Beretta 92

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Beretta 92
Beretta 92 FS
Beretta 92FS
Type Semi-automatic pistol
Place of origin Italy
Service history
In service 1975 – present
Used by See Users
Production history
Manufacturer Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta
Produced 1975–present
Variants See Variants
Specifications
Weight
  • 950 grams (34 oz) (92)
  • 970 grams (34 oz) (92S/SB/F/G)
  • 920 grams (32 oz) (92D)
  • 900 grams (32 oz) (Compact/Vertec)
Length
  • 217 millimetres (8.5 in)
  • 211 millimetres (8.3 in) (Vertec)
  • 197 millimetres (7.8 in) (Compact/Centurion)
Barrel length
  • 125 millimetres (4.9 in)
  • 119 millimetres (4.7 in) (Vertec/Elites/Border Marshal/Combo)
  • 109 millimetres (4.3 in) (Compact/Centurion)

Cartridge
Muzzle velocity 381 m/s (1,250 ft/s)
Effective firing range 50 m (160 ft)
Feed system

Detachable box magazine:

  • 10, 15, 17, 18, 20, 30, 32 rounds (92, 98 series)
  • 10, 11, 12 rounds (96 series)
  • 10, 13 rounds (Compact L)
  • 8 rounds (Compact Type M)

The Beretta 92 (also Beretta 96 and Beretta 98) is a series of semi-automatic pistols designed and manufactured by Beretta of Italy. The model 92 was designed in 1972 and production of many variants in different calibers continues today. The United States Armed Forces replaced the Model 1911A1 .45 ACP pistol in 1985 with the military spec Beretta 92F, the M9.

Although only 5,000 copies of the original design were manufactured from 1975 to 1976, the design is currently produced in four different configurations (FS, G, D and DS) and four calibers:

History[edit]

The Beretta 92 pistol evolved from earlier Beretta designs, most notably the M1922 and M1951. From the M1922 comes the open slide design, while the alloy frame and locking block barrel (originally from Walther P38) were first used in the M1951. The grip angle and the front sight integrated with the slide were also common to earlier Beretta pistols. Perhaps the Model 92's two most important advanced design features appeared on its immediate predecessor, the 1974 .380 caliber Model 84. These improvements both involved the magazine, which featured direct feed, that is, there was no feed ramp between the magazine and the chamber (a Beretta innovation in pistols), and the magazine was a "double-stacked" high capacity design - a feature originally introduced in 1935 on the 9mm FN/Browning "Hi-Power".[1]

The Beretta 92 first appeared in 1975[2] and was designed by Carlo Beretta, Giuseppe Mazzetti and Vittorio Valle, all experienced firearms designers on the Beretta design team.

92[edit]

Production began in May 1976, and ended in February 1983. Approximately 7,000 units were of the first "step slide" design and the rest were of the second "straight slide" type. The total production was 52,000. (Note: the total number of units produced as well as "step slide" units produced is frequently misquoted in other sources. For example: 1. Blue Book indicated the total number of all 92s produced as 5,000, rather than just the "step-slide" version. 2. berettacollection.com website states "approx. 5000" to the number of "step slide" units produced which is close but off by a few thousand.)

92S[edit]

In order to meet requirements of some law enforcement agencies, Beretta modified the Beretta 92 by adding a slide-mounted combined safety and decocking lever, replacing the frame mounted manual thumb safety. This resulted in the 92S which was adopted by several Italian law enforcement and military units. The later relocation of the magazine release button means these models (92 & 92S) cannot necessarily use later magazines, unless they have notches in both areas.

92SB (92S-1)[edit]

The extremely rare 92SB, Initially called the 92S-1, was specifically designed for the USAF (US Air Force) trials (which it won), the model name officially adopted was the 92SB. It included the changes of the 92S, added a firing pin block (thus the addition of the "B" to the name), and relocated the magazine release catch from the bottom of the grip to the lower bottom of the trigger guard.

  • 92SB Compact (1981–1991), shortened barrel and slide (13-round magazine capacity). It was replaced by the "92 Compact L".

92F (92SB-F)/92G[edit]

Beretta modified the model 92SB slightly to create the 92SB-F (the "F" added to denote entry of the model in U.S. Government federal testing) and, later, the 92G for French Government testing, by making the following changes:

  • Design of all the parts to make them 100% interchangeable to simplify maintenance for large government organizations.
  • Modified the front of the trigger guard so that one could use finger support for easier aiming.
  • Recurved the forward base of the grip to aid aiming.
  • Hard chromed the barrel bore to protect it from corrosion and to reduce wear.
  • New surface coating on the slide called Bruniton, which allegedly provides better corrosion resistance than the previous plain blued finish.

92FS[edit]

The FS has an enlarged hammer pin that fits into a groove on the underside of the slide. The main purpose is to stop the slide from flying off the frame to the rear if it cracks. This was in response to reported defective slides during U.S. Military testing.

Vector-graphic of model 92FS

92A1 and 96A1[edit]

The 92A1 was introduced in 2010, based on elements of 92FS and 90two. The overall shape and styling builds on the 92FS, with an accessory rail on the underside of the frame; internal design reflects the 90two. Model 96A1 is a 92A1 variant chambered for .40 S&W.[3] It has been speculated that Beretta would include 92A1 and 96A1 variants with heavier Brigadier slides, but this has not been verified.

Design[edit]

A Beretta 92FS Inox with the slide cocked, showing the exposed ejection port and barrel mechanism.

The Beretta 92's open slide design ensures smooth feeding and ejection of ammunition and allows easy clearing of obstructions. The hard-chromed barrel bore reduces barrel wear and protects it from corrosion. The falling locking block design provides good accuracy and operability with suppressors due to the in-line travel of the barrel. This is in contrast to the complex travel of Browning designed barrels. The magazine release button is reversible with simple field tools. Reversing the magazine release makes left-handed operation much easier.

Detail of a Beretta 92FS ejection port and barrel.

Increasingly, it has become popular to reduce handgun weight and cost and increase corrosion resistance by using polymers. Starting around the year 2000, Beretta began replacing some parts with polymer and polymer coated metal. Polymer parts include the recoil spring guide rod which is now also fluted, magazine release button, magazine floor plate, magazine follower and the mainspring cap/lanyard loop. Polymer coated metal parts include the safety levers, trigger, trigger bar, slide lock/release and disassembly latch.

The 92 also spawned several variants of similar internal design. The Beretta 90two is a full-size variant of the 92-series with a redesigned slide and a redesigned aluminum frame with an internal recoil buffer, user changeable monogrips and an accessory rail.

Variants[edit]

The French-made PAMAS G1 variant.

The Beretta 92 is available in many configurations each with a distinct model name. Combining the various options results in more than 50 different configurations, but the major variants are defined by their operation caliber (92/96/98), operation (F/G/D) and combination of optional items (Inox/Brigadier slide/Compact length):

Calibers[edit]

Each model name starts with two digits identifying the caliber:

  • 92: Chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum.
  • 93R: Chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum as above, but capable of semi-auto, full auto, or three round burst. Weapon was originally equipped with a 13 round magazine and a 20 round magazine, as well as detachable butt stock. The "R" stands for "Raffica", which is Italian for "burst".
  • 96: Chambered for the .40 S&W, introduced in 1990.
  • 98: Chambered for 9×21mm IMI. This option was introduced in 1991 for markets where it is illegal to own a weapon chambered for a military cartridge such as 9×19mm; essentially, this is the case of Italy. There were also about 5000 early 98F manufactured in .30 Luger.

Operation[edit]

F Models
Also known as the 92SB-F, the model 92 F (adopted by the US Army as the M9 Pistol) has a double-action first trigger pull, followed by a single-action trigger pull for subsequent rounds. The "F" and "FS" models have a safety lever that also functions as a decocking lever.
G Models
The G models (designed for the French "Gendarmerie Nationale") were adopted by the French Military as PAMAS; they feature a manual decocking lever only instead of the safety-decocking lever of the 92 FS. When the decocking lever is released, it automatically returns to the ready to fire position. There is no manual safety.
DS Models
The DS models are "double action only" pistols: the hammer always follows the slide forward to come to rest in the double action position (the hammer never stays cocked). The hammer spur has been removed, and is flush with the rear of the slide. The manual safety lever on the slide provides the same function as it does on the 92 FS.
D Models
The D models are also "double action only" pistols. They are identical to the DS models but without the manual safety (the lever has also been eliminated).
Centurion Models
These pistols offer the frame (and same magazine capacity) of the basic 92 FS model and the reduced length of the Compact version. Special G Centurion, DS Centurion and D Centurion models are available in some countries.
Competition Conversion Kit Models
The standard model can be converted with a special conversion kit into a competition target pistol. The kit includes a 7.3 in (190 mm) barrel with counterweight and elevated front sight, a fully adjustable target rear sight and ergonomic walnut grips.
Target Models
Designed for competition shooting, these models meet all U.I.T.S. standards for large caliber pistols (P.G.C.). They differ from basic 92 FS in the following aspects: 150 mm (5.9 in) barrel, with aluminum counterweight sleeve, fully adjustable target rear sight, ergonomic walnut grips with "orange peel" anti-slip finish.
Inox Models
The Inox models (from the French "inoxidable" meaning non-oxidizing) feature the following parts made in stainless steel: the barrel, the slide (including the extractor, the safety and the right-side manual safety lever), the trigger (and trigger pin), and slide stop lever.

Options[edit]

Brigadier
(1993)
60-gram (2.1 oz) heavier slide and 1 millimetre (0.039 in) wider to improve control when firing multiple shots in quick succession. It also includes removable front and rear sights.
92G Elite IA
Elite I
(1999–2001)
Pistols with this option include the heavier Brigadier bruniton slide with front serrations and Elite designation, Inox finish (silver) stainless barrel, thin skeletonized hammer, and bevel of the magazine well. A flat hammer spring cap was standard as well as the decock only (G-Model) feature and dovetailed front sight. It was introduced in 1999 and replaced by the Elite II option in 2001.
Elite IA
(2001)
This option is essentially a black Vertec with a bruniton Brigadier G slide having the Elite 1A designation and a thicker skeleton hammer. The 4.7 in (120 mm) stainless barrel with Inox finish was also changed to the blackened stainless version like black Vertecs.
Elite II
(2001)
This option replaced the Elite I option in 2001 and includes the same features as the original Elite plus removable Novak type sights, extended magazine release catch, checkered front/rear grip strap, thicker (than Elite I) skeletonized hammer, and lighter D-spring. This option is available only with the stainless G-Model slide, also with front serrations. The stainless barrel for the Elite II has a target crown.
A Beretta 92FS Inox stainless steel pistol.
Inox
(present)
Stainless barrel and slide (frame anodized to match color). Can have either black or stainless controls.
Compact L
(1992–)
Shorter barrel, slide, and more compact frame (13-round magazine capacity).
Compact Type M
(1992–)
Similar to the Compact L, but has a slimmer grip that accepts only a single stacked 8-round magazine.
Centurion
(1992–1998)
Shorter barrel and slide (like "Compact"), but with standard-sized frame that has a slightly shorter dust cover.
CB
(1992–1993)
Single action only. It is designed for sport shooting and includes a front barrel bushing for improved accuracy.
Stock
(1994–)
Heavier Brigadier slide. It is also designed for sport shooting and includes a front barrel bushing for improved accuracy.
Combat
(1994–2001)
Heavier Brigadier slide, single-action only and also designed for sport shooting, including a front barrel bushing for improved accuracy. It also came with an additional longer barrel that was weighted.
Billennium
(2001 only)
A limited-edition (2000 copies) commemorative (of the year 2000) model manufactured in 2001, featuring the heavier Brigadier slide. Only 1000 Billennium pistols were initially imported into the United States, the other 1000 were sold throughout the rest of the world. The Billennium also has a frame mounted safety.
Steel I
(2004)
Nickel-plated carbon steel, single-action-only, collector's model. [Edit: Both single-action-only and single/double-action variants exist. Also used and desirable for competitive shooting because of its steel frame (for added weight and strength), the frame-mounted safety and/or Vertec-style grip-frame that are all found to be desirable features in a competition gun.]

Optional magazines[edit]

To keep in line with the introduction of laws in some locations restricting magazines that hold more than 10 rounds, Beretta now manufactures magazines that hold fewer than the factory standard 15 rounds. These magazines have heavier crimping (deeper indentations in the side) to reduce the available space while still keeping the same external dimensions and ensuring that these magazines can be used on existing firearms.

Italian magazine manufacturer Mec-Gar now produces magazines in blue and nickel finishes with a 18 round capacity, which fit flush in the magazine well on the 92 series. Mec-Gar also produces an extended 20 round blued magazine that protrudes below the frame by 34 inch (19 mm). These magazines provide users in unrestricted states with an even higher capacity.

93R Machine pistol[edit]

The Beretta 93R is a significantly redesigned 92 to provide the option of firing in three-round bursts. It also has a longer ported barrel, heavier slide, fitting for a shoulder stock, extra forward grip, and an extended magazine. Unlike other Berettas in the 90 series it is single-action only, does not have a decocker, and very few are around today.[citation needed]

Copies[edit]

Turkish Beretta 92 copy, the Yavuz 16 Compact.
Beretta 92 Compact L owned by the Royal Malaysia Police.

The Beretta 92 was designed for sports and law enforcement use and, due to its reliability, was accepted by military users in South America and other countries all over the world.

A large contract for the Beretta 92 was with the Brazilian army, for which Beretta set up a factory in Brazil. This factory was later sold to the Brazilian gunmaker Taurus (Forjas Taurus S/A ). Taurus makes these pistols (called the PT92) without the need for a license from Beretta since their design is based on the original Beretta 92, whose patents have since expired.

The PT92 can be distinguished from its modern Beretta counterpart primarily by having the safety mounted on the frame as opposed to on the slide like the Beretta. Though mechanically similar to the original, the PT92s differ from the early 92s by having a trigger guard similar to the modern 92s (the originals were rounded) and a magazine release in the same place as the modern 92s (the originals were at the bottom of the grip.)

The Turkish company MKEK has been manufacturing a copy of the Beretta 92F as Yavuz 16 for the Turkish Armed Forces and General Directorate of Security. There has been speculation that these were being made under contract from Beretta. Some of these pistols were imported into the United States by the company American Tactical Imports as the American Tactical 92 or AT-92.

France has made licensed copies of Beretta 92FS as the PAMAS G1 and the French-M92 is now in use in the Armies and law enforcement agencies, only to be replaced by the SIG SP2022 in the national police. Taiwan had made Beretta-like pistols namely the T75 pistol while South Africa had produced the Beretta under license since 1992 as the Vektor Z88, and the batches are used by the South African Police.

Llama company of Spain has made unlicensed copies of pistol as the Llama M82 whereas Egypt had produced the Beretta under license as the Helwan 92, and Chile also made copies of the Brazilian PT-92 for its army use.

Users[edit]

Country Organization name Model Quantity Date Reference
 Albania Special forces of the Albanian Armed Forces [4]
 Algeria [5]
 Bangladesh Special Security Force [6]
 Brazil Brazilian Armed Forces Taurus PT-92 [5]
 Chile [7]
 Colombia [5]
 France French Military PAMAS G1 [8]
Gendarmerie Nationale [9]
 India Mizoram Armed Police 92S [10]
 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Police [citation needed]
 Indonesia Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group of the Indonesian Army _ _ _ [11]
Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group of the Indonesian Navy _ _
 Italy Italian Armed Forces and various police forces. [9][12]
 Japan Various Special Investigation Teams (SIT) of Japanese police, Assault and Rescue Teams (ART) of Chiba police Vertec _ _ [citation needed]
 Jordan _ _ _ [5]
 Kuwait _ _ _ [citation needed]
 Luxembourg Unité Spéciale de la Police of the Grand Ducal Police 92F _ [13][14][15]
 Malaysia 10 Paratrooper Brigade rapid deployment forces of the Malaysian Army 92F [16]
Grup Gerak Khas special forces of the Malaysian Army _ _
General Operations Force paramilitary forces of the Royal Malaysia Police 92FS _ _ [citation needed]
Malaysian Road Transport Department 92 Compact L _ _ [17]
 Mexico Various branches of the armed forces _ _ [7]
 Monaco Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince _ [18]
 Morocco 2010 [5]
 Nigeria 2010
   Nepal Special Forces of Nepal Police 92FS 2013 [citation needed]
 Pakistan Special Services Group of the Pakistan Army 92F 2010 [19]
 Peru Armed Forces of Peru, Peruvian National Police _ _ 2010 [5]
 Philippines Philippine Army _ _ _ [citation needed]
 Portugal Military Police _ _ _ [20]
 Russian Federation Law enforcement groups _ _ 2010 [21]
 Slovenia Slovenian Armed Forces _ _ 1991 [22]
 South Africa South African Police Service Vektor Z88 _ 1992 [23]
 Sudan _ _ _ [5]
 Tunisia Service pistol of the Tunisian National Guard _ _ [citation needed]
 Turkey Turkish Armed Forces Yavuz 16
(Turkish unlicensed 92 clone)
_ _ [5]
General Directorate of Security Yavuz 16
(Turkish unlicensed 92 clone)
_ _ [5]
 United States US Armed Forces, designated as the M9 92FS _ 1985 [9][12]
US Border Patrol _ _ _ [5]
US Immigration and Naturalization Service _ _ _
Minneapolis Police Department 96D _ _ [24][25]
Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) 92F & 92FS [26]
 United Kingdom Bermuda Regiment 92F [27]
 Venezuela [5]
  Vatican City [citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gangarosa, Gene Jr., "Modern Beretta Firearms", Stoeger Publishing (1994)
  2. ^ Mod. 92FS : 15 years of evolution and success
  3. ^ "92A1". Beretta USA. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  4. ^ Janq Designs. "Special Operations.Com". Special Operations.Com. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Diez, Octavio (2000). Armament and Technology. Lema Publications, S.L. ISBN 84-8463-013-7.
  6. ^ "Beretta 92 Semi-automatic Pistol". Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  7. ^ a b Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  8. ^ "Pistolet automatique PAMAS G1" (in (French)). Defense.gouv.fr. 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  9. ^ a b c Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
  10. ^ "Mizoram Police to Get Latest Weapons". Sinlung. 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  11. ^ "Kopassus & Kopaska – Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  12. ^ a b Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
  13. ^ "Unofficial Pistols Page, Equipment". http://USP.lu – Unofficial Website of Unité Spéciale, Officially Endorsed. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  14. ^ "L'Unite d'Intervention de la Police Luxembourgeoise" (in French). RAIDS Magazine. March 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  15. ^ Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2004). "UPS Unidad Especial de la Policia Luxembourguesa" (in Spanish). ARMAS Magazine. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  16. ^ IBP USA (2007). Malaysia Army Weapon Systems Handbook. Int'l Business Publication. pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-1-4330-6180-6. 
  17. ^ Malaysian Road Transport Academy. "Situation Shooting Course Series 3/2010" (in Malay). Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  18. ^ Giletta, Jacques (2005). Les Gardes Personnelles des Princes de Monaco (1st ed.). Taurus Editions. ISBN 2 912976-04-9. 
  19. ^ "Pakistan's SSG". 
  20. ^ ":: Revista Militar ::-Revistas - As Indústrias Militares e As Armas de Fogo". Revistamilitar.pt. 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  21. ^ "Нпсфхе: Опнйспнпнб Х Якеднбюрекеи Бннпсфюр Мнбшлх Охярнкерюлх". Lenta.ru. 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  22. ^ "Polavtomatska pištola 9mm". Slovenskavojska.si. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  23. ^ "Military & police handgun cartridges of South Africa. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  24. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2008-01-02. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  25. ^ Beretta. "Maryland State Police to Carry Beretta’s Px4 Storm". Tactical-Life.com. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  26. ^ "LAPD Equipment". City of Los Angeles. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  27. ^ http://www.bermudaregiment.bm/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=170:baretta-92f&catid=48:weaponscat&Itemid=223

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]