Bereket

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Bereket
Gazandjyk
Railway station in Bereket city
Railway station in Bereket city
Bereket is located in Turkmenistan
Bereket
Bereket
Location in Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 39°14′35″N 55°31′01″E / 39.24306°N 55.51694°E / 39.24306; 55.51694Coordinates: 39°14′35″N 55°31′01″E / 39.24306°N 55.51694°E / 39.24306; 55.51694
Country  Turkmenistan
Province Balkan Province
District Bereket District
Area
 • City 18.632 km2 (7.194 sq mi)
 • Urban 9.342 km2 (3.607 sq mi)
Elevation 205 m (673 ft)
Population (est. 2013)
 • City 23,200
 • Density 1,244/km2 (3,220/sq mi)
Time zone +5 GMT
Postal code 745130
Area code(s) +(993) 247 XX XXX

Bereket, formerly Gazandjyk or Kazandzhik (Russian: Казанджик or Газанджык), is a city in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan. Bereket is administrative centre of the Bereket District.

The city is located in oasis on the foothills of the Kopetdag Mountains on the edge of Karakum Desert.

Bereket is an important strategic railway intersection of the Trans-Caspian Railway (Caspian Sea-Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan) and North-South Transnational Railway (Russia-Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran-Persian Gulf.[1][2]

The city has a large locomotive repair depot and a modern railway station.

The city is located approximately 260 km (162 mi) west of Turkmen capital of Ashgabat and 340 km (211 mi) east of Caspian Sea port of Turkmenbashi. The nearby largest cities are Balkanabat 120 km (75 mi) on the west, and Serdar 90 km (56 mi) on the east.

The estimated population of the city is 23,200 as of 2013.

Etymology[edit]

The exact origin of the name is unknown. Gazanjyk is probably derived from Turkic language word gazan or kazan (meaning a large cooking pot used throughout Central Asia, roughly equivalent to a cauldron, boiler) and -jyk a suffix to denote small in size. Into English the name can be translated as small kazan or small caulderon. The present day name of the city Bereket in Turkmen language means abundance or prosperity.

History[edit]

Since ancient times the area where city is now located was known as an important juncture on the famous Silk Road, that connected China with Middle East and Europe.

Aleksey Kuropatkin, the Imperial Russian Army commander of the Turkestan Rifle Brigade, which made an 18-day march in 1880 - 1881 across 500 miles of Karakum desert in writes in his memoirs "the 5th transition to Kazandjik - 64 miles. Anhydrous way. Soil is sandy, clayey, alkaline, there are rare clumps of weeds and even more rare trees haloxylon four feet in height. This transition separates the Balkan mountains from Kyurendag. Kazandjik wells lie in the gorge of Kyurendag mountains, along stream of small river. Water in wells fresh and of good quality."[3]

After conquest of Transcaspian Oblast the Russian Empire started to built Trans-Caspian railway including towns and settlements along the route. Kazandjik was founded in 1895 to serve as an important railway juncture on the railway.[4]

In 1916–1942 Kazandjik and area around the town was the scene of furious battles between Russian Imperial and after 1918 Soviet Red Armies and local nationalist Muslims, during the Basmachi movement.[5][6]

On 6 December 2000, at 22:10 a strong earthquake (7.0 on Richter scale) devastated the city center.[7]

Geography[edit]

Kopetdag mountains in early spring, a view from Bereket city.

See satellite image of Bereket.[8]

The city is located at the most western foothills of the Kopetdag mountains called Kyurendag on the edge of Karakum deserts. The maximum height of Kyurendag ridge is 968 m (3,176 ft). Vegetation of the ridge is quite poor and is represented primarily by species of desert flora. Ephemera-dominated sagebrush semi-desert and dry steppe and rocky outcrops. Soils - gray soils. Rarely one can find juniper trees, single or large groups of tamarisk, small shrubs. Wildlife in recent years greatly impoverished. Ungulates are little in numbers. Rarely has argali, rarely - bezoar goats and wild boars, gazelles. Predators - wolves, jackals, foxes, hyenas. Birds - klik rarely, very rarely stone curlew, jacks. Reptile species are represented by the steppe tortoise, monitor lizard, boa, Agam, etc.[9]

Major source of water for irrigation is Karakum Canal.

Demographics[edit]

The city is divided into several aul - neighborhoods. The majority of the inhabitants are Turkmen from Yomud tribes, with some Teke minority. Previously strong communities of Azeris, Armenians, Russians, Ukrainians and Persians are now reduced to several families. In 1990s most of them migrated to larger cities for better economic opportunities. Many Russian families also emigrated to the Russian Federation.

Economy[edit]

The city is a semi-industrial and semi-agricultural centre of the Bereket District. It is an important railway and automobile juncture,[10] the city has a large railroad yard and locomotive repair depot, a brick production factory, Turkmen carpet weaving factory, wheat and cotton processing and storage facilities. Animal breeding (camels, cows, sheep) is another source of income.

Finance[edit]

State Commercial Bank Dayhanbank has its branch office in Bereket.[11]

Communication[edit]

Postal area code for the city is 745130.[12] The city has a stable mobile coverage by two mobile communication operators, a state-owned Altyn Asyr and Russian owned MTS Turkmenistan.

City and national transportation[edit]

Bereket is an important railway juncture on the Turkmenistan national railway system.
Bereket is located on the M37 Highway, Turkmenistan section.

The city has a small public transportation network. Several small buses run scheduled routes connecting the eastern and western parts of the city (some 5–6 km.)

Bereket is an important railway juncture and station for commercial and freight transportation on the Turkmenistan national railway system.

Role in transnational transportation[edit]

Bereket city (Kazandzhik) is strategically important railway crossroad of the Trans-Caspian Railway (Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and eastern Kazakhstan) and North-South Transnational Railway (Russia-Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran-Persian Gulf). The city has a large locomotive repair depot and a modern passenger railway station.

The Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran railway link is a part of the North–South Transport Corridor and is a 677 km (421 mi) long railway line connecting Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan with Iran and the Persian Gulf. It links Uzen in Kazakhstan with Bereket - Etrek in Turkmenistan and end at Gorgan in Iran's Golestan province. In Iran, the railway will be linked to national network making its way to the ports of the Persian Gulf.[1] The project is estimated to cost $620m which is being jointly funded by the governments of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran.[1]

In May 2013, a 311 km (193 mi) Bereket – Uzen section of the North-South Transnational Railway was completed.[10][13] In February 2014 256 km (159 mi) long section between Bereket and Etrek was completed. Currently railway stations along the new railway are being constructed such as Däneata, Dövletýar, Bugdaýly, Balguýi, Madaw, Akjadepe.[14] [15]

The Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran railway link will be officially inaugurated in October 2014.[16]

The city is located on the M37 Highway (Turkmenistan section of the European route E60 which connects Brest, France to Irkeshtam, Kyrgyzstan on the border with People's Republic of China).

Education, health, culture[edit]

The city has 3 public schools, kindergartens, a small hospital, and medical emergency centre.

In 2012 several new buildings were constructed within the State Development Program including mayor's office (hakimlik), two schools, hospital and knitting factory.[17]

Until 2000, the city had a library, 2 open air and 1 winter cinemas. All are currently closed.

Climate[edit]

Bereket has a desert climate, with generally warm winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and autumn months. In summer, day temperatures may rise up to 42-44 C', and during nights fall to 15-18 C'. The air flow is windy, chilly in winters and dusty in summers.

Climate data for Bereket
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
9.0
(48.2)
15.0
(59)
23.5
(74.3)
30.3
(86.5)
35.4
(95.7)
37.9
(100.2)
36.9
(98.4)
31.6
(88.9)
22.9
(73.2)
15.1
(59.2)
8.7
(47.7)
22.76
(72.96)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
4.0
(39.2)
9.5
(49.1)
17.1
(62.8)
23.4
(74.1)
28.5
(83.3)
31.4
(88.5)
30.3
(86.5)
24.7
(76.5)
16.6
(61.9)
9.8
(49.6)
4.6
(40.3)
16.87
(62.36)
Average low °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
−1.0
(30.2)
4.0
(39.2)
10.7
(51.3)
16.6
(61.9)
21.6
(70.9)
24.9
(76.8)
23.9
(75)
17.9
(64.2)
10.4
(50.7)
4.6
(40.3)
0.6
(33.1)
11.03
(51.87)
Precipitation mm (inches) 22
(0.87)
22
(0.87)
28
(1.1)
22
(0.87)
15
(0.59)
2
(0.08)
6
(0.24)
2
(0.08)
3
(0.12)
13
(0.51)
19
(0.75)
27
(1.06)
181
(7.14)
Source: http://en.climate-data.org/location/28458/

Sightseeing[edit]

Main article: Bereket Railway Depot
Bereket Railway Depot owns a Russian made class T locomotive ТЭ-189 (built between 1857—1915).

In its storage area, the Bereket Depot museum, has a relic Russian made class T locomotive ТЭ-189 (built between 1857—1915).

FD class steam locomotives ФД20-2526, ФД20-2494 (ФД20-1441) (built between 1931-1942), and Russian class E locomotives Эр796-88, Эм734-66 (Эм733-96), Эу705-41, Эм725-30, Э-13 (built between 1912—1957).[18]

There are also several ТЭ1 class locomotives, whose prototype was the famous US made ALCO RSD-1 locomotive.[18]

Bereket Railway Station[edit]

Bereket Railway Station (Turkmen: Bereket demirýol menzili) is the main railway station in the city. It was built in 1885. The station is operated by the Türkmendemirýollary.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "North-South Transnational Corridor". railway-technology.com. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  2. ^ "Crossing of Railways". turkmenistaninfo.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  3. ^ "Завоевание Туркмении. Поход в Ахал-теке в 1880-1881 гг. (Conquest of Turkmenija. Military campaign in Ahal-teke in 1880-1881.". vostlit.info. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  4. ^ "Большая советская энциклопедия (Large Soviet Encyclopedae)". Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  5. ^ "Бои в пустыне. Туркмения. (Battles in the desert. Turkmenija.)". maxpark.com. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  6. ^ "О боях за Казанджик. (Battles for Kazandjik.)". konftext.ru/. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  7. ^ "Президент Туркменистана дал поручение о благоустройстве города Берекет, пострадавшего от землетрясения 2000 года". trend.az. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  8. ^ "Bing Kaarten - Routebeschrijvingen, verkeer en wegomstandigheden". Bing.com. 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  9. ^ "Кюрендаг - горный хребет Туркменистана (Kyurendag - a mountain ridge in Turkmenistan)". restinworld.ru/. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  10. ^ a b "Presidents open Kazakhstan to Turkmenistan rail link". Railwaygazette.com. Retrieved 2013-05-13. 
  11. ^ "Şahamçalarymyz (Branch offices)". dayhanbank.gov.tm. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  12. ^ "Türkmenpoçta Poçta aragatnaşygy döwlet kompaniýasynyň aragatnaşyk bölümleriniň indexleri". turkmenpost.gov.tm. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  13. ^ "Caspian rail corridor funds agreed". Railwaygazette.com. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  14. ^ "Завершено строительство участка Берекет - Этрек магистрали Казахстан–Туркменистан–Иран". Turkmen Business. Retrieved 2014-03-27. 
  15. ^ "President of Turkmenistan visits the construction site of Bereket-Etrek section of the North-South railway". turkmenistan.gov.tm. 2013-08-21. Retrieved 2014-03-27. 
  16. ^ "Iran-Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan railway to come on stream in 6 months". Zawya.com. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  17. ^ "Туркменский город Берекет будет преобразован". Turkmenistan.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  18. ^ a b "Репортаж из прошлого (Reportage from the Past)". Роман Молочников (Roman Molochnikov). Retrieved 2014-03-10.