Berber languages

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This article is about the Amazigh language and its dialects as a whole. For other uses of the word "Tamazight", see Central Morocco Tamazight.
Berber
Tamaziɣt / Tamazight
Tamazight berber.svg
Ethnicity: Berber people (Imazighen)
Geographic
distribution:
North Africa, mainly Morocco and Algeria; smaller Berber-speaking populations in Libya, Mali, Niger, Tunisia, Burkina Faso, Egypt and Mauritania.
Sizable communities of speakers in: Belgium, France, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Canada, and the United States.
Linguistic classification: Afro-Asiatic
  • Berber
Proto-language: Proto-Berber
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-2 / 5: ber
Glottolog: berb1260[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
Berber-speaking populations are dominant in the colored areas of modern-day North Africa. The other areas of North Africa contain minority Berber-speaking populations.

Berber or the Berber languages or dialects (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]) are a family of similar and closely related languages and dialects indigenous to North Africa. They are spoken by large populations in Algeria and Morocco, and by smaller populations in Libya, Tunisia,[2] northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso, Mauritania, and in the Siwa Oasis of Egypt. Large Berber-speaking migrant communities have been living in Western Europe since the 1950s. In 2001, Berber became a constitutional national language of Algeria, and in 2011 Berber became a constitutionally official language of Morocco.

Berber constitutes a branch of the Afroasiatic language family,[3] and has been attested since ancient times. The number of ethnic Berbers is much higher than the number of Berber speakers. The bulk of the populations of the Maghreb countries are considered to have Berber ancestors. In Algeria, for example, a majority of the population consists of Arabized Berbers.[4]

There is a movement among speakers of the closely related varieties of Northern Berber to unite them under a standard language. The name Tamazight, originally the self-name in the Atlas and the Rif regions, is being increasingly used for this Standardized Berber, and even for Berber as a whole, including Tuareg-Berber.

About 90 percent of the Berber-speaking population speak one of six major varieties of Berber, each with at least two million speakers. They are, in the order of demographic weight: Tashelhit (Tacelḥit), Kabyle (Taqbaylit), Atlas Tamazight (Tamaziɣt), Riffian (Tamaziɣt/Tarifit), Shawi (Tacawit), Tuareg (Tamahaq/Tamaceq).

The Berber languages and dialects have had a written tradition, on and off, for over 2,200 years, although the tradition has been frequently disrupted by invasions. They were first written in the Tifinagh alphabet, still used by the Tuareg. The oldest dated inscription is from about 200 BCE. The Berber Latin alphabet was also used by most European and Berber linguists during the 19th and 20th centuries.

A modernized form of the Tifinagh alphabet was made official in Morocco in 2003. Algerians mostly use the Berber Latin alphabet. Mali and Niger recognize a Tuareg Berber Latin alphabet customized to the Tuareg phonological system. However, traditional Tifinagh is still used in those countries. Both Tifinagh and Berber-Latin alphabets are being increasingly used in Morocco and parts of Algeria .

Terminology[edit]

The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century, and is still used today. It was borrowed from either the Arabic designation for these populations, البربر, al-Barbar, see Berber (name); or from the Roman and Greek denominations of the Berber people "Barbaricae".

Etymologically, the Berber root Mazigh (singular noun Amazigh, feminine Tamazight) means "free man", "noble man", or "defender". The feminine Tamazight traditionally referred specifically to the Riffian and Central Morocco Tamazight dialects. Many Berber linguists prefer to consider the term "Tamazight" as a pure Berber word to be used only in Berber text; while using the European word "Berber/ Berbero/ Berbère" in European texts to follow the traditions of European writings about the Berbers. European languages distinguish between the words "Berber" and "barbaric", while Arabic has the same word "al-barbari" for both meanings.

Some other Berber writers, especially in Morocco, prefer to refer to Berber with "Amazigh" when writing about it in French or English.

Traditionally, the term "Tamazight" (in various forms: "thamazighth", "tamasheq", "tamajeq", "tamahaq") was used by many Berber groups to refer to the language they spoke, including the Middle Atlas, the Riffians, the Sened in Tunisia, and the Tuareg. However, other terms were used by other groups; for instance, some parts of Algeria called their language "Taznatit"( Zenati) or 'Shelha', while the Kabyles called theirs "Taqbaylit", the inhabitants of Siwa "Siwi". In Tunisia, the local Amazigh language is usually referred to as "Shelha", a term which has been observed in Morocco as well.[5]

One group, the Linguasphere Observatory, has attempted to introduce the neologism "Tamazic languages" to refer to the Berber languages.[citation needed]

Origin[edit]

Main article: Proto-Berber

Berber is a member of the Afroasiatic language family.

Since modern Berber languages are relatively homogeneous, the date of the Proto-Berber language from which the modern group is derived was probably comparatively recent, comparable to the age of the Germanic or Romance families. By contrast, the split of the group from the other Afro-Asiatic sub-phyla is much earlier, and is sometimes associated with the Mesolithic Capsian culture.[6]

Orthography[edit]

Berber language poetry in Arabic script with its translation in French
Document in Berber language of Jebel Nefousa - Libya
Main article: Berber orthography

There are a number of different scripts with which Berber languages may be written. The choice of writing system is often based on politics rather than practical considerations.[citation needed]

Status[edit]

After independence, all the Maghreb countries to varying degrees pursued a policy of Arabization, aimed partly at displacing French from its colonial position as the dominant language of education and literacy. Under this policy the use of the Amazigh / Berber languages was suppressed or even banned. This state of affairs has been contested by Berbers in Morocco and Algeria—especially Kabylie—and is now being addressed in both countries by introducing the Berber language in some schools and by recognizing Berber as a "national language" in Algeria,[7] though not as an official one. The 2011 constitution of Morocco makes "Amazight" an official language alongside Arabic. In Mali and Niger, there are a few schools that teach partially in Tamasheq.

Although Algeria considers Tamazight to be a national language, and regional councils in Libya's Nafusa Mountains affiliated with the National Transitional Council reportedly use the Berber dialect of Nafusi and have called for it to be granted co-official status with Arabic in a prospective new constitution,[8][9] Morocco is the only country where Tamazight is an official language.

As areas of Libya south and west of Tripoli such as the Nafusa Mountains were liberated from the control of forces loyal to Colonel Gaddafi in early summer 2011, Berber workshops and exhibitions sprang up to share and spread the Tamazight culture and language, after four decades during which there were severe punishments for speaking and writing Tamazight openly.[10]

On June 17, 2011, King Mohammed VI announced in a speech of new constitutional reform that "Tamazight" became an official language of Morocco alongside Arabic and will be used in all the administrations in the future.[11]

On April 30, 2012, Fatima Chahou, alias Tabaamrant, member of Morocco House of Representatives and famous former singer became the first one to ask questions and discuss the minister's answer in Tamazight inside the Parliament of Morocco.

Population[edit]

The exact population of Berber speakers is hard to ascertain, since most North African countries do not record language data in their censuses. The Ethnologue provides a useful academic starting point; however, its bibliographic references are inadequate, and it rates its own accuracy at only B-C for the area. Early colonial censuses may provide better documented figures for some countries; however, these are also very much out of date.

Few census figures are available; all countries (Algeria and Morocco included) do not count Berber languages. The 1972 Niger census reported Tuareg, with other languages, at 127,000 speakers. Population shifts in location and number, effects of urbanization and education in other languages, etc., make estimates difficult. In 1952, André Basset (LLB.4) estimated the number of Berberophones at 5,500,000. Between 1968 and 1978 estimates ranged from eight to thirteen million (as reported by Galand, LELB 56, pp. 107, 123-25); Voegelin and Voegelin (1977, p. 297) call eight million a conservative estimate. In 2006, Salem Chaker (fr) estimated that the Berberophone populations of Kabylie and the three Moroccan groups numbered more than one million each; and that in Algeria, 12,650,000, or one out of three Algerians, speak a Berber language (Chaker 1984, pp. 8–9).[12]
Map of Berber-speaking areas in Morocco
  • Morocco: In 1952, André Basset ("La langue berbère", Handbook of African Languages, Part I, Oxford) estimated that a "small majority" of Morocco's population spoke Berber. The 1960 census claimed that 34 percent of Moroccans spoke Berber, including bi-, tri-, and quadrilinguals.[citation needed] In 2000, Karl Prasse cited "more than half" in an interview conducted by Brahim Karada at Tawalt.com. According to the Ethnologue (by deduction from its Moroccan Arabic figures), the Berber-speaking population should be estimated at 35 percent or around 10.5 million speakers.[13] However, the figures it gives for individual languages only add up to 7.5 million, divided into three dialects:

A survey included in the official Moroccan census of 2004 and published by several Moroccan newspapers gave the following figures: 34 percent of people in rural regions spoke a Berber language and 21 percent in urban zones did, the national average would be 28.4 percent or 8.52 million.[20] It is possible, however, that the survey asked for the language "used in daily life" [21] which would result of course in figures clearly lower than those of native speakers, as the language is not recognized for official purposes and many Berbers who live in an Arabic-speaking environment cannot use it in daily life; also the use of Berber in public was frowned upon until the 1990s and might affect the result of the survey.[citation needed]

Adding up the population (according to the official census of 2004) of the Berber-speaking regions as shown on a 1973 map of the CIA results in at least 10 million speakers, not counting the numerous Berber population which lives outside these regions in the bigger cities.

Mohamed Chafik claims 80 percent of Moroccans are Berbers. It is not clear, however, whether he means "speakers of Berber languages" or "people of Berber descent".

The division of Moroccan Berber dialects in three groups, as used by The Ethnologue is common in linguistic publications, but is significantly complicated by local usage: thus Shilha is subdivided into Shilha of the Dra valley, Tasusit (the language of the Souss) and several other (mountain)-dialects. Moreover, linguistic boundaries are blurred, such that certain dialects cannot accurately be described as either Central Morocco Tamazight (spoken in the Central and eastern Atlas area) or Shilha.

  • Algeria: In 1906, the total population speaking Berber languages in Algeria (excluding the thinly populated Sahara) was estimated at 1,305,730 out of 4,447,149, i.e. 29 percent.
    Central / East part of Algeria.
    (Doutté & Gautier, Enquête sur la dispersion de la langue berbère en Algérie, faite par l'ordre de M. le Gouverneur Général, Alger 1913.) The 1911 census, however, found 1,084,702 speakers out of 4,740,526, i.e. 23 percent; Doutté & Gautier suggest that this was the result of a serious undercounting of Shawiya in areas of widespread bilingualism. A trend was noted for Berber groups surrounded by Arabic (as in Blida) to adopt Arabic, while Arabic speakers surrounded by Berber (as in Sikh ou Meddour near Tizi Ouzou) tended to adopt Berber. In 1952, André Basset estimated that about a third of Algeria's population spoke Berber. According to historian Charles-Robert Ageron in 1886, Algeria had around 1,2 million of Berber speakers and 1,1 million of Arab speakers. The Algerian census of 1966 found 2,297,997 out of 12,096,347 Algerians, or 19 percent, to speak "Berber". In 1980, Salem Chaker estimated that "in Algeria, 3,650,000, or one out of five Algerians, speak a Berber language" (Chaker 1984, pp. 8–9). According to the Ethnologue,[22] more recent estimates include 14 percent (corresponding to the total figures it gives for each Berber language added together, 4 million) and (by deduction from its Algerian Arabic figures) 29 percent (Hunter 1996). Most of these are accounted for by three dialects (percentages based on historical population data from appropriate dates):[23]
West / Central part of Algeria.
  • Kabyle: 2,540,000 = 9 percent (Ethnologue, 1995) – 6,000,000 = 20 percent (Ethnologue, 1998). Total for all countries (Ethnologue): 3,126,000. (Needless to say, the latter two figures, though cited by the same source, are mutually contradictory.) Mainly in Algiers, Bejaia, Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Setif and Boumerdes.
  • Shawiya: ~ 2 million as of 2005,[24] equivalent to 8.5 percent of the population. Mainly in Batna, Khenchela, Sétif, Souk Ahras, Oum-El-Bouaghi, Tebessa.
  • Shenwa, in the Dahra region, more precisely Jebel Chenoua in Algeria, just west of Algiers in the wilayas of Tipasa, the Chlef and Ain Defla. It is estimated at 56,300 speakers. Two main dialects: Beni Menacer, west and south of Mount Chenoua area, in Mount Chenoua area, 55,250 speakers.
A fourth group, despite a very small population, accounts for most of the land area where Berber is spoken:
  • Tuareg 25,000 in Algeria (Ethnologue, 1987), mainly in the Ahaggar mountains of the Sahara. Most Tuareg live in Mali and Niger (see below).

Other Berber dialects spoken in Algeria include: the Tamazight of Blida, the dialects of the Beni Snouss and Beni Bousaid villages in the wilaya of Tlemcen, the Matmata Berber spoken in the Ouarsenis region, the Mozabite language spoken in the wilaya of Mzab region, the dialect of the Ouargla oasis.

  • Tunisia: Basset (1952) estimated about 1 percent, as did Penchoen (1968). According to the Ethnologue, there are only 26,000 speakers (1998) of a Berber language it calls "Djerbi", but which Tunisians call "Shelha", in Tunisia, all in the south around Djerba and Matmata. The more northerly enclave of Sened apparently no longer speaks Berber. This would make 0.3 percent of the population.
  • Libya: According to the Ethnologue (by deduction from its combined Libyan Arabic and Egyptian Arabic figures) the non-Arabic-speaking population, most of which would be Berber, is estimated at 4 percent (1991, 1996). However, the individual language figures it gives add up to 162,000, i.e. about 3 percent. This is mostly accounted for by the languages:
  • Egypt: The oasis of Siwa near the Libyan border speaks a Berber language; according to the Ethnologue, there are 5,000 speakers there (1995). Its population in 1907 was 3884 (according to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica); the claimed lack of increase seems surprising.
  • Mauritania: According to the Ethnologue, only 200-300 speakers of Zenaga remain (1998). It also mentions Tamasheq, but does not provide a population figure for it. Most non-Arabic speakers in Mauritania speak Niger–Congo languages.
  • Mali: The Ethnologue counts 440,000 Tuareg (1991) speaking:
Tamasheq: 250,000
Tamajaq: 190,000
  • Niger: The Ethnologue counts 720,000 Tuareg (1998) speaking:
Tawallamat Tamajaq: 450,000
Tayart Tamajeq: 250,000
Tamahaq: 20,000
  • Burkina Faso: The Ethnologue counts 20,000–30,000 Tuareg (SIL 1991), speaking Kel Tamasheq. However the Ethnologue is very inaccurate here appearing to miss the largest group of Tamasheq in Burkina in the province of Oudalan. The Tamasheq speaking population of Burkina is nearer to 100,000 (2005), with around 70,000 Tamasheq speakers in the province of Oudalan, the rest mainly in Seno, Soum, Yagha, Yatenga and Kadiogo provinces. About 10 percent of Burkina Tamasheq speak a version of the Tawallamat dialect.
  • Nigeria: The Ethnologue notes the presence of "few" Tuareg, speaking Tawallamat Tamajaq.
  • France: The Ethnologue lists 860,000 speakers for Riffian and 537,000 speakers for Kabyle, 150,000 for Central Morocco Tamazight, and no figures for Shilha. For the rest of Europe, it has no figures.
  • Spain: Tamazight is spoken amongst Melilla's 80,000 inhabitants but there has been no census as to the percentage of its speakers. A minority of Ceuta's inhabitants speak Berber.[26]
  • Israel: Around two thousand mostly elderly Moroccan-born Israelis of Berber Jewish descent use Judeo-Berber dialects (as opposed to Moroccan Jews who trace descent from Spanish-speaking Sephardi Jews expelled from Spain, or Arabic-speaking Moroccan Jews).

Thus, judging by the not necessarily reliable Ethnologue, the total number of speakers of Berber languages in the Maghreb proper appears to lie anywhere between 16 and 25 million, depending on which estimate is accepted; if we take Basset's estimate, it could be as high as 30 million. The vast majority are concentrated in Morocco and Algeria. The Tuareg of the Sahel add another million or so.

Grammar[edit]

Kabylian manuscript on the 18th century

Nouns[edit]

Nouns in the Berber languages vary in gender (masculine versus feminine), in number (singular versus plural) and in state (free state versus construct state). In the case of the masculine, nouns generally begin with one of the three vowels of Berber, a, u or i (in standardised orthography, e represents a schwa [ə] inserted for reasons of pronunciation):

afus "hand"
argaz "man"
udem "face"
ul "heart"
ixef "head"
iles "tongue"

While the masculine is unmarked, the feminine (also used to form diminutives and singulatives, like an ear of wheat) is marked with the circumfix t...t. Feminine plural takes a prefix t...:

afus → tafust
udem → tudemt
ixef → tixeft
ifassen → tifassin

Berber languages have two types of number: singular and plural, of which only the latter is marked. Plural has three forms according to the type of nouns. The first, "regular" type is known as the "external plural"; it consists in changing the initial vowel of the noun, and adding a suffix -n:

afus → ifassen "hands"
argaz → irgazen "men"
ixef → ixfawen "heads"
ul → ulawen "hearts"

The second form of the plural is known as the "broken plural". It involves only a change in the vowels of the word:

adrar → idurar "mountain"
agadir → igudar "wall / castle"
abaghus → ibughas "monkey"

The third type of plural is a mixed form: it combines a change of vowels with the suffix -n:

izi → izan "(the) fly"
azur → izuran "roof"
iziker → izakaren "rope"

Berber languages also have two types of states or cases of the noun, organized ergatively: one is unmarked, while the other serves for the subject of a transitive verb and the object of a preposition, among other contexts. The former is often called free state, the latter construct state. The construct state of the noun derives from the free state through one of the following rules: The first involves a vowel alternation, whereby the vowel a becomes u:

argaz → urgaz
amghar → umghar
adrar → udrar

The second involves the loss of the initial vowel, in the case of some feminine nouns:

tamghart → temghart "woman / mature woman"
tamdint → temdint "town"
tarbat → terbat "girl"

The third involves the addition of a semi-vowel (w or y) word-initially:

asif → wasif "river"
aḍu → waḍu "wind"
iles → yiles "tongue"
uccen → wuccen "wolf"

Finally, some nouns do not change for free state:

taddart → taddart "house / village"
tuccent → tuccent "female wolf"

The following table gives the forms for the noun amghar "old man / leader":

masculine feminine
default agent default agent
singular amghar umghar tamghart temghart
plural imgharen yimgharen timgharin temgharin

Pronouns[edit]

Berber pronouns show gender distinction in the second- and third-persons, but in verbal agreement markers, the distinction is lost in the second-person[27]

Subclassification[edit]

Modern Berber languages

There is so little data available on Guanche that any classification is necessarily uncertain; however, it is almost universally acknowledged as Afro-Asiatic on the basis of the surviving glosses, and widely suspected to be Berber. Much the same can be said of the language, sometimes called "Numidian", used in the Libyan or Libyco-Berber inscriptions around the turn of the Common Era, whose alphabet is the ancestor of Tifinagh.

A listing of the other Berber languages is complicated by their closeness; there is little distinction between language and dialect. The primary difficulty of subclassification, however, list in the eastern Berber languages, where there is little agreement. Otherwise there is consensus on the outlines of the family:

The various classifications differ primarily in what they consider to be Eastern Berber, and in how many varieties they recognize as distinct languages.

Kossman (1999)[edit]

Maarten Kossmann (1999) describes Berber as two dialect continua,

plus a few peripheral languages, spoken in isolated pockets largely surrounded by Arabic, that fall outside these continua, namely

  • Zenaga and
  • the Libyan and Egyptian varieties.

Within Northern Berber, however, he recognizes a break in the continuum between Zenati and their non-Zenati neighbors; and in the east, he recognizes a division between Ghadamès and Awjila on the one hand and Sokna (Fuqaha, Libya), Siwa, and Djebel Nefusa on the other. The implied tree is:

Ethnologue[edit]

The Ethnologue, mostly following Aikhenvald and Militarev (1991), treats the eastern varieties differently:

Blench (2006)[edit]

Blench (ms, 2006) has the following classification:[28]

and within Berber,

Influence on other languages[edit]

The Berber languages have influenced Maghrebi Arabic dialects, such as Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian Arabic. Their influence is also seen in some languages in Sub-Saharan Africa. F. W. H. Migeod[29] pointed to strong resemblances between Berber and Hausa in such words and phrases as these: Berber: ya mut; Hausa ya mutu (he died); Berber: obanis; Hausa obansa (his father); Berber: a bat; Hausa ya bata (he was lost); Berber: eghare; Hausa ya kirra (he called). In addition he notes that the genitive in both languages is formed with n = "of".

Examples of basic Berber words[edit]

The Berber letter "c" is pronounded like the English "sh".

The Berber "x" is pronounced like the Spanish "j" or the German "ch" in doch.

The Berber "ɣ" is pronounced like the French or German "r".

Numbers[edit]

English Berber
one hundred timiḍi
one thousand agim / ifeḍ
two thousand sin igiman / sin ifḍen
two thousand thirteen {2013} sin igiman d mraw d kraḍ

Days of the week[edit]

English Berber
Monday Aynas / ⴰⵢⵏⴰⵙ
Tuesday Asinas / ⴰⵙⵉⵏⴰⵙ
Wednesday Akṛas / ⴰⴽⵕⴰⵙ
Thursday Akwas / ⴰⴽⵡⴰⵙ
Friday Asimwas / ⴰⵙⵉⵎⵡⴰⵙ
Saturday Asiḍyas / ⴰⵙⵉⴹⵢⴰⵙ
Sunday Asamas / ⴰⵙⴰⵎⴰⵙ

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Berber". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2012. Tunisia. Steven Danver (ed.), Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues, Vol. 3. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 688-689.
  3. ^ Hayward, Richard J., chapter Afroasiatic in Heine, Bernd & Nurse, Derek, editors, African Languages: An Introduction Cambridge 2000. ISBN 0-521-66629-5.
  4. ^ "BBC NEWS. Q&A: The Berbers". BBC News. 2004-03-12. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ Louali, N., Philippson, G., 2003, "Les Protoméditerranéens Capsiens sont-ils des protoberbères ? Interrogations de linguiste.", GALF (Groupement des Anthropologues de Langue Française), Marrakech, 22-25 Septembre 2003.[2]
  7. ^ (French)« Loi n° 02-03 portent révision constitutionnelle », adopted on April 10, 2002, allotting in particular to "Tamazight" the status of national language.
  8. ^ Robinson, Matt (26 May 2011). "Libya's mountain Berber see opportunity in war". Reuters. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  9. ^ Chivers, C.J. (8 August 2011). "Amid a Berber Reawakening in Libya, Fears of Revenge". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  10. ^ Waiting game for rebels in western Libya, BBC News, John Simpson, 5 July 2011
  11. ^ [3][dead link]
  12. ^ "African Languages at Michigan State University (ASC) | Michigan State University". Isp.msu.edu. 2010-10-08. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  13. ^ The Ethnologe, Languages of Morocco[dead link]
  14. ^ The Ethnologue[dead link]
  15. ^ "Inalco Crb". Centrederechercheberbere.fr. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  16. ^ "The Ethnologue". The Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  17. ^ "Inalco Crb". Centrederechercheberbere.fr. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  18. ^ "The Ethnologue". The Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  19. ^ "Inalco Crb". Centrederechercheberbere.fr. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  20. ^ "Bladinet". Bladi.net. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  21. ^ "Al Bayane Newspaper, 10/07/2005". Cfieljadida2009.blogvie.com. 2005-10-07. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  22. ^ Ethnologue. "Algeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  23. ^ "ALGERIA: population growth of the whole country". Populstat.info. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  24. ^ http://www.centrederechercheberbere.fr/chaouia.html
  25. ^ Lewis, Paul M. (2009). "Ethnologue report for Nafusi". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, sixteenth edition. SIL International. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  26. ^ "Euromosaic -Berber (Tamazight) in Spain". Uoc.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  27. ^ Bhat, D.N.S. 2004. Pronouns. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 21
  28. ^ AA list, Blench, ms, 2006
  29. ^ Migeod, F. W. H., The Languages of West Africa. Kegan, Paul, Trench & Trübner, London 1913. pages 232, 233.

References[edit]

  • Medieval Berber Orthography, Boogert, Leiden University PDF
  • Brett, Michael; & Fentress, Elizabeth (1997). The Berbers (The Peoples of Africa). ISBN 0-631-16852-4. ISBN 0-631-20767-8 (Pbk).
  • Abdel-Masish, Ernest T. 1971. A Reference Grammar of Tamazight (Middle Atlas Berber). Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, The University of Michigan
  • Basset, André. 1952. La langue berbère. Handbook of African Languages 1, ser. ed. Daryll Forde. London: Oxford University Press
  • Chaker, Salem. 1995. Linguistique berbère: Études de syntaxe et de diachronie. M. S.—Ussun amaziɣ 8, ser. ed. Salem Chaker. Paris and Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters
  • Dallet, Jean-Marie. 1982. Dictionnaire kabyle–français, parler des At Mangellet, Algérie. Études etholinguistiques Maghreb–Sahara 1, ser. eds. Salem Chaker, and Marceau Gast. Paris: Société d’études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France
  • de Foucauld, Charles Eugène. 1951. Dictionnaire touareg–français, dialecte de l’Ahaggar. 4 vols. [Paris]: Imprimerie nationale de France
  • Delheure, Jean. 1984. Aǧraw n yiwalen: tumẓabt t-tfransist, Dictionnaire mozabite–français, langue berbère parlée du Mzab, Sahara septentrional, Algérie. Études etholinguistiques Maghreb–Sahara 2, ser. eds. Salem Chaker, and Marceau Gast. Paris: Société d’études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France
  • ———. 1987. Agerraw n iwalen: teggargrent–taṛumit, Dictionnaire ouargli–français, langue parlée à Oaurgla et Ngoussa, oasis du Sahara septentrinal, Algérie. Études etholinguistiques Maghreb–Sahara 5, ser. eds. Salem Chaker, and Marceau Gast. Paris: Société d’études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France
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External links[edit]

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