Bergmann Offensive

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Bergmann Offensive
Ofensiva Bergman.png
Date 2 November 1914 - 16 November 1914
Location Erzurum Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Result Ottoman victory
 Ottoman Empire  Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Hasan Izzet Pasha Georgy Bergmann
118,000 100,000
Casualties and losses
14,000 total 40,000 total

The Bergmann Offensive (Turkish: Bergmann Atağı; Russian: Берхманнский прорыв; in Russian literature Russian: Кёприкейская операция, "Köprüköy operation") was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I. General Georgy Bergmann, commander of I Caucasian Army Corps, took the initiative against the Ottoman Empire.[1]

On 2 November, Bergmann's troops crossed the border in the general direction of Köprüköy. On the right flank, a brigade under Istomin moved from Oltu in the direction of İd.[1] On the left flank a Cossack division under Baratov moved into the Eleşkirt valley towards Yuzveran, after it crossed the Aras River.[1]

In response the Ottoman 3rd Army went on a general counter-offensive.[1] As a result Russian forces were threatened by an enveloping movement on both sides. Only quick arrival of Russian reinforcements saved the situation. The fighting finally petered out on 16 November.[1]

Russian losses were up to 40% and their morale was shaken. Meanwhile, Turkish morale was high. The success during this first engagement encouraged Enver Pasha in his plan to attack at Sarıkamış.[1] [2]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Hinterhoff, Eugene (1984). The Campaign in Armenia. Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I, vol ii. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 500. ISBN 0-86307-181-3. 
  2. ^ Zayonchkovskiy, A. M. (2000). Первая мировая война (Pervaya mirovaya voyna) [World War I] (in Russian). Saint-Petersburg: Poligon. p. 878. ISBN 5-89173-082-0.