|• Mayor||Trude Drevland (H)|
|• Governing mayor||Martin Smith-Sivertsen (H)|
|• City||465.56 km2 (179.75 sq mi)|
|• Urban||94.03 km2 (36.31 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,755 km2 (1,064 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||987 m (3,238 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Urban||238,098 (2012)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||(+47) 5556|
Bergen (Norwegian pronunciation:  ( listen)) (Norwegian Nynorsk and Bokmål: /ˈbærɡn̩/, /-æɾɡ-/; Norwegian Bergensk: usually /ˈbæʁɡn̩/; British English: /ˈbəːɡən/; American English: /ˈbɜɹɡn̩/, /-ɡən/) is a city and municipality on the Bergen Peninsula in Hordaland county on the west coast of Norway. The city was established before 1070 AD. Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland.
The area covered by the municipality is 465 square kilometres (180 sq mi), and it consists of eight boroughs.
Bergen is an international centre for aquaculture, shipping, offshore petroleum industry and subsea technology, and a national centre for higher education, tourism and finance. Natives speak a distinctive dialect of Norwegian known as Bergensk. The city has an airport, a light rail system the busiest port in Norway and is the terminus of the Bergen Line;.
- 1 Toponomy
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Cityscape
- 7 Administration
- 8 Education
- 9 Economy
- 10 Transport
- 11 Culture
- 12 Recreation areas
- 13 International relations
- 14 Public mass events
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
The Old Norse forms of the name were Bergvin and Bjǫrgvin (and in Icelandic and Faroese the city is still called Björgvin). The first element is berg (n.) or bjǫrg (n.), which translates to mountain(s). The last element is vin (f.), which means a new settlement where there used to be a pasture or meadow. The full meaning is then 'the meadow among the mountains'.
Gitte Hansen's 2004 Ph.D. dissertation proposes that "Bergen was founded as a handelsknutepunkt [a crossroads for trading] sometime during the 1020s or 1030s". Later, in a 2004 NRK article, she said that "A king decided at the start of the 11th century, that here a city ought to be." Furthermore she said that king Olav Kyrre "was not the first [king] to start building a city [in Bergen].
In 1068 the Diocese of Bergen was established.
Around 1100 the export (through Bergen) of dried cod from the northern Norwegian coast started, eventually becoming the principal export traded from Bergen.
In 1163 the city's cathedral, the Christ Church, was the site of the first royal coronation in Norway.
In 1181 the Birkebeiner defeated their opponents in the Battle of Bergen during the civil war era in Norway. "[The present-day neighbourhood] Engen was the battlefield in 1181 during the battle between king Sverre's men and bondehæren [the farmers' army]", according to the encyclopedia Bergen byleksikon.)
After the 1181 Battle of Bergen
Bergen was granted monopoly in regards to trade from the North of Norway, by king Haakon Haakonsson (1217-1263). Stockfish was the main reason that the city became one of North Europe's largest centres for trade at the time.
In 1281, a sixth coronation was held at Christ Church—the last one held there.
Bergen was Norway's most important city in the 13th century.
In 1343 (or in the 1350s) "the first Hanseatic commercial settlement was established in Bergen", according to Natascha Mehler. German merchants formed a colony—protected by the Hanseatic League. Sources vary about whether it "was not an isolated German ghetto, but operated in vibrant interaction with its surroundings", or it was "separated from the Norwegian bysamfunn [city community]". This Kontor was located at Bryggen in Bergen. The Hanseatic merchants lived in their own separate quarter of town, where Middle Low German was spoken, enjoying exclusive rights to trade with the northern fishermen who each summer sailed to Bergen. During this century the Hanseatic merchants acquired monopolistic control over the trade in Bergen.
In 1560, the Kontor at Bryggen came under the legal jurisdiction of the authorities of Norway.
From around 1600, the Hanseatic dominance of the city's trade gradually declined in favour of Norwegian merchants (often of Hanseatic ancestry).
In 1630 the Hanseatic League was dissolved, but the Kontor continued operating.
In 1665, the city's harbour was the site of the Battle of Vågen, where an English naval flotilla attacked a Dutch merchant- and treasure fleet supported by the city's garrison.
In 1754, the operations of the Kontor at Bryggen, ended.
In 1882 the city's phone company was established.
In 1897 a trolley service started operating.
In 1900 utility services for electricity started.
In 1909 the rail line to Oslo opened—the Bergen Line.
In 1917 the pier Skoltegrunnskaien opened.
World War II
During World War II Bergen was occupied on the first day of the German invasion on 9 April 1940, after a brief fight between German ships and the Norwegian coastal artillery. The German cruiser Königsberg was badly damaged by Norwegian coastal artillery at Kvarven Fort, and sunk by British bombers the following day, 10 April 1940, in the harbour. On 20 April 1944 the Dutch cargo ship Voorbode anchored off the Bergenhus Fortress, loaded with over 120 tons of explosives, blew up, killing at least 150 people and damaging historic buildings. The city was subject to some Allied bombing raids, aiming at German naval installations in the harbour. Some of these caused Norwegian civilian casualties numbering about 100.
After World War II
From county to municipality
Bergen was separated from Hordaland as a county of its own in 1831. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The rural municipality of Bergen landdistrikt was merged with Bergen on 1 January 1877. The rural municipality of Årstad was merged with Bergen on 1 July 1915. The rural municipalities of Arna, Fana, Laksevåg, and Åsane were merged with Bergen on 1 January 1972. The city lost its status as a separate county on the same date. Bergen is now a municipality, in the county of Hordaland.
From 1831 to 1972, Bergen was its own county. In 1972 the municipality absorbed four surrounding municipalities, and at the same time became a part of Hordaland county.
In 1170 or 1171, the first great fire occurred.
In 1198, the Bagler-faction set fire to the city in connection with a battle against the Birkebeiner faction during the civil war. In 1248, Holmen and Sverresborg burned, and 11 churches were destroyed. In 1413 another fire struck the city, and 14 churches were destroyed. In 1428 the city was plundered by German pirates, and in 1455, Hanseatic merchants were responsible for burning down Munkeliv Abbey. In 1476, Bryggen burned down in a fire started by a drunk trader. In 1582, another fire hit the city centre and Strandsiden. In 1675, 105 buildings burned down in Øvregaten. In 1686 a new great fire hit Strandsiden, destroying 231 city blocks and 218 boathouses. The greatest fire to date happened in 1702 when 90 percent of the city was burned to ashes. In 1751, there was a great fire at Vågsbunnen. In 1756, a new fire at Strandsiden burned down 1,500 buildings, and further great fires hit Strandsiden in 1771 and 1901. In 1916, 300 buildings burned down in the city centre, and in 1955 parts of Bryggen burned down.
1918 campaign to revert to former name
In 1918, there was a campaign to reintroduce the Norse form Bjørgvin as the name of the city. This was turned down – but as a compromise the name of the diocese was changed to Bjørgvin bispedømme.
Bergen occupies most of the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen in the district of Midthordland in mid-western Hordaland. The municipality covers an area of 465 square kilometres (180 square miles). Most of the urban area is located on or close to a fjord or bay, although there are several mountains located within the urban area.
Surrounding the centre of the city are the Seven Mountains, although there is disagreement as to which of the nine mountains constitute these. Ulriken, Fløyen, Løvstakken and Damsgårdsfjellet are always included as well as three of Lyderhorn, Sandviksfjellet, Blåmanen, Rundemanen, Kolbeinsvarden, and, at least until 1980, Askøyfjellet. Gullfjellet is the highest mountain in Bergen, at 987 metres (3,238 ft) above mean sea level.
The population is 271,067 making the population density 583 people per km2. The main urban area of Bergen has 238,098 residents and covers an area of 96.71 square kilometres (37.34 sq mi). Other urban areas, as defined by Statistics Norway, consists of Indre Arna (6,536 residents), Fanahammeren (3,690), Ytre Arna (2,626), Hylkje (2,277) and Espeland (2,182).
Bergen is sheltered from the North Sea by the islands Askøy, Holsnøy (the municipality of Meland) and Sotra (the municipalities of Fjell and Sund). Bergen borders the municipalities Meland, Lindås and Osterøy to the north, Vaksdal and Samnanger to the east, Os and Austevoll to the south, and Sund, Fjell and Askøy to the west.
Bergen features a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). Areas of the municipality at some higher altitude (above ca 200 m amsl) are largely oceanic sub-polar (Cfc), with cool winters and mild summers. Bergen's weather is warmer than the city's latitude might suggest. The Gulf Stream provides the city with the warmest winters of all cities in the Nordic countries. Bergen experiences plentiful rainfall in all seasons, with annual precipitation measuring 2,250 mm (89 in) on average. This is because the city is surrounded by mountains that cause moist North Atlantic air to undergo orographic lift, yielding abundant rainfall. Rain fell every day between 29 October 2006 and 21 January 2007, 85 consecutive days. The highest temperature ever recorded was 31.8 °C (89.2 °F) on July 17, 2003 and the lowest was −16.3 °C (2.7 °F) in 1987.
The high precipitation is often used in the marketing of the city, and figures to a degree on postcards sold in the city. For some time there were umbrella vending machines in the city, but these did not turn out to be a success. Compared to areas behind the mountains on the Scandinavian peninsula, Bergen is much wetter and has a narrower temperature range with very cool summers and mild winters. In terms of temperature and precipation, Bergen has more in common with the climate of Scotland across the sea than with Oslo and Sweden, where long heat and cold-waves occur regularly.
In recent years, precipitation and winds have increased in the city. In late 2005, heavy rains caused floods and several landslides, the worst of which killed three people on 14 September. Some indications are that, due to climate change, storms causing landslides and floods will become more severe in the area and in the surrounding counties. As a response, the municipality created a special 24-man rescue unit within the fire department in 2005, to respond to future slides and other natural disasters, and neighbourhoods considered at risk of slides were surveyed in 2006. The prediction was supported by over 480 landslides in Hordaland county from the spring of 2006 to the summer of 2007. Most of the slides hit roads however none of them had caused damage to cars, buildings, or people, until October 2007, when a large rock dislodged and killed the driver of a car. Another concern is the risk of rising sea levels. Already, Bryggen is regularly flooded at extreme tides, and it is feared that as sea levels rise, floods will become a major problem in Bergen. Floods may in the future reach the railroad tracks leading out of the city. It has therefore been suggested by among others Stiftelsen Bryggen, the foundation responsible for preserving the UNESCO site, that a sea wall, built so that it could be raised and lowered as demanded by the tides, be built outside the harbour to protect the city.
|Climate data for Bergen (2005–2014) temperature last 10 years, precipitation, sun and rainy days 1961-1990|
|Average high °C (°F)||4.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.2
|Average low °C (°F)||0.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||190
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||20||15||17||13||14||11||15||17||20||22||17||21||202|
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||76||73||72||72||76||77||78||79||79||78||79||76.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||19||56||94||147||186||189||167||144||86||60||27||12||1,187|
|Source: http://sharki.oslo.dnmi.no/pls/portal/BATCH_ORDER.PORTLET_UTIL.Download_BLob?p_BatchId=666089&p_IntervalId=1351224(eklima.no) (high and low temperatures), NOAA (all else)|
|Source: Statistics Norway. Note: The municipalities of Arna, Fana, Laksevåg and Åsane were merged with Bergen 1 January 1972.|
Ethnic Norwegians make up 84.5% of Bergen's residents. In addition, 8.1% were first or second generation immigrants of Western background and 7.4% were first or second generation immigrants of non-Western background. The population grew by 4,549 people in 2009, a growth rate of 1,8%. Ninety-six percent of the population live in urban areas. As of 2002, the average gross income for men above the age of 17 is 426,000 Norwegian krone (NOK), the average gross income for women above the age of 17 is NOK 238,000, with the total average gross income being NOK 330,000. In 2007, there were 104.6 men for every 100 women in the age group of 20–39. 22.8% of the population were under 17 years of age, while 4.5% were 80 and above.
The immigrant population (those with two foreign-born parents) in Bergen, includes 42,169 individuals with backgrounds from 180 countries representing 15.5% of the city's population (2014). Of these, 50.2% have background from Europe, 28.9% from Asia, 13.1% from Africa, 5.5% from Latin America, 1.9% from North America and 0.4% from Oceania. The immigrant population in Bergen in the period 1993–2008 increased by 119.7%, while the ethnic Norwegian population has grown by 8.1% during the same period. The national average is 138.0% and 4.2%. The immigrant population has thus accounted for 43.6% of Bergen's population growth and 60.8% of Norway's population growth during the period 1993–2008, compared with 84.5% in Oslo.
The immigrant population in Bergen has changed a lot since 1970. As of 1 January 1986, there were 2,870 persons with non-Western immigrant background in Bergen. In 2006, this figure had increased to 14,630, so the non-Western immigrant population in Bergen was five times higher than in 1986. This is a slightly slower growth than the national average, which has sextupled during the same period. Also in relation to the total population in Bergen, the proportion of non-Western increased significantly. In 1986, the proportion of the total population in the municipality of non-Western background was 3.6%. In January 2006, persons with non-Western immigrant background accounted for 6 percent of the population in Bergen. The share of Western immigrants has remained stable at around 2% in the period. The number of Poles in Bergen rose from 697 in 2006 to 3,128 in 2010.
The Church of Norway is the largest denomination in Bergen, with 201,006 (79.74%) adherents in 2012. Bergen is the seat of the Diocese of Bjørgvin with Bergen Cathedral as its centrepiece, which St John's Church is the city's most prominent. The state church is followed by 52,059 (13.55%) irreligious  12,000 Catholics belonging to Saint Paul Catholic Church 4,947 members of various Protestant free churches, 2,707 Muslims, 816 Hindus, 255 Russian Orthodox and 147 Oriental Orthodox. For a complete list of Church of Norway churches in Bergen, see the List of churches in Hordaland.
The city centre of Bergen is located west in the municipality, facing the fjord of Byfjorden. It is situated among a group of mountains known as the Seven Mountains, although the number is a matter of definition. From here, the urban area of Bergen extends to the north, west and south, and to its east is a large mountain massif. Outside of the city centre and the surrounding neighbourhoods (i.e. Årstad, inner Laksevåg and Sandviken), the majority of the population lives in relatively sparsely populated residential areas that have been built since the 1950s. While some are dominated by apartment buildings and modern terraced houses (e.g. Fyllingsdalen), others are dominated by single-family homes.
The oldest part of Bergen is the area around the bay of Vågen in the city centre. Originally centred on the eastern side of the bay, Bergen eventually expanded west and southwards. Few buildings from the oldest period remain, the most significant being St Mary's Church from the 12th century. For several hundred years, the extent of the city remained almost constant. The population was stagnant, and the city limits were narrow. In 1702, ⅞ of the city burned. Most of the old buildings of Bergen, including Bryggen (which was rebuilt in a medieval style), were built after the fire. The fire marked a transition from tar covered houses, as well as the remaining log houses, to painted and some brick-covered wooden buildings.
The last half of the 19th century was a period of rapid expansion and modernisation of the city. The fire of 1855 west of Torgallmenningen led to the development of regularly sized city blocks in this area of the city centre. The city limits were expanded in 1876, and Nygård, Møhlenpris and Sandviken were urbanised with large-scale construction of city blocks housing both the poor and the wealthy. Their architecture is influenced by a variety of styles; historicism, classicism and Art Nouveau. The wealthy built villas between Møhlenpris and Nygård, and on the side of Mount Fløyen; these areas were also added to Bergen in 1876. Simultaneously, an urbanisation process was taking place in Solheimsviken in Årstad, at the time outside of Bergen municipality, centred on the large industrial activity in the area. The workers' homes in this area were poorly built, and little remains after large-scale redevelopment in the 1960s–1980s.
After Årstad became a part of Bergen in 1916, a development plan was applied to the new area. Few city blocks akin to those in Nygård and Møhlenpris were planned. Many of the worker class built their own homes, and many small, detached apartment buildings were built. After World War II, Bergen had again run short on land to build on, and, contrary to the original plans, many large apartment buildings were built in Landås in the 1950s and 1960s. Bergen acquired Fyllingsdalen from Fana municipality in 1955. Like similar areas in Oslo (e.g. Lambertseter), Fyllingsdalen was developed into a modern suburb with large apartment buildings, mid-rises, and some single-family homes, in the 1960s and 1970s. Similar developments took place outside of Bergen's city limits, for example in Loddefjord.
At the same time as planned city expansion took place inside Bergen, its extra-municipal suburbs too grew rapidly. Wealthy citizens of Bergen had been living in Fana since the 19th century, but as the city expanded it became more convenient to settle in the municipality. Similar processes took place in Åsane and Laksevåg. Most of the homes in these areas are detached row houses, single family homes or small apartment buildings. After the surrounding municipalities were merged with Bergen in 1972, expansion has continued in largely the same manner, although the municipality encourages condensing near commercial centres, future Bergen Light Rail stations, and elsewhere.
As part of the modernisation wave of the 1950s and 1960s, and due to damage caused by World War II, the city government ambitiously planned redevelopment of many areas in central Bergen. The plans involved demolition of several neighbourhoods of wooden houses, namely Nordnes, Marken, and Stølen. None of the plans was carried out in its original form; the Marken and Stølen redevelopment plans were discarded entirely and that of Nordnes only carried out in the area that had been most damaged by war. The city council of Bergen had in 1964 voted to demolish the entirety of Marken, however, the decision proved to be highly controversial and the decision was reversed in 1974. Bryggen was under threat of being wholly or partly demolished after the fire of 1955, when a large number of the buildings burned to the ground. Instead of being demolished, the remaining buildings were eventually restored and accompanied by reconstructions of some of the burned buildings. Demolition of old buildings and occasionally whole city blocks is still taking place, the most recent major example being the 2007 razing of Jonsvollskvartalet at Nøstet.
Since 2000, the city of Bergen has been governed by a city government (byråd) based on the principle of parliamentarism. The government consists of 7 government members called commissioners, and is appointed by the city council, the supreme authority of the city. Since the local elections of 2007, the city has been ruled by a right-wing coalition of the Progress Party, the Christian Democratic Party and the Conservative Party, each with two commissioners. The Conservative Party member Trude Drevland is mayor, while conservative Ragnhild Stolt-Nielsen is the leader of the city government, the most powerful political position in Bergen.
|Bergen city council 2007–2011|
|Labour Party||16 (+1)|
|Progress Party||14 (+2)|
|Socialist Left Party||5 (−3)|
|Christian Democratic Party||4 (0)|
|Liberal Party||4 (+2)|
|Red Electoral Alliance||3 (−1)|
|Centre Party||2 (+1)|
|Pensioners' Party||1 (−2)|
The 2007 city council elections were held on 10 September. The Socialist Left Party (SV) and the Pensioners Party (PP) ended up as the losers of the election, SV going from 11.6% of the votes in the 2003 elections to 7.1%, and PP losing 2.9% ending up at 1.2%. The Liberal Party more than doubled, going from 2.7% to 5.8%. The Conservative Party lost 1.1% of the votes, ending up at 26.3%, while the Progress Party got 20.2% of the votes, a gain of 3% since the 2003 elections. The Christian Democratic Party gained 0.2%, ending up at 6.3%. The Red Electoral Alliance lost 1.4%, ending up at 4.5%, while the Centre Party gained 1.2%, ending up at 2.8%. Finally, the Labour Party continued being the second largest party in the city, gaining 1% and ending up at 23.9%.
Bergen is divided into 8 boroughs, as seen on the map to the left. Starting with the northernmost and going clockwise, the boroughs are Åsane, Arna, Fana, Ytrebygda, Fyllingsdalen, Laksevåg, Årstad and Bergenhus. The city centre is located in Bergenhus. Parts of Fana, Ytrebygda, Åsane and Arna are not part of the Bergen urban area, explaining why the municipality has approximately 20,000 more inhabitants than the urban area. The separate borough administrations were closed 30 June 2004, but were re-established 1 January 2008.
(Pertaining to the table above: The acreage figures include fresh water and uninhabited mountain areas, except:
1 1 The borough Bergenhus is 8.73 km (5.42 mi) ², the rest is water and uninhabited mountain areas.
2 2 The borough Årstad is 8.47 km (5.26 mi) ², the rest is water and uninhabited mountain areas.)
A former borough, Sentrum
Sentrum (literally, "Centre") was a borough (with the same name as a present-day neighbourhood). The borough was numbered 01, and its perimeter was from Store Lungegårdsvann and Strømmen along Puddefjorden around Nordnes and over to Skuteviken, up Mt. Fløyen east of Langelivannet, on to Skansemyren and over Forskjønnelsen to Store Lungegårdsvann, south of the railroad tracks.
The population of the (now defunct) borough, numbered in 1994 more than 18000 people.
There are 64 elementary schools, 18 lower secondary schools and 20 upper secondary schools in Bergen, as well as 11 combined elementary and lower secondary schools. Bergen Cathedral School is the oldest school in Bergen and was founded by Pope Adrian IV in 1153.
The University of Bergen has 16,000 students and 3,000 staff, making it the third-largest educational institution in Norway. Research in Bergen dates back to activity at Bergen Museum in 1825, although the university was not founded until 1946. The university has a broad range of courses and research in academic fields and three national centres of excellence, in climate research, petroleum research and medieval studies. The main campus is located in the city centre. The university cooperates with Haukeland University Hospital within medical research. The Chr. Michelsen Institute is an independent research foundation established in 1930 focusing on human rights and development issues.
Bergen University College has 6,000 students and 600 staff. It focuses on professional education, such as teaching, healthcare and engineering. The college was created through amalgamation in 1994; campuses are spread around town but will be co-located at Kronstad. The Norwegian School of Economics is located in outer Sandviken and is the leading business school in Norway, having produced three Economy Nobel Prize laureates. The school has more than 3000 students and approximately 400 staff. Other tertiary education institutions include the Bergen School of Architecture, the Bergen National Academy of the Arts, located in the city centre with 300 students, and the Norwegian Naval Academy located in Laksevåg. The Norwegian Institute of Marine Research has been located in Bergen since 1900. It provides research and advice relating to ecosystems and aquaculture. It has a staff of 700 people.
In August 2004, Time magazine named the city one of Europe's 14 "secret capitals" where Bergen's capital reign is acknowledged within maritime businesses and activities such as aquaculture and marine research, with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) (the second-largest oceanography research centre in Europe) as the leading institution. Bergen is the main base for the Royal Norwegian Navy (at Haakonsvern) and its international airport Flesland is the main heliport for the Norwegian North Sea oil and gas industry, from where thousands of offshore workers commute to their work places onboard oil and gas rigs and platforms.
Shopping centres include Lagunen Storsenter.
Tourism is an important income source for the city.
The hotels in the city may be full at times, due to the increasing number of tourists and conferences. Prior to the Rolling Stones concert in September 2006, many hotels were already fully booked several months in advance.
Bergen Airport, Flesland, is located 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the city centre, at Flesland. In 2013 the Avinor-operated airport served 6 million passengers. The airport serves as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widerøe; there are direct flights to 20 domestic and 53 international destinations.
The city centre is surrounded by an electronic toll collection ring using the Autopass system. The main motorways consist of E39, which runs north–south through the municipality, E16, which runs eastwards, and National Road 555, which runs westwards. There are four major bridges connecting Bergen to neighbouring municipalities: the Nordhordland Bridge, the Askøy Bridge, the Sotra Bridge and the Osterøy Bridge. Bergen connects to the island of Bjorøy via the subsea Bjorøy Tunnel.
Bergen Station is the terminus of the Bergen Line, which runs 496 kilometres (308 mi) to Oslo. The Norwegian State Railways operates express trains to Oslo and the Bergen Commuter Rail to Voss. Between Bergen and Arna Station, the train runs every 30 minutes through the Ulriken Tunnel; there is no corresponding road tunnel, forcing road vehicles to travel via Åsane.
Bergen is one of the smallest cities in Europe to have both tram and trolleybus electric urban transport systems simultaneously. Public transport in Hordaland is managed by Skyss, which operates an extensive city bus network in Bergen and to many neighbouring municipalities, including one route which operates as a trolleybus. The trolleybus system in Bergen is the only one still in operation in Norway and one of two trolleybus systems in Scandinavia.
The modern tram Bergen Light Rail (Bybanen) opened between the city centre and Nesttun in 2010, extended to Rådal (Lagunen Storsenter) in 2013 and is scheduled to reach the airport in 2015. Extensions to other boroughs may occur later. Fløibanen is a funicular which runs from the city centre to Mount Fløyen and Ulriksbanen is an aerial tramway which runs to Mount Ulriken.
Four bridges connect Bergen to its "suburban municipalities".
Bergen Port, operated by Bergen Port Authority, is the largest seaport in Norway. In 2011, the port saw 264 cruise calls with 350,248 visitors, In 2009, the port handled 56 million tonnes of cargo, making it the ninth-busiest cargo port in Europe. There are plans to relocate the port out of the city centre, but no location has been chosen. Fjord Line operates a cruiseferry service to Hirtshals, Denmark. Bergen is the southern terminus of Hurtigruten, the Coastal Express, which operates with daily services along the coast to Kirkenes. Passenger catamarans run from Bergen south to Haugesund and Stavanger, and north to Sognefjord and Nordfjord.
The city's piers include Dokkeskjærskaien.
The city's cultural institutions include theatres (including Den Nationale Scene), the concert venue Grieg Hall, orchestras (Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1765), ensembles (incl. Bergen Woodwind Quintet) and dance companies (incl. Carte Blanche).
Bergens Tidende (BT) and Bergensavisen (BA) are the largest newspapers, with circulations of 87,076 and 30,719 in 2006, BT is a regional newspaper covering all of Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane, while BA focuses on metropolitan Bergen. Other newspaper published in Bergen includes the Christian national Dagen, with a circulation of 8.936, and TradeWinds, an international shipping newspaper. Local newspapers are Fanaposten for Fana, "Sydvesten" for Laksevåg and Fyllingsdalen and Bygdanytt for Arna and the neighbouring municipality Osterøy. TV 2, Norway's largest private television company, is based in Bergen.
"Archery brigades" (buekorps)
The youth organisations buekorps ("archery brigades"), unique to Bergen, drum and march (with imitation weapons) in the Constitution Day Flaggtoget parade. In the 2007 parade, there were 752 members—from 15 brigades.
Bergensk is the native dialect of Bergen and a variation of Vestnorsk. It was strongly influenced by Low German-speaking merchants from the mid-14th to mid-18th centuries. During the Dano-Norwegian period from 1536 to 1814, Bergen was more influenced by Danish than other areas of Norway. The Danish influence removed the female grammatical gender in the 16th century, making Bergensk one of very few Norwegian dialects with only two instead of three grammatical genders. The Rs are uvular trills, as in French, which probably spread to Bergen some time in the 18th century, overtaking the alveolar trill in the time span of two to three generations. Owing to an improved literacy rate, Bergensk was influenced by riksmål and bokmål in the 19th and 20th centuries. This led to large parts of the German-inspired vocabulary disappearing and pronunciations shifting slightly towards Eastern Norwegian (østnorsk).
Ruins include those of the Christ Church.
Bergen is looked upon as the street art capital of Norway; the famous artist Banksy visited the city in 2000 and inspired many to start with street art. Later the city brought the most famous street artist in Norway, Dolk, to town. His art can still be seen several places in the city, and in 2009 the city council chose to preserve Dolk's work "Spray" with protective glass. A five-year plan of action for street art to ensure that "Bergen will lead the fashion for street art as an expression both in Norway and Scandinavia" was launched by the city in 2011.
SK Brann is Bergen's premier football team; founded in 1908, they have played in the (men's) Norwegian Premier League all but seven years since 1963 and consecutively since 1987. The team was the football champion in 1961–62, 1963 and 2007, and reached the quarter-finals of the Cup Winners' Cup in 1996–97. Brann plays their home games at the 17,824-seat Brann Stadion. FK Fyllingsdalen is the city's second-best team, playing in the Second Division at Varden Amfi. Its predecessor, Fyllingen, played in the Norwegian Premier League in 1990, 1991 and 1993. Arna-Bjørnar and Sandviken play in the Women's Premier League.
The city's main football team is SK Brann.
Bergen IK is the premier men's ice hockey team, playing at Bergenshallen in the First Division. Tertnes plays in the Women's Premier Handball League, and Fyllingen in the Men's Premier Handball League. In athletics, the city is dominated by IL Norna-Salhus, IL Gular and FIK BFG Fana, formerly also Norrøna IL and TIF Viking.
Beaches include the one on the lake Tennebekktjørna in the Nipedalen valley. Trails for hiking include those on Mt. Ulriken and in forests such as Kanadaskogen.
Each year Bergen donates the Christmas Tree seen in Newcastle's Haymarket as a sign of the ongoing friendship between the sister cities. The Nordic friendship cities of Bergen, Gothenburg, Turku and Aarhus arrange inter-Nordic camps each year by inviting 10th grade school classes from each of the other cities to school camps. Bergen received a totem pole as a gift of friendship from the city of Seattle on the city's 900th anniversary in 1970. It is now placed in the Nordnes Park and gazes out over the sea towards the friendship city far to the west.
Sister (town) cities
- Asmara, Eritrea
- Gothenburg, Sweden (since 1946)
- Newcastle, United Kingdom (since 1968)
- Seattle, United States (since 1967)
- Turku, Finland (since 1946)
- Aarhus, Denmark (since 1946)
Public mass events
- "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents by country of birth1,(the 20 largest groups).Selected municipalities.1 January 2011". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "Bergen – historie". Store norske leksikon.
- Brekke, Nils Georg (1993). Kulturhistorisk vegbok Hordaland (in Norwegian). Bergen: Hordaland Fylkeskommune. p. 252. ISBN 82-7326-026-7.
- Bergen – historie "Bergen fikk status som by på Olav Kyrres tid, ifølge senere kilder i året 1070."
- Elisabeth Farstad (2007). "Om kommunen" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
- NRK, "Bergens historie må skrives om"
- Bergens historie må skrives om "Olav Kyrre investerte videre, men var altså ikke den første som startet med å bygge en by."
- Marguerite Ragnow (2007). "Cod". Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- "Munkeliv". Store norske leksikon.
- "Selje kloster". Store norske leksikon.
- Tom R. Hjertholm (2013-12-16). "- Tørrfisken vender hjem". Bergensavisen.
- Brekke, Nils Georg (1993). Kulturhistorisk vegbok Hordaland (in Norwegian). Bergen: Hordaland Fylkeskommune. ISBN 82-7326-026-7.
- "Bergen – historie". Store norske leksikon.
- The Perception and Interpretation of Hanseatic Material Culture in the North Atlantic: Problems and Suggestions p.90
- Det tyske kontor [The German kontor]
- Anette Skogseth Clausen. [dead link] "7. oktober 1754 – fra et hanseatisk kontor til et norsk kontor med hanseater" (in Norwegian). Arkivverket. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- Carl Hecker, Justus Friedrich (1833). The Black Death in the Fourteenth Century.
- Alf Ragnar Nielssen (1 January 1950). [dead link] "Indigenous and Early Fisheries in North-Norway" (PDF). The Sea in European History. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
- The Perception and Interpretation of Hanseatic Material Culture in the North Atlantic: Problems and Suggestions p.96
- Downing Kendrick, Thomas (2004). A History of the Vikings. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-486-43396-7.
- "Bryggen i Bergen". Store norske leksikon.
- Ivan Kristoffersen (2003). "Historien om Norge i nord" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- "Dagenidag". dagsdato.no. Retrieved 2014-09-23.
Byen hadde valgt representanter til det ekstraordinære Stortinget, men sogneprest Jonas Rein var ikke valgt. Under riksforsamlingen på Eidsvoll hadde han vært en svært ivrig tilhenger av selvstendighetspartiet og Chistian Frederik. «Kanskje er han mer framsynt enn andre og har valgt å fri seg fra belastningen [ved å skulle velge svenske Karl 13].» - Pavels likte ikke beskjeden om at soldatene fra Bergenhus var klar til å dra i krigen igjen. «Det gir sørgelige utsikter til oppstand og borgerkrig og er alt vi mangler for å gjøre ulykken komplett.» - Brevet refererte også prekenen som biskop Brun i Bergen holdt på Christian Frederiks fødselsdag. «Han tror ikke noe er så tapt at det ikke kan vinnes tilbake med krig. For ham er kongen fyrsten vi har valgt, og som fortsatt kan styre vårt kjære Norge i 30-40 år.» - «Måtte Gud sørge for at Christian Frederik bestemmer seg for å dra jo før jo heller. Han forente oss for sju måneder siden, men nå skaper han splittelse.»
- "Innvandring 1600–2000, Arkivenes dag 2002" (in Norwegian). Arkivverket. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- "Festung Norwegen: Kamp eller kapitulasjon?". Aftenposten.
- Jenny Heggsvik; Lars Borgersrud; August Rathke; Egil Christophersen; Ole-Jacob Abraham. "Prosjektbeskrivelse for det historiske forskningsprosjektet SABORG I BERGEN".
- NRK (9 July 2014). "ULYKKEN SOM INGEN TRODDE KUNNE SKJE". NRK.
- UNESCO (2007). "World Heritage List". Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- "Distriktsinndeling og navn" (in Norwegian). Fornyings- og administrasjonsdepartementet. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
- Statistics Norway (1999). "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- Bergen Kommune (2007). "Styringssystemet i Bergen kommune" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- "Kart som kulturarv". Bergens Tidende.
- "De eldste bygårdene".
- "Bjørgvin bispedøme" (in Norwegian). Scandion.no. 2004. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- Gunhild Agdesteen (2007). "I den syvende himmel". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- "7-fjellsturen arrangeres for 55. gang sndag 24. mai - 7-Fjellsturen - 7-fjellsturen".
- "Norwegian Mountains: Gullfjellstoppen". Retrieved 8 September 2007.
- "Population and quarterly changes, Q3 2013". Statistics Norway. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality. 1 January 2012". Statistics Norway. 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Meterologisk Institutt (2007). "met.no: Normaler for Bergen" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- ANB-NTB (2007). "Stopp for nedbørsrekord" (in Norwegian). siste.no. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- "Varmerekord i Bergen" (in Norwegian). 2003. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- Bjørbæk, G. 2003. Norsk vær i 110 år. N.W. DAMM & Sønn. ISBN 82-04-08695-4; page 260
- "Paraply-fiasko i Bergen" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- Jan I. Eliassen (14 November 2006). "Bergen oppretter egen rasgruppe" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
- Kari Pedersen (28 September 2005). "Rasfare sjekkes i hele kommunen" (in Norwegian). Bergen Tidende. Archived from the original on 16 February 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
- Tor Sandberg (2 February 2006). "I værgudenes vold" (in Norwegian). Dagsavisen. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
- Johan Lindebotten (4 September 2007). "480 ras på vegene i Hordaland" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
- Jostein Ihlbæk (16 October 2007). "Kvinne omkom da stein gikk gjennom frontruten" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. Retrieved 15 November 2007.
- Cato Guhnfeldt (22 April 2007). "Bergen går våt fremtid i møte" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
- Øivind Ask (6 December 2006). "Sluse kan redde Bryggen" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
- "World Weather Information Service – Bergen". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "BERGEN - FLORIDA Climate Normals: Temperature 2005–2014, all other data 1961-1990.". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-16.
- "Microsoft Word - FOB-Hefte.doc" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- "Tabell 6 Folkemengde per 1. januar, etter fylke og kommune. Registrert 2009. Framskrevet 2010–2030, alternativ MMMM" (in Norwegian). Ssb.no. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- "SSB: Tall om Bergen kommune" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
- "Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre i 13 kommuner, page 476" (in Norwegian). ssb.no. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "Statistics Norway". Stat Bank. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Immigrant population in Bergen[dead link]
- "'''County Mayor of Hordaland''' – '''Norwegian'''". Fylkesmannen.no. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- "'''Bergensavisen''' – ''Norwegian''". ba.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "'''Bergens Tidende''' – ''Norwegian''". Bt.no. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Hagen Hartvedt, Gunnar (1994). "Bergen". Bergen Byleksikon (1st ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. p. 27. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- Hagen Hartvedt, Gunnar (1994). "Bergen". Bergen Byleksikon (1st ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. p. 23. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- Hagen Hartvedt, Gunnar (1994). "Bergen". Bergen Byleksikon (1st ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. p. 25. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- Østerbø, Kjell (23 September 2007). "Da rike og fattige fikk sine strøk". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- Hagen Hartvedt, Gunnar (1994). "Bergen". Bergen Byleksikon (1st ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. pp. 25–26. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- Hagen Hartvedt, Gunnar (1994). "Bergen". Bergen Byleksikon (1st ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. pp. 26–27. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- Hagen Hartvedt, Gunnar (1994). "Bergen". Bergen Byleksikon (1st ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. pp. 9–61. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- Mæland, Pål Andreas (16 May 2008). "Nå kommer slangen til Paradis". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- Røyrane, Eva (9 May 2007). "Bergen bygges tettere". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- Okkenhaug, Liv Solli (21 April 2007). "Rev de siste husene". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- "Styringssystem" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- Christian Lura (2007). "- Fantastisk å bli spurt" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 16 November 2007.
- Vibeke Vik Nordang, Elisabeth Farstad (2007). "Har valt Gunnar Bakke til ordførar" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. Retrieved 16 November 2007.
- Vibeke Vik Nordang (2007). "Byrådet er valt" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. Retrieved 16 November 2007.
- "Resultater for Bergen i Hordaland" (in Norwegian). regjeringen.no. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "Valgresultater – regjeringen.no" (in Norwegian). Kommunal- og regionaldepartementet. 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- Statistics Norway (2004). "Bydeler i Oslo, Bergen, Stavanger og Trondheim" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- "Bydelsadministrasjonene lagt ned" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. Retrieved 17 November 2007.[dead link]
- www.bergen.kommune.no[dead link]
- "Statistics Norway – Population, by sex and age. Bergen. Urban district.". Ssb.no. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Bergen byleksikon, trykt utgave 2009 (25 January 2001). "Bergen byleksikon". Bergen byleksikon.
- "Oversikt over barneskoler" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- "Oversikt over ungdomsskoler" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. 2007. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- "Skoleportalen" (in Norwegian). Hordaland fylkeskommune. 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- "Oversikt over kombinerte skoler" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- Hartvedt, Gunnar Hagen (1994). Bergen Byleksikon. Kunnskapsforlaget. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.
- "Om Universitetet i Bergen" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- Mia Kolbjørnsen and Hilde Kvalvaag (2002). "UiB får tre SFF" (in Norwegian). på høyden. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- "About CMI" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Om Høgskolen i Bergen" (in Norwegian). 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- "FT.com / Business Education / Masters in management". Financial Times (in Norwegian). 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004". 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- "Om NHH" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "Om Kunsthøgskolen i Bergen" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- "About imr" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Europe's Secret Capitals". TIME Magazine. 30 August 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- "Film Location:Bergen". West Norway Film Commission. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- "Byen i grøften". Bergens Tidende.
- "Jobber på spreng for å sikre arbeid". SYSLA.
- Cruisetrafikken en destruktiv turisme [Cruise traffic—a destructive tourism]
- "Torget er Bergens største turistfelle". Bergens Tidende.
- Bergen Havn. "Velkommen til Bergen havn – "Inngangen til Fjordene"" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 18 July 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
- Lars Kvamme and Ingvild Bruaset. "Russerne kommer" (in Norwegian). bt.no. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- Frode Buanes and Lars Kvamme (2006). "Sender bergensturister vekk" (in Norwegian). bt.no. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- Arild Berg Karlsen and Erik Fossen (2006). "Fulle hoteller møter Stones-fansen" (in Norwegian). bt.no. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- "Transport to Bergen". Innovation Norway. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "Flight Timetables". Avinor. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Gunnar Hagen Hartvedt (1994). "bompengering". Bergen Byleksikon: 119–120.
- Norwegian Public Roads Administration (1994). "The Nordhordland Bridge" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2006.
- "Askøy Bridge" (PDF). Aas-Jakobsen. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
- Fjell, Ragnvald (1989). Sotrabrua (in Norwegian). Fjell: A/S Sotrabrua. p. 5.
- Jahnsen, Jack (2006). Fastlandssamband for Bjorøy og Tyssøy (in Norwegian). Straume: Fastlandssambandet Tyssøy – Bjorøy. ISBN 82-303-0642-7.
- Jernbaneverket (2007). Jernbanestatistikk 2006 (PDF). Oslo: Jernbaneverket. p. 13.
- Aagesen, Ragnhild (21 September 2010). "Bergen-Arna" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "About Skyss". Skyss. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- Aspenberg, Nils Carl (1996). Trolleybussene i Norge. Oslo: Baneforlaget. p. 96.
- "Signingsferden" (in Norwegian). 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Melhus, Ståle (11 September 2009). "Vil ha bybane til Flesland i 2015". Fanaposten (in Norwegian). Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- Rykka, Ann Kristin and Solfrid Torvund (13 December 2006). "Usamde om bybaneutvidinga". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian).
- Eliassen, Jan I. (24 June 2006). "Bergen havn holder koken". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "Cruise ships". Bergen Port Authority. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "World Port Rankings 2009" (PDF). American Association of Port Authorities. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- Haga, Anders (24 June 2006). "- Vi har alle vært feige". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "Hurtigbåt- og lokalbåtruter" (in Norwegian). Tide ASA. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
- "Fjord1 – Ekspressbåter" (in Norwegian). Fjord1. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
- Cruisetrafikken en destruktiv turisme [The cruise traffic—a destructive tourism]
- "Grieghallen: Floor space and capacity". Grieg Hall. Retrieved 8 September 2007.
- "Bergen Filharmoniske Orkester" (in Norwegian). 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- Ann Kristin Frøystad (2003). "Telle: – Angrer ingenting" (in Norwegian). ba.no. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- Lars Ursin (2005). "Bløffmakerens guide til Bergensbølgen". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- Lars Ursin (2005). "Bergensbølgen tørrlagt på Alarm" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- About Buekorps and the Museum
- "European Capitals of Culture 2000–2005". Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- "Avisenes leser- og opplagstall for 2006" (in Norwegian). Mediebedriftenes Landsforening. 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- "Alvorlig nedgang for buekorpsene". Bergens Tidende.
- "What is a buekorps?". Buekorpsene.com. 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
- Nesse, Agnete (2003). Slik ble vi bergensere – Hanseatene og bergensdialekten. Sigma Forlag. ISBN 82-7916-028-0.
- "Conrad Fredrik von der Lippe (Store norske leksikon)". Store norske leksikon.
- "Vil bruke tårnsalen mer". BA.
- "Ole Bull". Store norske leksikon.
- Davidsen, Knut B. (7 December 2002). "Var madam Felle Jonnemann sin mor?" [Was Madam Felle Jonnemann's Mother?]. Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian Bokmål) (Bergen, Norway: Media Norge, Schibsted). Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "Gatekunstens hovedstad" (in Norwegian). Ba.no. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- "Fikk Banksy-bilder som takk for overnatting" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- "Derfor valgte ikke DOLK Bergen" (in Norwegian). Ba.no. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- "Populær Dolk selger så det suser" (in Norwegian). Bt.no. Retrieved 2011-04-08.
- "Forsvarer verning av graffiti" (in Norwegian). Ba.no. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
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- "UCI Management Committee agrees key decisions". UCI. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
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- "City of Aarhus Sister cities". 1 April 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Historikk - 7-fjellsturen".
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bergen.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bergen.|
- Municipality website in Norwegian and English
- Bergen Guide
- Bergen, Norway - a guide to everything that Bergen, has to offer
- Maps of the past: Kart som kulturarv [Maps as cultural heritage]