Berdychiv

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Berdychiv
Бердичів
17th century fortified Carmelite convent in Berdychiv.
17th century fortified Carmelite convent in Berdychiv.
Flag of Berdychiv
Flag
Coat of arms of Berdychiv
Coat of arms
Berdychiv is located in Ukraine
Berdychiv
Berdychiv
Location of Berdychiv
Coordinates: 49°54′0″N 28°34′0″E / 49.90000°N 28.56667°E / 49.90000; 28.56667Coordinates: 49°54′0″N 28°34′0″E / 49.90000°N 28.56667°E / 49.90000; 28.56667
Country Ukraine
Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast
Founded 1430
Government
 • Head of City
Council
V. K. Mazur
Population (2003)
 • Total 86,200

Berdychiv (Ukrainian: Бердичів, Polish: Berdyczów, Russian: Берди́чев, Yiddish: בערדיטשעוו, translit. Berdichev) is a historic city in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Berdychiv Raion (district), the city itself is of direct oblast subordinance, and is located 44 km (27 mi) south of the oblast capital, Zhytomyr, at around 49°54′N 28°35′E / 49.900°N 28.583°E / 49.900; 28.583. Its 2012 estimated population is around 78,547.

History[edit]

In 1430, Grand Duke of Lithuania Vitautas (великий князь литовський Вітовт) granted the rights over the area to Kalinik, the procurator (намісник) of Putyvl and Zvenigorod, and it is believed that his servant named Berdich founded a khutor (remote settlement) there. However the etymology of the name Berdychiv is not known.

In 1483, Crimean Tatars destroyed the settlement. During the 1546 partition between Lithuania and Poland, the region was listed as a property of Lithuanian magnate (Tyszkiewicz). According to the Union of Lublin (1569), Volhynia formed a province of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The fortified Carmelite monastery (built from 1627-1642 with funding from Janusz Tyszkiewicz Łohojski), captured and plundered by Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1647, was dissolved in 1864.[1]

In 1764, Kazimierz Pulaski defended the city with his 700 men surrounded by royal army during Bar Confederation.

The town underwent rapid development after king Stanisław August Poniatowski, under pressure from the powerful Radziwiłł family, granted it the unusual right to organize ten fairs a year. This made Berdychiv one of the most important trading and banking centers in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and later, the Russian Empire. At the time, the saying "Pisz na Berdyczów!" ('Send letters to Berdychiv!') had an idiomatic meaning; because merchants from all over Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and the rest of eastern and central Europe were sure to visit the town within two or three months of each other, it became a central poste restante (post office box) of the region. Later, because of the phrase being used in a popular poem by Juliusz Słowacki, "Pisz na Berdyczów!" acquired a second meaning as a brush-off; "send me a letter to nowhere" or "leave me alone".[citation needed]

The banking industry was moved from Berdychiv to Odessa (a major port city) after 1850, and the town became impoverished again in a short period of time.

In 1846, the town had 1893 buildings, 69 of which were brick-made, 11 streets, 80 alleys and 4 squares. Honoré de Balzac visited it in 1850 and noted that its unplanned development made it resemble the dance of a polka as some buildings leaned left while others leaned right.

Jewish history[edit]

According to the census of 1789, the Jews constituted 75% of Berdychiv's population (1,951 out of 2,640, of whom 246 were liquor-dealers, 452 houseowners, 134 merchants, 188 artisans, 150 clerks and 56 idlers). In 1797, Prince Radziwill granted seven Jewish families the monopoly privilege of the cloth trade in the town. Jews were a major driving force of the town's commerce in the first half of the 19th century, founding a number of trading companies (some traded internationally), banking establishments, and serving as agents of the neighboring estates of Polish nobility (szlachta).

By the end of the 18th century, Berdychiv became an important center of Hasidism. As the town grew, a number of noted scholars served as rabbis there, including Lieber the Great and Joseph the Harif and the Tzadik Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev (the author of Kedushat Levi), who lived and taught there until his death in 1809. See also Berditchev (Hasidic dynasty).

Plan of Berdychiv city. 1825

In its heyday, Berdychiv accounted some eighty synagogues and batei midrash, and was famous for its cantors.

Berdychiv was also one of the centers of the conflict between Hasidim and Mitnagdim. As the ideas of Haskalah influenced parts of the Jewish communities, a large group of Maskilim formed in Berdychiv in the 1820s.

In 1847, 23,160 Jews resided in Berdychiv and by 1861 the number doubled to 46,683, constituting the second largest Jewish community in the Russian Empire. The May Laws of 1882 and other government persecutions affected Jewish population and in 1897, out of the town's population of 53,728, 41,617 (about 80%) were Jewish.[1] 58% of Jewish males and 32% of Jewish females were literate.

Until World War I, the natural growth was balanced by the emigration. During the 1917 October Revolution and Russian Civil War, the mayor of the town was the Bundist leader D. Lipets. In early 1919, the Jews of Berdychiv became victims of a pogrom and in 1920 the advancing Soviet troops destroyed most of the city by the artillery fire.

The Soviet authorities closed or destroyed most of the town's synagogues.

In the 1920s, Yiddish language was officially recognized and in 1924, the first in Ukraine official law court to conduct its affairs in Yiddish was established in the city, but in the 1930s, the use of Yiddish was curtailed and all Jewish cultural activities were suspended before World War II.

Most civilians from areas near the border did not have a chance to evacuate when the Nazis began their invasion on June 22, 1941. Berdychiv was occupied by the German Army from July 7, 1941 to January 5, 1944. An "extermination" unit was established in Berdychiv in early July 1941 and a Jewish ghetto was set up. It was liquidated on October 5, 1941, after all the inhabitants were murdered.

The Nazis killed about 20,000 to 30,000 Jews who had not evacuated Berdychiv. A 1973 Ukrainian-language article about the history of Berdychiv says:"Гестапівці стратили 38 536 чоловік."[2] (Gestapo killed 38,536 persons.) In line with the official Soviet policy regarding the Jews and the Holocaust, the article does not mention the word "Jew" and did not acknowledge the genocide of the Jews.

Demographics[edit]

Year Total population Jewish population
1789 2,640 1,951 (75%)
1847  ? 23,160
1861  ? 46,683
1867 52,563 41,617 (80%)
1926 55,417 30,812 (55.6%)
1941  ? 0
1946  ? 6,000
1972 77,000 15,000 (est)
1989 92,000  ?
2001 88,000 1000

People[edit]

Some sources erroneously claim that the great pianist Vladimir Horowitz was born in Berdychiv. However, Horowitz's birth certificate unequivocally states Kiev as his birthplace.[3]

Berdychiv on stage[edit]

See: Abraham Ellstein

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berdichiv". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 767. 
  2. ^ A Soviet article about the history of Berdychiv (1973, in Ukrainian language: Історія міст і сіл УРСР (житомирська область) Бердичів Є. Громенко, О. О. Павлов)
  3. ^ http://www.interesniy.kiev.ua/znamenitye-kievlyane/lyudi-iskusstva/vladimir-gorovits/polnovlastniy-korol-vechniy-strannik-artist

References[edit]

External links[edit]

(English) Find out Berdychyv @ Ukrainian.Travel