|Classification and external resources|
A sufferer – turn of the 20th century in southeast Asia
Beriberi refers to a cluster of symptoms caused primarily by a nutritional deficit in Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Beriberi has conventionally been divided into three separate entities, relating to the body system involved (nervous or cardiovascular) or age of patient (infantile). Beriberi is one of several thiamine-deficiency related conditions, which may occur concurrently, including Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Historically, Beriberi has been endemic in regions dependent on what is variously referred to as polished, white, or de-husked rice. This type of rice has its husk removed in order to extend its lifespan, but also has the unintended side-effect of removing the primary source of thiamine.
Thiamine has a half-life of 18 days and is quickly exhausted, particularly when metabolic demands exceed intake. Thiamine is involved in a variety of glucose metabolism-related and neurological functions. After modification in the body to a diphosphate form, thiamine is involved in a vast array of functions:
- Carbohydrate metabolism
- Production of the neurotransmitters glutamic acid and GABA, through the TCA cycle
- Lipid metabolism, necessary for myelin production
- Amino acid metabolism
Neurons are very sensitive to ionic and metabolic changes produced in their immediate environment, which initially affect metabolism, electrical activity and performance, but then can lead to cell death.
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of beriberi include weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception, weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heart rate. Edema (swelling of bodily tissues) is common. It may increase the amount of lactic acid and pyruvic acid within the blood. In advanced cases, the disease may cause high output cardiac failure and death. Symptoms may occur concurrently with those of Wernicke's encephalopathy, a primarily neurological thiamine-deficiency related condition.
Beriberi is divided into three historical classifications:
- Dry beriberi affects the nervous system
- Wet beriberi affects the cardiovascular system and other bodily systems
- Infantile beriberi affects also the children of malnourished mothers.
- Difficulty in walking
- Tingling or loss of sensation (numbness) in hands and feet
- Loss of tendon reflexes
- Loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs
- Mental confusion/speech difficulties
- Involuntary eye movements (nystagmus)
A selective impairment of the large proprioceptive sensory fibers without motor impairment can occur and present as a prominent sensory ataxia, which is a loss of balance and coordination due to loss of the proprioceptive inputs from the periphery and loss of position sense.
Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. It is sometimes fatal, as it causes a combination of heart failure and weakening of the capillary walls, which causes the peripheral tissues to become edematous. Wet beriberi is characterized by:
- Increased heart rate
- Vasodilation leading to increased arteriovenous shunt
- Elevated jugular venous pressure
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
- Peripheral oedema (swelling of lower legs)
Infantile beriberi usually occurs between two and six months of age in children whose mothers have inadequate thiamine intake. In the acute form, the baby develops dyspnea and cyanosis and soon dies of heart failure. The following symptoms may be described in infantile beriberi:
- Hoarseness, where the child makes moves to mourn but emits no sound or just faint moans, caused by nerve paralysis
- Weight loss, becoming thinner and then marasmic as the disease progresses
- Occasionally convulsions were observed in the terminal stages
- Pale skin
- Ill temper
- Alterations of the cardiovascular system, especially tachycardia (rapid heart rate).
Beriberi caused by inadequate nutritional intake is rare today in developed countries because of quality of food and the fact that many foods are fortified with vitamins. There are no reliable statistics for beriberi in developed countries in the 19th century or earlier; neither are statistics available before the last century in countries in extreme poverty.
Beriberi is a recurrent nutritional disease in detention houses even in this century. High rates of illness and death in overcrowded Haitian jails was traced in 2007 to the traditional practice of washing rice before cooking. In the Ivory Coast, among a group of prisoners with heavy punishment, 64% were affected by beriberi. Before beginning treatment, prisoners exhibited symptoms of dry or wet beriberi with neurological signs (swarming: 41%), cardiovascular signs (dyspnoea: 42%, thoracic pain: 35%), and oedemas of the lower limbs (51%). The rate of healing was about 97%.
Populations under extreme stress may be at higher risk for beriberi. Displaced populations, such as war refugees, are susceptible to micronutritional deficiency, including beriberi. The severe nutritional deprivation caused by famine will also cause beriberi, although symptoms may be overlooked in clinical assessment or masked by other famine-related problems. Extreme dieting can also rarely induce a famine-like state and the accompanying beriberi.
Beriberi may also be caused by shortcomings other than inadequate intake: diseases of or operations on the digestive tract, alcoholism, dialysis, genetic deficiencies, etc. The name that includes all these causes and all symptomatic presentations is Wernicke's disease or Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Wernicke´s disease is one of the most prevalent neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. In autopsy series, features of Wernicke lesions are observed in approximately 2% of general cases. Medical record research shows that about 85% had not been diagnosed, although only 19% would be asymptomatic. In children, only 58% were diagnosed. In alcohol abusers, autopsy series showed neurological damages at rates of 12,5% or more. Mortality caused by Wernicke's disease reaches 17% of diseases, which means 3.4/1000 or about 25 million contemporaries. The rate of sufferers may be even higher, considering that early stages may have dysfunctions prior to the production of observable lesions at necropsy. In addition, uncounted numbers of persons can experience fetal damage and subsequent diseases.
In 1630, a Dutch physician named Jacob de Bondt (Jacobus Bontius; 1591-1631) encountered the disease while working in Java. In the first known description of beriberi, he wrote, "A certain very troublesome affliction, which attacks men, is called by the inhabitants beriberi (which means sheep). I believe those, whom this same disease attacks, with their knees shaking and the legs raised up, walk like sheep. It is a kind of paralysis, or rather tremor: for it penetrates the motion and sensation of the hands and feet indeed sometimes of the whole body."
Beriberi was first described over 4,500 years ago, in the Chinese medical book Neichang. In Asia, where polished white rice (milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed) was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B1 was endemic.
In the late 1800s, beriberi was studied by Takaki Kanehiro, a British-trained Japanese medical doctor of the Japanese Navy. Beriberi was a serious problem in the Japanese navy: sailors fell ill an average of four times a year in the period 1878 to 1881, and 35% were cases of beriberi. In 1883, Kanehiro learned of a very high incidence of beriberi among cadets on a training mission from Japan to Hawaii, via New Zealand and South America. The voyage lasted more than 9 months and resulted in 169 cases of sickness and 25 deaths on a ship of 376 men. With the support of the Japanese Navy, he conducted an experiment in which another ship was deployed on the same route, except that its crew was fed a diet of meat, fish, barley, rice, and beans. At the end of the voyage, this crew had suffered only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced Kanehiro and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause. In 1884, Kanehiro observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often were provided nothing but rice, but not among crews of Western navies and nor among Japanese officers who consumed a more varied diet.
In 1897, Dr. Christiaan Eijkman, a Dutch physician and pathologist, demonstrated that beriberi is caused by poor diet, and discovered that feeding unpolished rice (instead of the polished variety) to chickens helped to prevent beriberi. The following year, Sir Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" – in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and salt – that were necessary for the functions of the human body. In 1901, Gerrit Grijns (May 28, 1865 – November 11, 1944), a Dutch physician and assistant to Christiaan Eijkman in the Netherlands, correctly interpreted the disease as a deficiency syndrome, and between 1910 and 1913, Dr. Edward Bright Vedder established that an extract of rice bran is a treatment for beriberi.. In 1929, Eijkman and Hopkins were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries.
Beriberi is managed with thiamine supplementation. This can be done intravenously or orally. Supplementation can be monitored using blood tests. Patients' health can be improved within an hour of starting treatment, and rapid and dramatic recovery can occur within hours of administration. In situations where concentrated thiamine supplements are unavailable, feeding the patient with a thiamine-rich diet (e.g. whole grain brown bread) will lead to recovery, though at a much slower rate.
- Kennedy, Ron (2013), Doctors' Medical Library - Beriberi (Thiamine Deficiency) (B1 Deficiency (in English)
- Sechi, G; Serra, A (2007 May). "Wernicke's encephalopathy: new clinical settings and recent advances in diagnosis and management". Lancet neurology 6 (5): 442–55. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70104-7. PMID 17434099.
- Hirsch, JA; Parrott, J (2012 Mar 6). "New considerations on the neuromodulatory role of thiamine". Pharmacology 89 (1-2): 111–6. doi:10.1159/000336339. PMID 22398704.
- Katsura, E.; Oiso, T. (1976). "Chapter 9. Beriberi". In Beaton, G.H.; Bengoa, J.M. World Health Organization Monograph Series No. 62: Nutrition in Preventive Medicine (Geneva: World Health Organization).
- Spinazzi, Marco; Angelini, Corrado; Patrini, Cesare (2010). "Subacute sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy with thiamine deficiency". Nature Reviews Neurology 6 (5): 288–93. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2010.16. PMID 20308997.
- McIntyre, Neil; Stanley, Nigel N. (1971). "Cardiac Beriberi: Two Modes of Presentation". BMJ 3 (5774): 567–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.3.5774.567. PMC 1798841. PMID 5571454.
- Latham, Michael C. (1997). "Chapter 16. Beriberi and thiamine deficiency". Human nutrition in the developing world (Food and Nutrition Series - No. 29). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ISSN 1014-3181.
- Sprague, Jeb; Alexandra, Eunida (17 January 2007). "Haiti: Mysterious Prison Ailment Traced to U.S. Rice". Inter Press Service.
- Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2011 Dec;104(5):347-51. doi: 10.1007/s13149-011-0136-6. Epub 2011 Feb 18.
- Prinzo, Z. Weise; de Benoist, B. (2009). "Meeting the challenges of micronutrient deficiencies in emergency-affected populations". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61 (2): 251–7. doi:10.1079/PNS2002151. PMID 12133207.
- Golden, Mike (May 1997). "Diagnosing Beriberi in Emergency Situations". Field Exchange (1): 18.
- Cernicchiaro, Luis (2007), Enfermedad de Wernicke (o Encefalopatía de Wernicke) [Wernicke´s Disease (or Wernicke´s Encephalopathy)] (in Spanish)
- Salen, Philip N (1 March 2013). Kulkarni, Rick, ed. "Wernicke Encephalopathy". Medscape.
- Harper, CG; Giles, M; Finlay-Jones, R (1986 Apr). "Clinical signs in the Wernicke-Korsakoff complex: a retrospective analysis of 131 cases diagnosed at necropsy". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49 (4): 341–5. PMID 3701343.
- Harper, C (1979 Mar). "Wernicke's encephalopathy: a more common disease than realised. A neuropathological study of 51 cases". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42 (3): 226–31. PMID 438830.
- Oxford English Dictionary: "Beri-beri... a Cingalese word, f. beri weakness, the reduplication being intensive ...", page 203, 1937
- A Sinhalese-English Dictionary, Rev. Charles Carter: "බැරි බැරි.රෝගය, a. the diseaseberi beri, a form of neuritis accompanied by dropsy &c..." , page 448, 1924
- Beriberi, Information about Beriberi
- "Beriberi". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Berg, Jeremy M; Tymoczko, John L; Stryer, Lubert (2002). "The Disruption of Pyruvate Metabolism Is the Cause of Beriberi and Poisoning by Mercury and Arsenic". Biochemistry (5th ed.). ISBN 978-0-7167-3051-4.
- Kiela, Pawel R (2010). "Unraveling the pathophysiology of alcohol-induced thiamin deficiency". American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology 299 (1): F26–27. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00266.2010.
- Itokawa, Yoshinori (1976). "Kanehiro Takaki (1849–1920): A Biographical Sketch". Journal of Nutrition 106 (5): 581–8. PMID 772183.
- Challem, Jack (1997). "The Past, Present and Future of Vitamins". Archived from the original on 8 June 2010.[unreliable medical source?]
- Christiaan Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1, Nobelprize.org, Nobel Media AB, retrieved 8 July 2013
- Grijns, G. (1901). "Over polyneuritis gallinarum". Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie 43: 3–110.
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (July 2013)|
- Angstadt, John D.; Bodziner, Richard A. (2005). "Peripheral Polyneuropathy from Thiamine Deficiency following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass". Obesity Surgery 15 (6): 890–2. doi:10.1381/0960892054222759. PMID 15978166.
- Bay, Alexander R. (2012). Beriberi in Japan: The Making of a National Disease. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 9781580464277.
- Hawk, Alan (2006). "The Great Disease Enemy, Kak'ke (Beriberi) and the Imperial Japanese Army". Military Medicine 171 (4): 333–9. PMID 16673750.
- Mouly, S.; Khuong, MA; Cabie, A; Saimot, AG; Coulad, JP (1996). "Beri-Beri and thiamine deficiency in HIV infection". AIDS 10 (8): 931–2. doi:10.1097/00002030-199607000-00024. PMID 8828758.
- Shivalkar, B; Engelmann, I; Carp, L; De Raedt, H; Daelemans, R (1998). "Shoshin syndrome: Two case reports representing opposite ends of the same disease spectrum". Acta cardiologica 53 (4): 195–9. PMID 9842404.