Bergen Line

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This article is about the rail line in Norway. For the New Jersey Transit rail line, see Bergen County Line. For the Norwegian shipping company, see Bergen Steamship Company.
Bergen Line
Bergensbanen finse.jpg
Abandoned section of the line through Hardangervidda near Finse
Overview
Type Railway
System Norwegian railway
Termini Hønefoss[1]
Bergen[1]
Stations 39[2][3]
Operation
Opening 27 November 1909[4]
Owner Norwegian National Rail Administration
Operator(s) Norwegian State Railways
CargoNet
Cargolink
Character Express trains
Freight trains
Rolling stock Class 73, El 18
Technical
Line length 371 kilometres (231 mi)[1]
No. of tracks Single[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)[5]
Electrification 15 kV 16⅔ Hz AC
Highest elevation 1,237 metres (4,058 ft)[6]

The Bergen Line (Norwegian: Bergensbanen), also called the Bergen Railway, is a 371-kilometre (231 mi) long standard gauge railway line between Bergen and Hønefoss, Norway.[1] The name is often applied for the entire route from Bergen via Drammen to Oslo, where the passenger trains go, a distance of 496 kilometres (308 mi).[7] It is the highest mainline railway line in Northern Europe,[8] crossing the Hardangervidda plateau at 1,237 metres (4,058 ft) above sea level.[6]

The railway opened from Bergen to Voss in 1883 as the narrow gauge Voss Line. In 1909 the route was continued over the mountain to Oslo and the whole route converted to standard gauge, and the Voss Line became part of the Bergen Line.[9] The line is single track,[1] and was electrified in 1954-64.[10] The Bergen Line is owned and maintained by the Norwegian National Rail Administration, and served with passenger trains by Norwegian State Railways (NSB) and freight trains by CargoNet. The Flåm Line remains as the only branch line, after the closure of the Hardanger Line.[1] The western section from Bergen to Voss is also served by the Bergen Commuter Rail, and was shortened following the 1966 opening of the Ulriken Tunnel.

History[edit]

First step to Voss[edit]

Map of the Bergen Line and principal stations
Main article: Voss Line

The first documented idea of building a railway between Norway's two largest cities was launched by Hans Gløersen on 24 August 1871 in Bergensposten. The forest supervisor in Voss suggested building the railway via Voss and Hallingdal to connect with the Krøderen Line. Back in 1866 the same person had launched the idea of the Jæren Line. Within days of the launch of the Bergen Line the city council had assimilated support for the suggestion. In 1872 the railway director Carl Abraham Pihl and two engineers went on a survey tour to look at the suggested line.[11] At the time it was common that proposals for railways came from local initiative, and that local municipalities and private investors would then pay about 20% of the investments, the state covering the rest, mostly through foreign debt.[12]

Political processes[edit]

On 20 October 1871 two engineers traversed the two possible routes from Bergen to Voss; the one via Fana, Os and Hardangerfjord, the other via Dale and Sørfjord. Though covering a less populated area, the latter would be cheaper to build, and have less elevation. A railway committee was created on 25 January 1872 with a limited mandate, which was increased again 20 December. At the same time there was a dispute between the Ministry of Labour and Pihl about whether to prioritize the Bergen Line, but in July 1872 surveys were performed in person by Pihl and two engineers, and their report was positive. At the same time he launched the idea of a branch line up Valdres to Lærdal.[13]

By 1873 agreement had been reached as to the right-of-way to Voss, but not onwards towards Oslo. On 13 January 1874 Bergen city council started issuing stock for the Voss Line, to begin with 400,000 Norwegian speciedaler (NOK 1.6 million) was issued. In the 1873 parliamentary election the railway supporter Peter Jebsen was elected, spending the next few years furiously defending the railway. Parliament chose to not issue new railway projects in the 1874 session, and instead make a complete plan for all railway construction in the country—to be proposed by a committee. When the report was launched on 20 March 1875, the Voss Line was not included since it could not show a higher profitability than 1%. During the 1875 session there was not a majority for the Voss Line, partially due to the lack of capital available for local investors. This was based on a claim from Johan Jørgen Schwartz, the chairman of the committee, that the investment costs were underestimated. This was countered by Nils Henrik Bruun, a constructor from Bergen, who was willing to construct all tunnels on the railway for less than the budgeted sum. When Jebsen in addition was willing to act as personal guarantee for Bruun in case of his death, the majority in the parliament shifted. On 9 June 1875 parliament voted with 61 against 42 to build Vossebanen.[14]

Construction[edit]

The ceremony at the completion of the track at Ustaoset in 1907.

Vossebanen was built with narrow gauge, 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). The first parts of the construction started in December 1875, while the largest part started in March 1876. During the winter the engineers had done the last finesses on the plans. At any given time at least 800 men worked on construction,[15] and at the peak 1,800 men were employed.[16] They worked 12 hours per day, for which they had a daily wage of NOK 2.55, the highest wage for navvies in the country.[17] To a large extent the labor came from Sweden, who had just finished the Norway/Väneren Line and had an excess of skilled labor for construction. This import of labor had the effect of pumping money into the local economy, and several taverns were built along the line. There were some accidents, and several deaths among the workers.[18]

The construction work was finished in 1882 and some test services began, though not scheduled until the spring of 1883. Official opening commenced on 11 July 1883. Many of the navvies settled on Vossebanen after construction, and started working for the NSB as part of the operation.[19]

Across the mountain[edit]

The Bergen Line (high quality)

By the time the Voss Line was completed Norway had plunged into recession. Parliament was not willing to give more money to railways, and the country had to make do with a transport plan launched in 1886 that did not follow up with any funding. On 1 March 1894 parliament after five days of debate chose, with 60 against 53 votes, to build the Bergen Line.[20] Several different routes had been proposed, including over Krøderen, or down Numedal (which later would get the Numedal Line). In the end Hallingdal was chosen, connecting to Hønefoss and via Sandvika. To save costs a preliminary line would connect Hønefoss to Roa with the branch Roa–Hønefoss Line. The final stage would be along the Gjøvik Line to Oslo. The line would also connect to the system via the Randsfjorden Line at Hønefoss.

Local financing was ready within a year, yet it took six years to survey the line properly, and construction start had to wait until 1901.[21] Construction started with the building of roads to get in supplies to the construction sites, completed in 1902. The construction was exceptionally challenging, at high altitudes in a region without roads and with a climate that saw many meters of snow in the winter and temperatures far below freezing.[22] 113 tunnels, totaling 28 kilometres (17 mi) had to be built; the longest being the 5,311 metres (17,425 ft) Gravehalsen Tunnel, alone costing NOK 3 million and the longest tunnel north of the Alps. It took six years to build, and had to be excavated manually through solid gneiss.[23] Laying of track was started in 1906, and in 1907 the two groups, both having started at their own end, met at Ustaoset. A small celebration was made at the spot (see image).

It had been decided that the Bergen Line, unlike the Voss Line, was to be built with standard gauge. So the newly laid line from Bergen to Voss had to be converted in time for the opening of the Bergen Line. This was especially challenging because of the continuous traffic on the line, with 36 departures per day to Nesttun, six to Garnes and four to Voss. In preparation a few curves had to be straightened, the tunnels widened and the bridges strengthened. On the night of 10/11 August 1904 all the track was changed and in the morning the trains could operate on standard gauge to Voss.[24]

The first services started on 1 July 1907 from Voss to Myrdal. An official opening train attempted to cross part of the line to Gulsvik on 9 December 1907, but got stuck in heavy snow and had to return. It turned out that the railway had to close and it took one and a half month to clear it for snow. Even a rotary snowplow at 750 kW was not powerful enough to get rid of the snow. A new attempt to open the line in 1908 succeeded, and a train went from Gulsvik to Bergen. The line from Roa to Gulsvik was still under construction, so passage was along the Drammen Line via the Krøder Line with ship over Krøderen to Gulsvik. The first scheduled train from Oslo West Station en route to Bergen departed 10 June 1908.[25]

On 25 November 1909 a train en route from Bergen rolled into Oslo Østbanestasjon, and two days later the railway was officially opened at Voss. King Haakon VII stated upon the opening that the line was the Norwegian engineering masterpiece of his generation.[26]

Finse is the highest point of the Norwegian Railway System, located at 1222m. above sea level.

Steaming up[edit]

The rotary snowplow fighting its way across Hardangervidda in 1908.

World War II was a demanding time for the railway line, as the track was in heavy use for both civilian and military transportation, and much of the equipment and maintenance was lacking. On 28 February 1944 a descending eastbound freight train loaded with oil and petrol lost its braking power and became a runaway train, finally ploughing into a westbound passenger train at Breifoss, just east of Geilo. The crash and subsequent fire killed 25 civilians and an unknown number of German soldiers. Poor lubrication oil combined with the cold weather is believed to have caused the accident.

Electrification[edit]

An NSB El 18 hauled express train just leaving the Finse Tunnel.
An NSB type 73 express train at Oslo S waiting for departure to Bergen.

Norway is a country with abundance of hydroelectricity and NSB saw huge amounts of money burning up with the imported coal. Plans for electrification of the line is as old as the railway itself, and in 1912 the line from Nesttun to Bergen was proposed electrified and rebuilt to double track,[27] having seen the Thamshavn Line open with electric traction in 1908.[9] During the planning of the Hardanger Line and the Flåm Line during the 30s the suggestion again arose, and both the branch lines were built with electric traction, but not the main line. Countersuggestions were raised proposing a conversion to the locomotives running on oil or coal dust. In 1939 a plan for national electrification was launched, and the Voss Line was top priority. But the breakout of World War II set the plans back, and not until the 50s was it again possible to afford such investments.[28] Vossebanen took electric traction into use on 2 July 1954.[9]

In 1952 a new plan was launched by parliament to electrify 1,153 kilometres (716 mi) of railway, with the line from Voss to Hønefoss prioritized fourth. The following year NSB launched the "away with the steam"-campaign, that would replace all steam locomotives with electric or diesel traction. Since electrification was not imminent, NSB introduced diesel traction on the Bergen Line in 1958, predominantly using Di 3 stock. Travel time between the two termini was reduced by about one hour. During summer the Class 66 diesel multiple units were put into service, but they were not heavy enough to cope with winter and thus only served during the summer months.[29] The line was electrified in four stages, from Roa to Hønefoss on 1 February 1961, from Hønefoss to Ål on 1 December 1962, from Ål to Ustaoset on 15 December 1963 and finally from Ustaoset to Voss on 7 December 1964.[9] As the point of electrification moved across the mountain, so did the point NSB changed locomotive on the train. The new locomotive El 13 was put into service on the electric parts. The electrification cost NOK 143 million.[30]

The express trains have as one of the main lines always been allocated the newest locomotives by NSB. When the El 14 was delivered in 1968,[31] it was put into service on Bergensbanen, as was the El 16 in 1977,[32] the El 17 in 1981,[33] and finally the El 18 in 1996.[34] The older locomotives have been relegated to freight service. In 2000 electric multiple units were put into service with the Class 73 tilting trains, branded as Signatur and capable of 210 kilometres per hour (130 mph). However, they cannot be used at those speed on any part of the Bergen Line, and only some parts of the Asker Line and around Finse can they operate quicker than the locomotive hauled trains.[35] There has also been reason to doubt their winter capability on the very demanding Bergen Line. Occasionally they have been stuck in the snow,[36] and on February 21, 2007 a multiple unit derailed after running into a pack of snow.[37] As refurbished carriages become available, the multiple units will be removed from the line, and replaced by traditional locomotive-hauled trains.[38]

Through the first mountain[edit]

Main article: Ulriken Tunnel

The first 32 kilometres (20 mi) form Bergen to Takvam represented a very roundabout way, and it was clear that it would be possible to reduce the line by 21 kilometres (13 mi) with the construction of three tunnels, Ulriken Tunnel (7,660 metres or 25,130 feet), Arnanipa Tunnel (2,177 metres or 7,142 feet) and Tunestveit Tunnel (40 metres or 130 feet).[39] The idea was approved by parliament in 1956, based on private financing from the businessman Fritz Rieber. Construction started in 1959 with the tunnels being finished in 1963 while the tracks were finished laid on 29 May 1964 when the first train entered the tunnel.[40]

Rieber has suggested a package for the politicians, where he would create a company that would borrow money to build both the Ulriken Tunnel, a shortening of the line from Hønefoss to Sandvika (the Ringerike Line) and electrify the railway. Since NSB based their fares on the route length traveled, financing would be covered by a surcharge equal to the distance saved; ticket price would remain the same and within twenty years the debt would be covered. The government opposed the suggestion—Trygve Bratteli commenting that even though the financing was private, it would still have to use the same funding as government debt, and would jeopardize other projects, like the Nordland Line.[41]

In 1980 the Oslo Tunnel was opened, allowing trains along the Drammen Line to go to the new Oslo Central Station, an upgrade of the former Oslo Ø. As a consequence of this, passenger trains were since the late 1980s rerouted via Drammen instead of via Roa, following the Drammen Line and the Randsfjord Line to Hønefoss. This allows the trains to pass through more densely populated areas and on trackage with more capacity. However, the change of route actually increased the length between the two termini with 23 kilometres (14 mi). But the better track standard via Drammen results in about the same travel time. Freight trains still goes via Roa.[42]

Lowering the peak[edit]

Haugastøl-Hallingskeid
275,50 km Haugastøl(1908) 988.0 m amsl
new line via Gråskallen Tunnel
288.70 km Tunga Station
new line
302.10 km Finse(1908) 1222.2 m amsl
new line via Finse Tunnel (1993)
312.28 km Kvinå(1959)
313.00 km Taugevatn 1300 m amsl
(ca. 300 m)
(ca. 850 m)
318.57 km Høgheller junctionnew line (1993)
322.80 km Hallingskeid(1908) 1110.1& m amsl
Freight train about to enter the Finse tunnel
Main article: Finse Tunnel

During winter NSB had large costs keeping the line snow-free. Large diesel-electric snowploughs were stationed at Finse, and tens of kilometers of snow sheds were built on the most vulnerable parts. Especially the 22 kilometres (14 mi) part between Finse Station and Hallingskeid was a tear on resources, and heavy snowfall and drifts regularly closed the entire line. A solution was proposed by NSB's director Robert Nordén in 1984, involving construction of a 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi) tunnel between the two stations.[43]

In 1989 the Parliament of Norway approved the plans, including the upgrade of part of the line east of Finse. In total NOK 750 million was invested in rebuilding 32 kilometres (20 mi) of line, shortening it by 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi). At the same time the permitted speed could be increased from 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) to 170 kilometres per hour (110 mph). The tunnel opened on 16 June 1992 while the rest of the upgrades opened in five steps in the period 1995–98. The highest point of the line was reduced from 1,301 metres (4,268 ft) to 1,237 metres (4,058 ft)—located inside the tunnel.[43] After the opening the base for snow removal was closed at Finse.[44]

Operation[edit]

The Bergen Line as a through line is used for up to five express trains operated by Norwegian State Railways, as well as freight trains by CargoNet. From Myrdal to Bergen there are commuter rail services operated by NSB.

Line[edit]

The total distance from Oslo to Bergen via Drammen is 493 kilometres (306 mi), while the Bergen Line proper is 372 kilometres (231 mi).[1] The line has 182 tunnels,[1] totaling ca. 73 kilometres (45 mi), of which ten are over 2.0 kilometres (1.2 mi).[45] Finse Station remains the highest elevated station at 1,222.2 metres (4,010 ft), while the highest point is in the Finse Tunnel at 1,237 metres (4,058 ft).[6]

Commuter rail[edit]

An NSB type 69 passing Trengereid Station
Main article: Bergen Commuter Rail

NSB operates a commuter rail service from Bergen with two hourly departures to Arna, plus fourteen daily departures to Voss, of which up to six continue to Myrdal. Rolling stock is the Class 69 multiple units.[46] The first part to Arna represents an important part of the public transport in Bergen, since the rail direct line through the mountain Ulriken is considerably faster than driving around.

Express service[edit]

Express trains operated by NSB have always been the primary passenger service on Bergensbanen. Passenger trains follow the Drammen Line and the Asker Line to Drammen, before heading north to Hønefoss on the Randsfjord Line. The express trains offer both transport from villages along the line to either Bergen or Oslo, as well travel between Norway's two largest cities. Up to two day trains are provided with Class 73 multiple units, while the remaining services are with locomotive hauled trains. Six nights a week there is a night train service. Several parts of the line service places without road access, such as Finse and Myrdal.[47] Operating deficits are covered by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications.[48]

Freight[edit]

Freight trains are operated by CargoNet, hauled by El 14 and El 16 locomotives. Most transport is from the terminal at Alnabru in Oslo to the terminal at Bergen Station. Freight trains use the Roa-Hønefoss Line instead of going via Drammen since it is shorter—distance is more important than speed for freight trains. CargoNet operates up to four daily trains from Oslo, plus one from Drammen.[49] Rail freight on Bergensbanen increased by 80% from 2001–05, but further growth is not possible without better infrastructure; CargoNet has indicated they want five more passing loops, as well as extending them to increase train length from 400 metres (1,300 ft) to 600 metres (2,000 ft), claiming they could double freight traffic with adequate infrastructure.[50][51]

Heritage[edit]

Parts of the closed sections of Vossebanen, from Midttun to Garnes has been converted to a heritage railway—the Old Voss Line—that is operated with steam trains by the Norwegian Railway Club during the summer.[52] At Finse there is a navvy museum, and the old navvy road has become a cycle track.[53]

The branch Flåm Line has been converted to a tourist route. The railway has spectacular scenery and a vertical descent of 864 metres (2,835 ft) or 5.5% along the 20 kilometres (12 mi) route from Myrdal to Flåm. Operation is still performed by NSB, but marketing is performed by Flåm Utvikling.[54] The stock used on the railway are El 17 hauling B3 wagons, all painted green.[55]

Future propositions[edit]

Map of the proposed Ringeriksbanen that would shorten Bergensbanen by 60 km.

Closing[edit]

In 2002 the Norwegian National Rail Administration warned that lack of funding might lead to a closure of all long-distance passenger trains in Norway, including the Bergen Line. Torild Skogsholm, Minister of Transport and Communications assured that it was not the government's policy to close railway lines.[56] In 2004 the Progress Party suggested closing down the railway line and replacing it with a motorway between Bergen and Oslo, arguing that the railway was unprofitable, and that bus transport was cheaper while easier truck transport would aid business. Other political parties rejected the proposal pointing out the better environmental performance of the railway and that the railway transports large volumes of freight.[57] On 16 June 2011, a welding accident caused a fire at Hallingskeid Station, causing the complete destruction of the platform. This caused a temporary closure of the line until 23 June 2011.[58]

Upgrades[edit]

Ulriken Tunnel represents the largest bottleneck on the Bergen Line, due to the commuter trains to Arna. Building double track on the westernmost part of Bergensbanen would free up capacity not only of that part of the line, but the whole line across the mountains.[59]

The original plans for Bergensbanen from 1894 included the construction of a new line—the Ringerike Line—from Hønefoss to Sandvika just west of Oslo. This line would reduce the distance on Bergensbanen by 60 kilometres (37 mi) and 50 minutes travel time. There has been a continual decision to build this railway line, but it has never received any funding.[60] These plans were discussed more after 2000, and a detailed plan has been done. Combined with other improvements totaling investments of NOK 7 billion, travel time could be reduced to four and a half hours.[61] The project is included in the long-term plan for Norwegian railways, to be built around year 2020–30. This date is not decided.

High-speed rail[edit]

Several suggestions for high-speed rail from Oslo to Bergen have been launched. Preliminary studied performed for the National Rail Administration with positive cost-benefit ratios on building high-speed rail from Oslo to Bergen. The most suitable route would approximately follow the existing route (but a new tunnel Oslo–Hønefoss). Oslo–Trondheim and Oslo–Halden are assumed to be built earlier because of lower cost.[62] Two lobbyist suggestions to the route have also been launched. The one involves a "high-speed ring" from Oslo, via Numedal to Geilo, then following Bergensbanen to Bergen and continuing south to Stavanger and back to Oslo via Kristiansand.[63] Norsk Bane has launched the idea of building a common line from Oslo to Haukeli and then from branching off to Bergen and Stavanger.[64]

Such long-distance high-speed railways are not included in the preliminary long-term plan for 2010–2040, and it is likely that railways Hamar–Trondheim and Drammen–Kristansand will be built first since they are easier to build. It is likely that a high-speed railway to Bergen will be built sometime in the period 2030–2060.

Stations[edit]

Upward gradient diagram of Bergensbanen
Bergensbanen
km Station elevation
000.00 Oslo Central Station (Oslo S)
000.00  
For this part, see the Gjøvik Line
0.00 Oslo Central Station (Oslo S)(1854)
For this part, see the Drammen Line
A new Ringerike Line is being planned
Roa Station
The Gjøvik Line continues to the north
52.86 Drammen Station(1866) 2.2m amsl
From Drammen to Hønefoss, see the Randsfjord Line
Hole Stationa proposed station on the new line
Junction of Roa-Hønefoss Line and Randsfjord Line
89.57 Hønefoss Station(1868) 96.8m amsl
Junction with Randsfjord Line (to Hen)
000.00 Hønefoss to Flå
91.50 Sørumtoppen Station(1954-1970)
E16 highway
92.49 Weksal Station(1930-1970)
93.12 Ramsrud Station(1930-1970)
94.33 Halsteinrud Station(1930-1970)
96.22 Nøkleby Station(1915-1970)
branch line to former Station
Tveit Tunnel(115 m)
98.38 Heggen Station(1930-1970)
Heggen Bridge over river Hegga
99.42 Østveme Station(1930-1970)
100.45 Veme Station(1909-1986)
102.10 Borglund Station(1930-1970)
102.57 Fonkalsrud Station(1930-1970)
Fonkalsrud Bridge over the river Væla(20 m)
103.38 Jonsrud Station(1930-1970)
104.73 Garhammer Station(1930-1970)
106.57 Bårnås Statiom(1913-1970)
107.95 Evjen Station(1930-1970)
109.25 Skraperud Station(1930-1970)
branch line to Soknabruket
110.16 Lofthus Station(1930-1970)
Sokna Bridge over the river Sogna(34 m)
111.99 Sokna Station(1909-1988, freight only since 1988)
113.80 Kroksrud Station(1934-1982)
Ulsrud Tunnel(106 m)
Rud Tunnel(31 m)
115.10 Grindbakken Station(1930-1982)
Juvet Tunnel(163 m)
116.54 Juve Station(1932-1982)
Store Langevassoset Tunnel(331 m)
Lille Langevassoset Tunnel(38 m)
117.60 Langevassoset Station(1949-1982)
120.60 Rallerud Station(1914-1984)
123.14 Hansomplass Station(1930-1982)
125.20 Haversting Station(1930-1982)
Haversting Tunnel(2,300 m)
Øvre lille Ørgenvika Tunnel(66 m)
Nedre lille Ørgenvika Tunnel(120 m)
128.28 Ørgenvika Station(1909-1982)
Lange Ørgenvika Tunnel(193 m)
Trolldalen Tunnel(634 m)
129.70 Trolldalen Station(1986)
Nedre Trolldal Tunnel(153 m)
Dragonbråten Tunnel(123 m)
Start—Old Line
Øvre Lindelia Tunnel(73 m)
Midtre Lindelia Tunnel(39 m)
Lindelia Tunnel(872 m)
Nedre Lindelia Tunnel(211 m)
End—Old Line
Rugbråten Tunnel(205 m)
136.53 Sønsteby Station(1930-1982)
138.74 Trommald Station(1931-1982)
140.78 Gulsvik Station(1907-1986)
Gulsvik Tunnel(1,002 m)
Store Haremo Tunnel(415 m)
Lille Haremo Tunnel(63 m)
147.40 Flatsjø Station(1930-1982)
149.67 Buøyni Station(1935-1982)
Flå Tunnel(30 m)
152.00 Flå Station(1907) 155.0m amsl
000.00 Flå to Nesbyen
Bridge over the river Saulidelva(24 m)
153.89 Hei Station(1935-1982)
156.00 Kvie Station(1930-1982)
156.60 Jorde Station(1947-1982)
Østre Gaptjernnatten Tunnel(28 m)
Vestre Gaptjernnatten Tunnel(48 m)
159.87 Austvoll Station(1907-1984)
Mælebråten Tunnel(56 m)
Tjærenatten Tunnel(247 m)
Østre Kolsrud Tunnel(340 m)
163.97 Kolsrud Station(1914-1982)
Midtre Kolsrud Tunnel(26 m)
Vestre Kolsrud Tunnel(48 m)
Nøbb Tunnel(98 m)
Kleven Tunnel(35 m)
Rauk Tunnel(90 m)
169.97 Bergheim Station(1913-1984)
Sevre Tunnel(291 m)
171.60 Velta Station(1938-1982)
Geitsund Tunnel(64 m)
Børtnes Tunnel(71 m)
Løvik Tunnel(22 m)
173.77 Bromma Station(1907-1984)
Gråsult Tunnel(57 m)
Nordhagen Tunnel(51 m)
176.64 Støa Station(1936-1982)
178.83 Liodden Station(1913-1984)
Blingsmo Tunnel(60 m)
Heggen bridge over the river Todøla(25 m)
182.76 Grønna Station(1931-1982)
185.42 Nesbyen Station(1907) 168.8m amsl
191.75 Gunnbjørnsdokk Station(1930-1982)
Svenkerud Bridge over the river Hallingdalselva (53 m)
Rv7 (ca. 15 m)
194.58 Svenkerud Station(1914-1984)
199.92 Eikle Station(1935-1982)
202.38 Gol Station(1907) 207.4m amsl
228.21 Ål Station
000.00  
Øynestrond road crossing
210.78 Rotneim Station(1930-1982) asdf
213.15 Trillhus Station(1931-1982)
217.85 Torpo Station(1907) 326.6m amsl
221.40 Torpemoen Station(1958-1982)
223.67 Sando Station(1931-1982)
225.17 Jegermoen Station(1954-1982)
228.21 Ål Station(1907) 436.6m amsl
241.56 Hol Station(1907)
Svenkerud bridge over the river Usta(41.4 m)
247.52 Breidfoss Station(1931-1949)
250.87 Bardøla Station(1947-1949)
252.74 Geilo Station(1907) 794.2m amsl
Såbal Tunnel(313 m)
Smettbak Bridge(14 m)
Ustaoset Tunnel(101 m)
264.67 Ustaoset Station(1912) 990.6m amsl
Karistøl Tunnel(37 m)
275.50 Haugastøl Station(1908) 988.0m amsl
000.00 Crossing the Hardangervidda plateau
Start—Old Line (closed–1993)
Gråskallen Tunnel(2,710 m)
Tunga passing loop
288.70 Tunga Station(1911-1993)
End—Old Line
Bridge over Øvsta Storurevatnet lake
Kongsnut Tunnel(426 m)
Tunnel(618 m)
302.10 Finse Station(1908) 1222.2m amsl
Start—Old Line (closed–1993)
Finsetunnelen(10,300 m) 1,237m amsl
309.51 Fagernut passing loop
Låghellerhøgdene Tunnel(850 m)
318.57 HøghellerEnd—Old Line
Øvre Høgda Tunnel(143 m)
Nedre Høgda Tunnel(80 m)
Øvre Høgheller Tunnel(106m)
Nedre Høgheller Tunnel(154 m)
Øvre Midtstua Tunnel(55 m)
Nedre Midtstua Tunnel(55 m)
Skara Tunnel(66 m)
Skomå Tunnel(52 m)
Hallingskeid Tunnel(111 m)
322.80 Hallingskeid Station(1908) 1110.1m amsl
Østre Hallingskeid Tunnel(103 m)
Vestre Hallingskeid Tunnel(78 m)
Grøndalshalsen Tunnel(265 m)
Øvre Tjoadal Tunnel(486 m)
Midtre Tjoadal Tunnel(41 m)
Nedre Tjoadal Tunnel(72 m)
Øvre Grøndalen Tunnel(242 m)
Nedre Grøndalen Tunnel(163 m)
Klevefeten Tunnel(154 m)
Kleven Tunnel(136 m)
Kleva bridge over the river Moldåa(30 m)
Klevenosi Tunnel(126 m)
Øvre Lillekleven Tunnel(54 m)
Nedre Lillekleven Tunnel(146 m)
Seltuft Tunnel(45 m)
Øvre Seltuftberg Tunnel(279 m)
Nedre Seltuftberg Tunnel(96 m)
Øvre Bodladal Tunnel(55 m)
Nedre Bodladal Tunnel(21 m)
Reinunga Tunnel(1,820 m)
Styvedalen Tunnel(65 m)
Lille Geithammer Tunnel(76 m)
Midtre Geithammer Tunnel(39 m)
Store Geithammer Tunnel(584 m)
Myrdalsleite Tunnel(31 m)
Junction to Flåm Line
335.80 Myrdal Station(1908) 866.8m amsl
349.37 Ljosanbotn Station
000.00 Gravhal Tunnel (5,311 m)
342.15 Upsete Station(1908) 850.2m amsl
Upsete Tunnel(430 m)
Rustedal Tunnel(79 m)
344.80 Vieren Station(1948)
Langvannsoset Tunnel(115 m)
Øvre Ørneberget Tunnel(140 m)
Nedre Ørneberget Tunnel(76 m)
347.50 Ørneberget Station(1958)
Kleivane Tunnel(1,220 m)
Ljosandal Tunnel(253 m)
349.37 Ljosanbotn Station(1948)
Helle Tunnel(29 m)
Rjoandal Tunnel(229 m)
354.22 Mjølfjell Station(1908) 627.2m amsl
000.00 Mjølfjell to Vossevangen
Almenningen Tunnel(15 m)
Grytestølen Tunnel(70 m)
357.55 Eggjareid Station(1936)
359.80 Volli Station(1936)
Øvre Vold Tunnel(59 m)
Midtre Vold Tunnel(78 m)
Nedre Vold Tunnel(28 m)
362.73 Reimegrend Station(1908) 464.6 moh.
Store Skiple Tunnel(564 m)
366.30 Skiple Station(1931)
Lille Skiple Tunnel(150 m)
369.40 Øyeflaten Station
Bø Tunnel(89 m)
371.52 Urdland Station(1908)
Urdland Tunnel(545 m) 304.0 moh.
Rastadlia I Tunnel(57 m)
Rastadlia II Tunnel(229 m)
Rastadlia III Tunnel(248 m)
Rastadlia IV Tunnel(313 m)
375.90 Kløve Station(1908)
379.03 Ygre Station(1908) 168.0 moh.
Ygre Tunnel(62 m)
381.56 Gjerdåker Station
Tvilde Tunnel(338 m)
385.32 Voss Station
000.00 Bridge over the river Strandelva (59 m)
Bridge over the E16 highway (15 m)
385.32 Voss Station(1883) 56.5m amsl
Hardanger Line (closed)
Palmafoss Station(1935)
Kvålsåsen Tunnel (4,923 m)
393.38 Bulken Station(1883)
Bulken Tunnel(705 m)
E16 highway (ca. 30 m)
Bridge over the river Vosso(48 m)
396.16 Seimsgrend Station(1936)
Ho Tunnel(710 m)
399.80 Saghaug Station(1936-1991)
Skorve Tunnel(7 m)
403.66 Evanger Station(1883)
Hærnes Tunnel(3,336 m)
Kattegjelet Tunnel(529 m)
Kattegjel Viaduct Tunnel(19 m)
Lillevik Tunnel(292 m)
410.24 Jørnevik Station(1936)
Røvstona Tunnel(542 m)
414.13 Bolstadøyri Station(1883)
Bolstad Tunnel(110 m)
Trollkona Tunnel(8,043m)
425.29 Dale Station
000.00  
Holhøyden Tunnel(73 m)
425.29 Dale Station(1883) 43.4m amsl
Dalegården Spur
Dalebrygga Tunnel(475 m)
Daleura Tunnel(29 m)
430.00 Hellestræ Station(1936-1991)
Stanghelle Bridge(32.8 m)
432.22 Stanghelle Station(1883)
440.53 Vaksdal Station
000.00  
Hetta Tunnel(1,243 m)
435.62 Fossmarkli Station(1936)
Lille Fossmark I Tunnel(38 m)
Lille Fossmark II Tunnel(93 m)
Store Fossmark Tunnel(742 m)
Skreien I Tunnel(300 m)
Skreien II Tunnel(662 m)
440.53 Vaksdal Station(1883) 16.0m amsl
Vaksdal Bridge(22 m)
Vaksdal Tunnel(180 m)
Boge I Tunnel(70 m)
Boge II Tunnel(81 m)
442.36 Bogegrend Station(1938)
452.41 Trengereid Station
000.00  
Gamle Vossebanen (old path along the fjord)
Bogelia hvelv I Tunnel(92 m)
Bogelia hvelv II Tunnel(37 m)
Bogelia hvelv III Tunnel(30 m)
Bogelia hvelv IV Tunnel(83 m)
Bogelia hvelv V Tunnel(109 m)
Kjenes Tunnel(410 m)
Hananipa Tunnel(6,096 m)
Trengereid Spur Tunnel(54 m)
452.41 Trengereid Station(1883)
Trengereid I Tunnel(83 m)
Sunnes bekk Tunnel(83 m)
Trengereid II Tunnel(116 m)
Slåttabekk Tunnel(20 m)
Risnes I Tunnel(26 m)
Risnes II Tunnel(92 m)
Risnes III Tunnel(291 m)
453.78 Risneset Station(1935-1991)
Romslo I Tunnel(581 m)
Romslo II Tunnel(377m)
455.13 Romslo Station(1935-1991)
Songstad I Tunnel(583 m)
Songstad II Tunnel(330 m)
Songstad III Tunnel(295 m)
Gamle Vossebanen (old path along the fjord)
Herland Tunnel(781 m)
458.63 Takvam Station(1966)
Takvam Tunnel(251 m)
Tunestveidt Tunnel(61 m)
459.36 Tunestveit Junction(Gamle Vossebanen)
Arnanipa Tunnel(2,190 m)
461.93 Arna nye Station(1964) 8.0m amsl
Ulriken Tunnel(7,670 m)
Bridge over the road Kalfarveien(68 m)
E39 highway
branch line to Solheim on Gamle Vossebanen
492.30 Bergen Station
000.00  
Nygårdstangen terminal
Nygårdsparken
Havnebane nord(1421 m, 1921)
492.30 Bergen Station(1913) 3.9m amsl
Dokken
branch line to Skutevik
Skoltegrunnskaien
Station Elevation (m)[2] Distance from
Oslo (km)
Distance from
Bergen (km)
Østbanen sjøsiden.jpg Oslo S 2 0 493
TRS 061028 027.jpg Asker 104 24 469
Drammen1.jpg Drammen 2 41 452
Hokksund station.jpg Hokksund 8 58 435
Vikersund station.jpg Vikersund 67 84 409
Honefoss-stasjon-1tb.jpg Hønefoss 96 112 381
Flå 155 174 319
Nesbyen stasjon.jpeg Nesbyen 168 208 285
Gol Station.JPG Gol 207 225 268
Al station Norway.jpg Ål 436 250 243
Geilo Bahnhof.jpg Geilo 794 275 218
Ustaoset stasjon.jpeg Ustaoset 990 286 207
Haugastøl stasjon.jpeg Haugastøl 988 297 196
Finse trainstation Norway.jpg Finse 1222 324 169
Hallingskeid stasjon.jpeg Hallingskeid 1110 345 148
Myrdal P9230240.JPG Myrdal 867 358 135
Upsete stasjon.jpeg Upsete 850 364 129
Mjølfjell stasjon.jpeg Mjølfjell 627 376 117
Voss Station.jpg Voss 57 407 86
Dale-hordaland-stasjon.jpg Dale 43 447 46
Arna stasjon.JPG Arna 8 483 10
Bergen Railway Station facade2.jpg Bergen 2 493 0

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jernbaneverket, 2007: 6
  2. ^ a b "Oslo - Bergen, Bergensbanen". Norwegian National Rail Administration. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  3. ^ "Bergen - Voss - Myrdal". Norwegian National Rail Administration. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  4. ^ Holøs, 1984:73
  5. ^ Holøs, 1984: 63
  6. ^ a b c Rødland, 1999: 30
  7. ^ Jernbaneverket, 2007: 13
  8. ^ Finse Tunnel is the highest point in Bergensbanen, in "Finse". Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 2008-06-03.  which is the highest railway in Northern Europe "Norway in a Nutshell - Norway's most popular round trip tour". Norgate Online. 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  9. ^ a b c d Jernbaneverket, 2007: 44
  10. ^ Jernbaneverket, 2006: 33
  11. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 16–17
  12. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 17–19
  13. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 19–21
  14. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 21–27
  15. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 30
  16. ^ Holøs, 1984: 18
  17. ^ Hille, L. M. (1881-06-07). "Dagslønn". Bergens Aftenblad. 
  18. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 32
  19. ^ Gubberud, 1983: 32–33
  20. ^ Holøs, 1984: 28–30
  21. ^ Holøs, 1984: 31
  22. ^ Holøs, 1984: 33–34
  23. ^ Holøs, 1984: 38–43
  24. ^ Holøs, 1984: 63–64
  25. ^ Holøs, 1984: 63-69
  26. ^ Holøs, 1984: 73-75
  27. ^ Holøs, 1984: 93
  28. ^ Hobøl, 1984: 93–95
  29. ^ Holbø, 1984: 95–98
  30. ^ Rødland, 1999: 103
  31. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 102
  32. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 115
  33. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 118
  34. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 122
  35. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 188
  36. ^ Norsk Rikskringkasting. "Snø stanser Signatur-togene" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  37. ^ Bergens Tidende. "Tåler ikke snøfonner" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  38. ^ Attende til framtida "Attende til framtida" (in Norwegian). Bergen: Bergens Tidende. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  39. ^ Norsk Jernbaneklubb, 1994
  40. ^ Holøs, 1984: 101–02
  41. ^ Rødland, 1999: 98–102
  42. ^ Jernbaneverket. "Hønefoss stasjon" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2008-05-29. [dead link]
  43. ^ a b Rødland, 1999: 15–34
  44. ^ Jernbaneverket. "Finse stasjon" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  45. ^ Jernbaneverket, 2007: 26
  46. ^ Norges Statsbaner (2008). "Bergen - Voss - Myrdal" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  47. ^ Norges Statsbaner (2008). "Oslo S-Bergen" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  48. ^ Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications (2007-01-23). "Avtale om utførelse av persontransport med tog" (PDF) (in Norwegian). 
  49. ^ CargoNet (2008-01-06). "Produktblad Bergen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). 
  50. ^ Hallingdølen. "Vil satse milliarder på gods" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2008-06-03. [dead link]
  51. ^ Institute of Transport Economics (2006). "Mer gods på jernbane - et spørsmål om kvalitet" (in Norwegian). 
  52. ^ Norsk Jernbaneklubb. "Gamle Vossebanen Steam Railway". Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  53. ^ Rallarmuseet. "Rallarmuseet" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  54. ^ Flåm Utvikling. "The Flåm Railway". Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  55. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 118–21
  56. ^ NRK Sør-Trøndelag (2002-02-28). "Skjebnevalg for norsk jernbane Choice of fate for Norwegian Railways" (in Norwegian). 
  57. ^ Bergens Tidende (2004-01-16). "Frp: - Steng Bergensbanen (Progress Party: "Close the Bergen Railway")" (in Norwegian). 
  58. ^ June 17, 2011 (2011-06-17). "Investigation underway into train fire : Views and News from Norway". Newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  59. ^ Jernbaneverket (2008). "Konsekvcensutredning Arna - Fløen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). 
  60. ^ Jernbaneverket. "Bergensbanens forkortelse, Ringeriksbanen" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on April 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  61. ^ Jernbaneverket. "Rask og effektiv Bergensbane for sju milliarder" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on July 21, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  62. ^ Norwegian National Rail Administration (2008-05-13). "Highspeed -lines: Further steps should be taken". 
  63. ^ Høyhastighetsringen. "Høyhastighetsringen" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  64. ^ Norsk Bane. "Haukelibanen" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2008-05-28. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 60°20′16″N 7°49′20″E / 60.33778°N 7.82222°E / 60.33778; 7.82222