZ BAKHT (ADLI BEG)
    |_______________________________   
    |                               |   
   BULAQI BEG MIRZA                   ATIU BEG MIRZA
              |____________________________
              |                            |
              ADULI BEGMIRZ      GULAAQI BEG MIRZA    
                          |________________________                                 
                          |                        |
                          SARDAR BEG MIRZA      QADAR BEG MIRZA
                      ____________|_________________           
                     |                              |
               UMRAO BEG MIRZA              HATAMBEG MIRZA                 
                         |                          |
               HASAN BEG MIRZA              MEHBOOB BEG MIRZA_______________________________ 
                         |                                     |                            | 
                         |                                     QADAR BEG MIRZA        ROSHAN BEG MIRZA      
                _________|______________________________________________________       
               |                     |                    |                     |
    CHAND BEG MIRZA           RAHMAN BEG MIRZA    ALAM BEG MIRZA   MUQADDER BEG Mirza     

Administrative divisions[edit]

Berar came under Mughal administration in 1596. Todar Mal's famous system known as bandobast was made applicable to the Berar Subah.

The area of the Berar Subah during Akbar's reign was 72,000 sq. miles. According to Ain-i-Akbari, its northern limit was Handia, the eastern limit was the fort of Vairagad near Bastar, the southern limit was Telangana and the western limit was Mahkarabad. Ellichpur was the capital of the Subah. The important forts of the Subah were Gawilgad, Narnala, Pavanar, Khedala, Manikdurg and Mahur. It was divided into 13 sarkars consisting of 242 parganas.[5]

The sarkars and parganas of the Berar Subah (province) were:[6]

Sarkar (district) No. of Parganas (tehsil)
Gavil 46; Ellichpur was the capital of Berar
Khedala 35
Pavanar 5
Narnala 34
Kalamb 31
Washim 8
Mahur 20
Manikdurg 8
Pathri 18
Telangana 19
Ramgad 5
Mehkar 4
Baitulawadi 9

Economy[edit]

The jama (revenue assessed) from Berar in 1596 was 64,26,03,270 dams (Delhi).[7] Land revenue formed the major part of the total income from the Subah. Other sources of income were zakat, customs, salt tax, khums, mint, currency, jiziya, escheats, presents, octroi, tolls and tributes. The coins current were tanka-i-Barari, dam and Rupee. One tanka-i-Barari was equal to 16 Delhi dams[8] (but later raised to 24 dams) or eight Delhi tankas.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, p.236
  2. ^ "Wardha district e-gazetteer – administrative history". 
  3. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.143
  4. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 369
  5. ^ Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, pp.236-9
  6. ^ Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, pp.240-4
  7. ^ Habib, Irfan The Agrarain System of Mughal India 1556-1707, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1999 ISBN 0-19-565595-8, p.462
  8. ^ Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, p.239n

References[edit]

  • Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.