Beryozovo (Russian: Берёзово) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Beryozovsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River. Population: 7,287 (2010 Census); 7,085 (2002 Census); 7,573 (1989 Census).
It is situated on three hills on the left bank of the Severnaya Sosva River, at its junction with the Ob River. It has more than once suffered from conflagrations, including fires in 1719 and 1808. The yearly mean temperature is +4 °C (39 °F), with the low being −44 °C (−47 °F).
There was some ill-documented Russian trade in the area before the Russian conquest of Siberia. Beryozovo was founded in 1593 on the Severnaya Sosva route across the Ural Mountains to the fur-rich Mangazeya region. It was besieged by the Ostyaks in 1592, 1697, and 1608. It grew into a town of Beryozov (Берёзов) in Tobolsk Governorate. By the late 17th century most trade had shifted south to Verkhoturye.
In the mid-18th century, gold was discovered at Beryozovo—Siberia's first important gold mine. It was worked by serfs and convicts under primitive conditions and produced about 400 ounces a year (by the mid-19th century the gold sands further east were producing 600,000 ounces per year). In the 1960s, gas fields were discovered near its lower course causing a major population growth in the area. Transport is by river boat or ice road.
Prince Menshikov, the favorite of Peter the Great and Catherine I, died here in exile in 1729. In 1730, his enemy and rival, Prince Dolgoruky, was interned here with his family; and in 1742 General Ostermann was sent to Beryozov with his wife and died there in 1747. It has a cathedral, near which lie buried Mary Menshikova (a daughter of Aleksandr Menshikov, who attempted to make her betrothed to tsar Peter II) and some of the Dolgorukovs. In the 19th century, Beryozov was a place of exile for many of the Decembrists. In the 20th century, the Tsarist regime banished a few revolutionaries here as well.
In 1907, Trotsky while on his way to exile in Obdorsk escaped from Berezov on February 12/13. It had taken 33 days by train and horse to get from St Petersburg. He mentions Prince Menshikov had been in exile here.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berezov". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Beryozovo Museum (mostly in Russian with some English)