Berenice Abbott by Hank O'Neal in New York City, 18 November 1979
|Birth name||Bernice Abbott|
|Born||July 17, 1898
|Died||December 9, 1991
|Influenced by||Man Ray, Eugène Atget|
Berenice Abbott (July 17, 1898 – December 9, 1991), born Bernice Abbott, was an American photographer best known for her black-and-white photography of New York City architecture and urban design of the 1930s.
In 1918 she moved with friends from OSU to New York's Greenwich Village, where she was 'adopted' by the anarchist Hippolyte Havel. She shared an apartment on Greenwich Avenue with several others, including the writer Djuna Barnes, philosopher Kenneth Burke, and literary critic Malcolm Cowley. At first she pursued journalism, but soon became interested in theater and sculpture, perhaps because of her interaction with artists Eugene O'Neill, Man Ray and Sadakichi Hartmann. In 1919 she nearly died in the influenza pandemic.
Europe: Photography and poetry
Abbott went to Europe in 1921, spending two years studying sculpture in Paris and Berlin. During this time, she adopted the French spelling of her first name, "Berenice," at the suggestion of Djuna Barnes. In addition to her work in the visual arts, Abbott published poetry in the experimental literary journal transition. Abbott first became involved with photography in 1923, when Man Ray, looking for somebody who knew nothing about photography and thus would do as he said, hired her as a darkroom assistant at his portrait studio in Montparnasse. Later she would write: "I took to photography like a duck to water. I never wanted to do anything else." Ray was impressed by her darkroom work and allowed her to use his studio to take her own photographs. In 1926, she had her first solo exhibition (in the gallery "Au Sacre du Printemps") and started her own studio on the rue du Bac. After a short time studying photography in Berlin, she returned to Paris in 1927 and started a second studio, on the rue Servandoni.
Abbott's subjects were people in the artistic and literary worlds, including French nationals (Jean Cocteau), expatriates (James Joyce), and others just passing through the city. According to Sylvia Beach, "To be 'done' by Man Ray or Berenice Abbott meant you rated as somebody". Abbott's work was exhibited with that of Man Ray, André Kertész, and others in Paris, in the "Salon de l'Escalier" (more formally, the Premier Salon Indépendant de la Photographie), and on the staircase of the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. Her portraiture was unusual within exhibitions of modernist photography held in 1928–9 in Brussels and Germany.
In 1925, Man Ray introduced her to Eugène Atget's photographs. She became a great admirer of Atget's work, and managed to persuade him to sit for a portrait in 1927. He died shortly thereafter. While the government acquired much of Atget's archive — Atget had sold 2,621 negatives in 1920, and his friend and executor André Calmettes sold 2,000 more immediately after his death — Abbott was able to buy the remainder in June 1928, and quickly started work on its promotion. An early tangible result was the 1930 book Atget, photographe de Paris, in which she is described as photo editor. Abbott's work on Atget's behalf would continue until her sale of the archive to the Museum of Modern Art in 1968. In addition to her book The World of Atget (1964), she provided the photographs for A Vision of Paris (1963), published a portfolio, Twenty Photographs, and wrote essays. Her sustained efforts helped Atget gain international recognition.
Changing New York
In early 1929, Abbott visited New York City ostensibly to find an American publisher for Atget's photographs. Upon seeing the city again, however, Abbott immediately saw its photographic potential. Accordingly, she went back to Paris, closed up her studio, and returned to New York in September. Her first photographs of the city were taken with a hand-held Kurt-Bentzin camera, but soon she acquired a Century Universal camera which produced 8 x 10 inch negatives. Using this large format camera, Abbott photographed New York City with the diligence and attention to detail she had so admired in Eugène Atget. Her work has provided a historical chronicle of many now-destroyed buildings and neighborhoods of Manhattan.
Abbott worked on her New York project independently for six years, unable to get financial support from organizations (such as the Museum of the City of New York), foundations (such as the Guggenheim Foundation), or even individuals. She supported herself with commercial work and teaching at the New School of Social Research beginning in 1933. In 1935, however, Abbott was hired by the Federal Art Project (FAP) as a project supervisor for her "Changing New York" project. She continued to take the photographs of the city, but she had assistants to help her both in the field and in the office. This arrangement allowed Abbott to devote all her time to producing, printing, and exhibiting her photographs. By the time she resigned from the FAP in 1939, she had produced 305 photographs that were then deposited at the Museum of the City of New York.
Abbott's project was primarily a sociological study imbedded within modernist aesthetic practices. She sought to create a broadly inclusive collection of photographs that together suggest a vital interaction between three aspects of urban life: the diverse people of the city; the places they live, work and play; and their daily activities. It was intended to empower people by making them realize that their environment was a consequence of their collective behavior (and vice versa). Moreover, she avoided the merely pretty in favor of what she described as "fantastic" contrasts between the old and the new, and chose her camera angles and lenses to create compositions that either stabilized a subject (if she approved of it), or destabilized it (if she scorned it).
Abbott's ideas about New York were highly influenced by Lewis Mumford's historical writings from the early 1930s, which divided American history into a series of technological eras. Abbott, like Mumford, was particularly critical of America's "paleotechnic era," which, as he described it, emerged at end of the American Civil War, a development called by other historians the Second Industrial Revolution. Like Mumford, Abbott was hopeful that, through urban planning efforts (aided by her photographs), Americans would be able to wrest control their cities from paleotechnic forces, and bring about what Mumford described as a more humane and human-scaled, "neotechnic era." Abbott’s agreement with Mumford can be seen especially in the ways that she photographed buildings that had been constructed in the paleotechnic era—before the advent of urban planning. Most often, buildings from this era appear in Abbott's photographs in compositions that made them look downright menacing.
In 1935 Abbott moved into a Greenwich Village loft with the art critic Elizabeth McCausland, with whom she lived until McCausland's death in 1965. McCausland was an ardent supporter of Abbott, writing several articles for the Springfield Daily Republican, as well as for Trend and New Masses (the latter under the pseudonym Elizabeth Noble). In addition, McCausland contributed the captions for the book of Abbott's photographs entitled Changing New York which was published in 1939.
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Abbott's style of straight photography helped her make important contributions to scientific photography. In 1958, she produced a series of photographs for a high-school physics text-book, including the cover titled Bouncing ball in diminishing arcs. Some of her work from this era was displayed at the MIT Museum in Cambridge, MA, in 2012.
Not only was Abbott a photographer, but she also started the "House of Photography" in 1947 to promote and sell some of her inventions. These included a distortion easel, which created unusual effects on images developed in a darkroom, and the telescopic lighting pole, known today by many studio photographers as an "autopole," to which lights can be attached at any level. Owing to poor marketing, the House of Photography quickly lost money, and with the deaths of two designers, the company closed.
Beyond New York City
Two decades later, Abbott and McCausland traveled US 1 from Florida to Maine, and Abbott photographed the small towns and growing automobile-related architecture. The project resulted in more than 2,500 negatives. Shortly after, Abbott underwent a lung operation. She was told she should move from New York City due to air pollution and she bought a rundown home in Blanchard, Maine along the banks of the Piscataquis River for US$1,000. Later she moved to nearby Monson, remaining in Maine until her death in 1991.
Abbott's work in Maine continued after that project and after her move to Maine and her last book was A Portrait of Maine (1968).
Approach to photography
Abbott was part of the straight photography movement, which stressed the importance of photographs being unmanipulated in both subject matter and developing processes. She also disliked the work of pictorialists such as Alfred Stieglitz, who had gained much popularity during a substantial span of her own career, and therefore left her work without support from this particular school of photographers.
Throughout her career, Abbott's photography was very much a display of the rise in development in technology and society. Her works documented and praised the New York landscape. This was all guided by her belief that a modern day invention such as the camera deserved to document the 20th century.
- Under the El at the Battery, New York, 1936.
- Nightview, New York, 1932.
- James Joyce, 1928.
'Changing New York'
Automat in Manhattan (1936)
Detail of Manhattan Bridge (1936)
Flatiron Building (1938)
Hardware store on the Bowery, Manhattan (1938)
Sources and further reading
Books of photographs by Berenice Abbott
- Changing New York. New York: Dutton, 1939. With text by Elizabeth McCausland.
- Greenwich Village: Yesterday and Today. New York: Harper, 1949. With text by Henry Wysham Lanier.
- A Portrait of Maine. New York: Macmillan, 1968. With text by Chenoweth Hall.
Other books by, or with major contributions from, Berenice Abbott
- Atget, photographe de Paris. Paris: Henri Jonquières; New York: E. Weyhe, 1930. (As photograph editor.)
- The Attractive Universe: Gravity and the Shape of Space. Cleveland: World, 1969. With text by Evans G. Valens.
- A Guide to Better Photography. New York: Crown, 1941. Revised edition: New Guide to Better Photography (New York: Crown, 1953).
- Magnet. Cleveland: World, 1984. With text by Evans G. Valens.
- Motion. London: Longman Young, 1965. With text by Evans G. Valens.
- Twenty Photographs by Eugène Atget 1856–1927.
- The View Camera Made Simple. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1948.
- A Vision of Paris: The Photographs of Eugène Atget, the Words of Marcel Proust. New York: Macmillan, 1963. Edited by Arthur D. Trottenberg.
- The World of Atget. New York: Horizon, 1964. (And later editions.)
- "Berenice Abbott." Germany/New York: Steidl, 2008. Berenice Abbott. Edited by Hank O'Neal and Ron Kurtz ISBN 3-86521-592-0
Anthologies of Abbott's works
- Berenice Abbott. Aperture Masters of Photography. New York: Aperture, 1988.
- Berenice Abbott, fotografie / Berenice Abbott: Photographs. Venice: Ikona, 1986.
- Berenice Abbott: Photographs. New York: Horizon, 1970.
- Berenice Abbott: Photographs. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.
- O'Neal, Hank. Berenice Abbott: American Photographer. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. British title: Berenice Abbott: Sixty Years of Photography. London: Thames & Hudson, 1982.
- Van Haaften, Julia, ed. Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision. New York: New York Public Library, 1989. ISBN 0-87104-420-X
- "Abbott, Berenice". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- "Abbott, Berenice". Who Was Who in America, with World Notables, v. 10: 1989-1993. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. 1993. p. 1. ISBN 0837902207.
- Birth, upbringing, OSU: Bonnie Yochelson, Berenice Abbott: Changing New York (New York: New Press, 1997), pp. 9–10; also available at "A Fantastic Passion for New York."
- Yochelson, p. 10. Yochelson cites an unpublished 1975 interview with Abbott for the "adoption" remark.
- Sculpture, Ray, Hartmann: Julia Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision (New York: New York Public Library, 1989), p. 11.
- Spanish flu: Yochelson, p. 10.
- Herring, Phillip (1995). Djuna: The Life and Work of Djuna Barnes. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017842-2.
- Benstock, Shari (1986). Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900–1940. Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-79040-6.
- Arrangement with Ray: Yochelson, p. 10. Abbott quotation: Abbott, untitled text dated December 1975, Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision, p. 8.
- Solo exhibition, studios: Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer, p. 11.
- Beach quotation: Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer, p. 11.
- Salon de l'Escalier, Belgian and German exhibitions: Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer, p. 11.
- David Harris, Eugène Atget: Unknown Paris (New York: New Press, 2000), pp. 13, 15.
- Harris, Eugène Atget, pp. 8, 188.
- Yochelson, introduction.
- O’Neal, Hank and Berenice Abbott. Berenice Abbott: American Photographer. Introduction by John Canaday. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1982.
- see Peter Barr's dissertation "Becoming Documentary: Berenice Abbott's Photographs 1925-1939."
- For more information about Mumford's influence on Abbott, see Peter Barr's dissertation "Becoming Documentary: Berenice Abbott's Photographs 1925-1939."
- Crisis in US Science Education? Better Call in Avant-Garde Photographer Berenice Abbott Forbes
- "MIT Museum: Exhibitions - Berenice Abbott: Photography and Science: An Essential Unity". Web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- Yochelson, Berenice Abbott.
- Harris, David. Eugène Atget: Unknown Paris. New York: New Press, 2000. ISBN 1-56584-854-3
- Documentary Film: Berenice Abbott: A View of the Twentieth Century (1992)
- Peter Barr. "Becoming Documentary: Berenice Abbott's Photographs 1925-1939." Ph.D. dissertation (Boston University), 1997.
- Stern, Keith (2009), "Abbott, Bernice", Queers in History, BenBella Books, Inc.; Dallas, Texas, ISBN 978-1-933771-87-8
- Noyes Platt, Susan (2004). "Berenice Abbott". In Susan Ware. Notable American Women: A biographical dictionary, completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 067401488X.
- Kauffman, Bette (1999). "Abbott, Berenice". In Commire, Anne. Women in World History: A biographical encyclopedia 1. Waterford, CT: Yorkin Publications, Gale Group. pp. 11–17. ISBN 0787640808.
- "Berenice Abbott: Changing New York" (New York Public Library)
- "Berenice Abbott photographs in the collections of the Museum of the City of New York"
- Berenice Abbott (International Photography Hall of Fame)
- Corinne, Tee A. "Berenice Abbott" (GLBTQ: An encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, transgender and queer culture.)
- Teicher, Jessica E. "Inspired by Berenice Abbott"
- "Berenice Abbott's Photographic Prints"(Commerce Graphics Ltd, Inc.)
- "Berenice Abbott" (The Jewish Museum (New York))