Berlin S-Bahn

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S-Bahn Berlin
S-Bahn-Logo.svg
Train station Berlin Friedrichstrasse 5.jpg
Berlin Friedrichstrasse railway station, crossing point for the Stadtbahn and the Nord-Süd-Tunnel routes of the Berlin S-Bahn
Background
Locale Berlin
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 15[1]
Number of stations 166[1]
Daily ridership 1,300,000 (average weekday, 2012)[2]
Annual ridership 395 million (2012)[2]
Website S-Bahn Berlin GmbH
Operation
Began operation August 8, 1924
Operator(s) S-Bahn Berlin GmbH
Technical
System length 332 km (206 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (standard gauge)
Electrification 800 V DC Third rail
The Berlin S-Bahn network

The Berlin S-Bahn is a rapid transit railway system in and around Berlin, the capital city of Germany. It has been operated under this name since December 1930, having being called before simply the special tariff area Berliner Stadt-, Ring- und Vorortbahnen (Berlin cross-city, circular, and suburban railways).[1]

While in the first decades of this tariff zone the trains were pulled by steam locomotives, and while even after the electrification of large parts of the network a number of lines remained under steam, today the term S-Bahn is used in Berlin only for those lines and trains with third-rail electrical power transmission and the special Berlin S-Bahn loading gauge. The third unique technical feature, of the Berlin S-Bahn, the automated mechanical train control is being phased out and replaced by a communications-based train control system, but which again is specific to the Berlin S-Bahn.

In other parts of Germany and other German speaking countries, the brand name S-Bahn is used without those Berlin specific features. The Hamburg S-Bahn is the only other system using third-rail electrification.

Today, the Berlin S-Bahn is no longer defined as this special tariff area of the national railway company, but is instead just one specific means of transportation, defined by its special technical characteristics, in an area-wide tariff administered by a public transport authority. The Berlin S-Bahn now being integral part of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg, the unique tariff zone for all kinds of public transit in and around Berlin and the federal state (Bundesland) Brandenburg.

Introduction[edit]

The brand name "S-Bahn" chosen in 1930 mirrored U-Bahn, which had become the official brand name for the Berlin city owned rapid transit lines begun under the name of Berliner Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen (Berlin elevated and underground lines), where the word of mouth had abbreviated "Untergrundbahn" to "U-Bahn", in parallel to "U-Boot" formed from "Unterseeboot" ("undersea ship" - submarine boat).

Services on the Berlin S-Bahn are provided by the Prussian or German national railway company of the respective time, which means the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft after the first world war, the Deutsche Reichsbahn until 1993 (except West Berlin from 1984 to 1994) and Deutsche Bahn after the formation of this common stock company in 1994.

The Berlin S-Bahn consists today of 15 lines serving 166 stations, and runs over a total route length of 332 kilometres (206 mi).[1] The S-Bahn carried 395 million passengers in 2012.[2] It is integrated with the mostly underground U-Bahn to form the backbone of Berlin's rapid transport system. Unlike the U-Bahn, the S-Bahn crosses the Berlin city and state border into the surrounding state of Brandenburg, e.g. to Potsdam.

Although the S- and U-Bahn are part of a unified fare system, they have different operators. The S-Bahn is operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn, whilst the U-Bahn is run by BVG, the main public transit company for the city of Berlin.

Operation[edit]

Routes[edit]

The S-Bahn routes all feed into one of three core lines: a central, elevated east-west line (the Stadtbahn), a central, mostly underground north-south line (the Nord-Süd Tunnel), and a circular, elevated line (the Ringbahn). Outside the Ringbahn, suburban routes radiate out in all directions.

Lines S1, S2 and S25 are North-South lines which use the North-South tunnel as center section. Lines S3, S5, S7 and S75 are East-West lines using the Stadtbahn cross-city railway (S3 ends temporarily, from December 2011 to 2015, at Ostkreuz instead of Spandau during a phase of the remoulding of the Ostkreuz interchange station[3]). S41 and S42 continuously circle around the Ringbahn, the former in clock-wise direction, the latter in the opposite way. Lines S45, S46 and S47 link destinations in the South-East with the southern section of the Ringbahn via the tangential link from the Görlitzer Bahn to the Ring via Köllnische Heide. Lines S8, S85, and S9 are North-South lines using the Eastern section of the Ringbahn between Bornholmer Straße and Treptower Park via Ostkreuz, using the Görlitzer Bahn in the South.

Generally speaking, the first digit of a route number designates the main route or a group of routes. Thus, S25 is a bifurcation of S2, while S41, S42, S45, S46, and S47 are all Ringbahn routes that share some of the same route. So S41, S42, S45, S46 and S47 are together S4. However as such the S4 does not exist.

Line Terminus Route Terminus Color
Berlin S1.svg Wannsee Wannsee - Nikolassee - Mexikoplatz - Schöneberg - Yorckstraße - Potsdamer Platz - Friedrichstraße - Gesundbrunnen - Schönholz - Wittenau - Frohnau - Hohen Neuendorf - Birkenwerder - Oranienburg Oranienburg RAL 4003
Berlin S2.svg Blankenfelde Blankenfelde - Lichtenrade - Südkreuz - Yorckstraße - Potsdamer Platz - Friedrichstraße - Gesundbrunnen - Bornholmer Straße - Pankow - Blankenburg - Karow - Buch - Bernau Bernau RAL 6001
Berlin S25.svg Teltow Stadt Teltow Stadt - Lichterfelde Ost - Südkreuz - Yorckstraße - Potsdamer Platz - Friedrichstraße - Gesundbrunnen - Bornholmer Straße - Schönholz - Karl-Bonnhoeffer-Nervenklinik - Tegel - Hennigsdorf Hennigsdorf RAL 6001
Berlin S3.svg Erkner Erkner - Friedrichshagen - Karlshorst - Ostkreuz Ostkreuz RAL 5017
Berlin S41.svg Südkreuz Ringbahn Südkreuz (clockwise) RAL 8004
Berlin S42.svg Südkreuz Ringbahn Südkreuz (counter-clockwise) RAL 8021
Berlin S45.svg ✈ Berlin-Schönefeld Südkreuz - Tempelhof - Neukölln - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Schönefeld Südkreuz (↔ Bundesplatz) RAL 1011
Berlin S46.svg Königs Wusterhausen Westend - Messe Nord/ICC - Südkreuz - Tempelhof - Neukölln - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Grünau - Zeuthen - Königs Wusterhausen Westend RAL 1011
Berlin S47.svg Spindlersfeld Schöneweide - Spindlersfeld Hermannstraße RAL 1011
Berlin S5.svg Spandau Spandau - Olympiastadion - Westkreuz - Charlottenburg - Zoologischer Garten - Hauptbahnhof - Friedrichstraße - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Warschauer Straße - Ostkreuz - Lichtenberg - Friedrichsfelde Ost - Wuhletal - Mahlsdorf - Hoppegarten - Strausberg - Strausberg Stadt - Strausberg Nord Strausberg Nord RAL 2008
Berlin S7.svg Ahrensfelde Ahrensfelde - Springpfuhl - Lichtenberg - Ostkreuz - Warschauer Straße - Osbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Friedrichstraße - Hauptbahnhof - Zoologischer Garten - Charlottenburg - Westkreuz - Nikolassee - Wannsee - Potsdam Griebnitzsee - Potsdam Hauptbahnhof Potsdam Hauptbahnhof RAL 4005
Berlin S75.svg Wartenberg Wartenberg - Springpfuhl - Lichtenberg - Ostkreuz - Warschauer Straße - Osbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Friedrichstraße - Hauptbahnhof - Zoologischer Garten - Charlottenburg - Westkreuz Westkreuz RAL 4005
Berlin S8.svg (Zeuthen ↔) Grünau Zeuthen - Grünau - Schöneweide - Baumschulenweg - Treptower Park - Ostkreuz - Schönhauser Allee - Bornholmer Straße - Pankow - Blankenburg - Bergfelde - Hohen Neuendorf - Birkenwerder Birkenwerder RAL 6018
Berlin S85.svg (Grünau ↔) Schöneweide Not in Service Waidmannslust RAL 6018
Berlin S9.svg ✈ Berlin-Schönefeld Schönefeld - Schöneweide - Baumschulenweg - Treptower Park - Ostkreuz - Schönhauser Allee - Bornholmer Straße - Pankow Pankow RAL 2003

Stations in brackets are serviced at certain times only (Monday through Friday during offpeak in the case of S45 and during peak in the case of S8 and S85). S85 only runs Monday through Friday.

Also, not every train reaches the nominal terminus of a line. For example, every other train on S1 runs only to Frohnau, five stops before Oranienburg, and the last stop on S3 towards Erkner which is reached by every train is Friedrichshagen. Similarly, some of the S2 trains terminate northwards only at Gesundbrunnen, and most of S5 trains run only to Strausberg or even Mahlsdorf, rendering Strausberg Nord the least frequented stop on the whole network.

On 31 August 2009 a few permanent changes to the line routes were applied. Due to renovation of the Ostkreuz station, which includes dismantling tracks connecting the Stadtbahn and the Ringbahn, S9 (formerly ✈ Berlin-SchönefeldSpandau) cannot turn west at this station any more. The line thus follows the Ringbahn and then branches northwards past Schönhauser Allee, like S2 and S8, and terminates at Pankow. To compensate for the diminished throughput on the Stadtbahn, the S3 (formerly ErknerOstbahnhof) was extended westwards to Spandau. Due to the progress achieved in the Ostkreuz-Renovation, the S3 now operates only Ostkreuz-Erkner. As a replacement, the S5 is now driving to Spandau and the S75 operates every 10 Minutes between Westkreuz and Wartenberg.

Service hours[edit]

The normal daytime service runs fundamentally between 04:00 and 01:00 Monday-Friday, between 05:00 and 01:00 on Saturdays and between 06:30 and 01:00 on Sundays. However, there is a comprehensive nighttime service on most lines between 01:00 and 05:00 on Saturdays and 01:00 and 06:30 on Sundays, which means that most stations enjoy a continuous service between Friday morning and Sunday evening. One exception to this is the section of the S8 between Blankenburg and Hohen Neuendorf which sees no service in these hours. Most other lines operate without route changes, but some are curtailed or extended during nighttime. Particularly, the S1, S2, S25, S3, S41, S42, S5, S7 are unchanged, and the S45 and S85 have no nighttime service. Westbound lines S46, S47, S75, and northbound S9 terminate at stations Südkreuz, Schöneweide, Lichtenberg and Treptower Park, respectively.

History[edit]

Berlin S-Bahn was converted from steam to third rail electrification starting in the late 1920s. The rail is touched from below. Seen here at the level crossing at the Lichtenrade station

Inception[edit]

With individual sections dating from the 1870s, the S-Bahn was formed by and by as the network of suburban commuter railways running into Berlin, then interconnected by the circular railway connecting the various terminal railway stations, in 1882 enhanced by the East-West transversal, cross-city line (called the "Stadtbahn", "city railway"). The forming of a separate identity of this network began by establishing a special tariff for the area which was then called the "Berliner Stadt-, Ring- und Vorortbahnen", and which differed from the normal railway tariff. While the regular railway tariff was based on multiplying the distance covered with a fixed prices per kilometer, the special tariff for this Berlin tariff zone was based on a graduated tariff based on the number of stations touched during the travel.[4]

The resulting network is primarily above-ground but with some subsurface tunnels.

Electrification[edit]

The core of this network, that is the cross-city ("Stadtbahn") East-West transversal line and the circular Ringbahn, and several suburban branches were converted from steam operation to a third-rail electric railway in the second half of the 1920s. The Wannsee railway, the suburban line with the highest number of passengers, was electrified in 1932/33. A number of suburban trains remained under steam, including after the war.

Timeline of electrifications
Date Stretch Length
(in m)
08 August 1924 Stettiner VorortbahnhofBernau 22,676
05 June 1925 GesundbrunnenBirkenwerder 18,019
04 October 1925 Birkenwerder – Oranienburg 07,765
16 March 1927 Schönholz-ReinickendorfVelten 21,162
11 June 1928 Potsdam – Stadtbahn – Erkner 57,168
10 July 1928 Wannsee – Stahnsdorf 04,135
23 August 1928 CharlottenburgSpandau West 09,279
06 November 1928 Charlottenburg – Südring – Grünau 25,883
NeuköllnWarschauer Straße 05,677
Schlesischer BahnhofKaulsdorf 11,258
01 February 1929 Charlottenburg – Nordring – Baumschulenweg 25,755
Frankfurter Allee – Warschauer Straße 00,580
Niederschöneweide-JohannisthalSpindlersfeld 03,972
18 April 1929 Potsdamer Ringbahnhof – Papestraße 03,440
Potsdamer Ringbahnhof – Ebersstraße 01,060
HalenseeWestend 02,713
02 July 1929 Potsdamer Ringbahnhof – Lichterfelde Ost 09,087
18 December 1929 JungfernheideGartenfeld 04,460
15 December 1930 Kaulsdorf – Mahlsdorf 01,366
15 May 1933 Potsdamer Wannseebahnhof – Wannsee 18,988
Potsdamer BahnhofZehlendorf Mitte (Stammbahngleise) 11,960
Verbindung Stammbahn – Wannseebahn Zehlendorf Mitte 01,040
28 July 1936 Humboldthain – Unter den Linden 02,691
Heerstraße – Reichssportfeld 01,467
15 April 1939 Unter den Linden – Potsdamer Platz 00,941
Priesterweg – Mahlow 11,595
09 October 1939 Potsdamer Platz – Großgörschenstraße 04,243
06 November 1939 Anhalter BahnhofYorckstraße 01,571
06 October 1940 Mahlow – Rangsdorf 07,396
08 September 1943 Lichterfelde Ost – Lichterfelde Süd 02,668

After the East-West cross-city transversal line: the North-South link[edit]

After the East-West cross-city transversal line connecting western suburban lines which until then terminated at Charlottenburg station with eastern suburban lines which terminated at Frankfurter Bahnhof (later Schlesischer Bahnhof), the logical next step was a North-South transversal line connecting the northern suburban lines terminating at Stettiner Bahnhof with the southern suburban lines terminating at the substations of the Berlin Potsdamer Bahnhof. The first ideas for this project emerged only 10 years after the completion of the East-West cross-city line, with several concrete proposals resulting from a 1909 competition of the Berlin city administration. Another concrete proposal, already very close to the final realisation was proposed in 1926 by the Breslau university professor Jenicke.

The decition to build was taken in 1933, as part of the public works program to reduce unemployment undertaken by the new Nazi government. construction of this Nord-Süd-S-Bahn (North-South S-Bahn), as it was called, started in 1934, with a tunnel from Berlin Anhalter Bahnhof to Berlin Stettiner Bahnhof (today Nordbahnhof') as its core section. A first phase, from the north to Unter den Linden was opened just in time for the 1936 Berlin Olympics; the southern section, via Potsdamer Platz, opened the month after the Second World War began, in October 1939.

During and after World War II[edit]

Some Type 477 trains, built before World War II, remained in service until the early 21st century

Many sections of the S-Bahn were closed during the war due to enemy action. The Nord-Süd-Bahn tunnel was flooded on 2 May 1945 by retreating SS troops during the final Battle of Berlin[citation needed]. The exact number of casualties is not known, but up to 200 people are presumed to have perished, since the tunnel was used as a public shelter and also served to house military wounded in trains in underground sidings. Service through the tunnel commenced again in 1947.

After hostilities ceased in 1945, Berlin was given special status as a "Four Sector City," surrounded by the Soviet Occupation Zone, which later became the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The Allies had decided that S-Bahn service in the western sectors of Berlin should continue to be provided by the Reichsbahn (DR), which was by now the provider of railway services in East Germany. (Rail services in West Germany proper were provided by the new Deutsche Bundesbahn.)

During the war, Berlin S-Bahn cars were overhauled at Luben to the east of Berlin. Since that town, now known as Lubin, was ceded to Poland under the terms of the Potsdam Conference in 1945, 84 cars currently in the works were thus lost for Berlin. Further cars were sent east as war reparations, and eventually at least 287 cars were sent to the Soviet Union where they were converted for use in Moscow, Kiev, and Tallinn. Additionally at least 80 two-car sets were retained in Poland, where they were used on suburban services in the Gdańsk-Gdynia region until 1976. Some of the latter cars were then converted for use in overhead line maintenance trains, and some still exist in that role. One set is preserved in its Gdańsk-Gdynia condition at a museum at Kościerzyna near Gdynia.[5]

Cold War[edit]

As relations between East and West began to sour with the coming of the Cold War, the Berlin S-Bahn soon became a victim of the hostilities. Although services continued operating through all occupation sectors, checkpoints were constructed on the borders to East Berlin and on-board "customs checks" were carried out on trains. From 1958 onward, some S-Bahn trains ran non-stop through the western sectors from stations in East Berlin to stations on outlying sections in East Germany so as to avoid the need for such controls. East German government employees were then forbidden to use the S-Bahn since it travelled through West Berlin.

Alexanderplatz is an important transport hub in eastern Berlin

The western sectors of the city were physically cut off from East Germany on August 13, 1961, by what was later called the Berlin Wall, in a well-prepared plan to separate the two halves of the city – and at the same time, to divide the Berlin public transit network into two separate systems.

Stadtbahn services were curtailed from both directions at the Friedrichstraße station. This station was divided into two physically separated areas, one for eastern passengers and one for westerners. Although the station lay within East Berlin, western passengers could transfer between S-Bahn lines or to the U-Bahn without passing through border checks, much like passengers changing planes at an international airport. The GDR also operated an Intershop in the portion of the station with services to and from West Berlin, where persons arriving from West Berlin (again without passing through border controls) could buy luxury goods such as tobacco and alcoholic beverages at discounted prices (compared to prices in West Berlin), provided they paid in hard currency, owing in part to the fact that Intershop customers did not pay West German taxes on their purchases. The West Berlin authorities were aware of this situation but did not impose stringent customs controls on such purchases out of political considerations. The Friedrichstraße station also became the main entry point for train and subway riders from West Berlin into East Berlin.

Similarly, selected sections in Berlin S-Bahn together with the Ringbahn were cut between the borders of West Berlin and East Berlin, border fortifications such as a locked door were put up between the designated stations. These include -

  • Spandau West – Albrechtshof (West Berlin - East Germany), the remainder of the section was cut in 1969
  • Heiligensee – Hennigsdorf (West Berlin - East Germany), the remainder of the section (Hennigsdorf - Velten) was cut in 1984
  • Frohnau – Hohen Neuendorf (West Berlin - East Germany), the remainder of the section was extended in 1962
  • Lichtenrade – Mahlow (West Berlin - East Germany), the remainder of the section was cut in 1962
  • Lichterfelde Süd – Teltow (West Berlin - East Germany)
  • Wannsee – Stahnsdorf (West Berlin - East Germany)
  • Wannsee – Griebnitzsee (West Berlin - East Germany), the remainder of the section was cut in 1962
  • Gesundbrunnen – Schönhauser Allee (Ringbahn)
  • Bornholmer Straße – Pankow (the middle tracks were sealed with a fence, another compensated track from Pankow to Schönhauser Allee was built as a result)
  • Sonnenallee – Treptower Park (Ringbahn)
  • Köllnische Heide – Baumschulenweg (Ringbahn)

DR and BVG had discussed separate arrangements for the Nord-Süd-Bahn by restricting the travel to West Berliners only and it passed through the East Berlin territory in the city center, and it did not stop at underground East Berlin S-Bahn stations, which is called ghost stations. Two armed guards were positioned at all ghost stations to ensure that no passengers jumped to the train or smashed the window to allow escape into East Berlin. No maintenance works were allowed between 1961 and 1989 of the Nord-Süd-Bahn except for very few maintenance works, and trains had to slow down at 60 km/h instead of the normal ordinary speed limit. Bornholmer Straße is also a ghost station, it is because the exits is only towards the border crossing and will not have repeated times to scan through the immigration checkpoint.

Because the S-Bahn was operated by the DR, West Berliners vented their frustration at the building of the wall by boycotting it since its fares were seen as subsidizing the communist regime in the East. "Keinen Pfennig mehr für Ulbricht," or "not a penny more for Ulbricht," became the S-Bahn opponents' chant. Within days of the Berlin Wall being built, the BVG, with assistance from other transit companies in West Germany, began providing "solidarity with Berlin buses" – new bus services which paralleled the S-Bahn lines and therefore provided an alternative. After many years of declining passenger usage and difficult industrial relations between the West Berlin workforce and their East Berlin employers, most of the western portion of the S-Bahn was closed down in 11 September 1980 following a strike.

A 20-minute service was still provided on the Stadtbahn from Westkreuz to Friedrichstraße as well as services on the Nord-Süd-Bahn between Frohnau, Friedrichstraße, Lichtenrade, or Wannsee. After the strike, the only sections that were reopened is Frohnau to Lichtenrade, Helligensee to Lichterfelde Süd and Wannsee to Friedrichstraße on 22 September 1980. The following routes were also cut:

  • Gesundbrunnen – Jungfernheide – Westkreuz – Schöneberg – Sonnenallee / Köllnische Heide (reopening in 1993 to 2002)
  • Westkreuz – Olympiastadion – Spandau (reopening in 1999)
  • Spandau – Staaken
  • Jungfernheide – Gartenfeld (Siemensbahn)
  • Jungfernheide – Spandau
  • Zehlendorf – Düppel

By contrast, during the same period, services on the S-Bahn in East Berlin were increased and new lines built as housing projects expanded eastward from the city center. With most of the U-Bahn located in West Berlin, the S-Bahn became the backbone of the East Berlin transit network.

The track system is a fully separated and independent rapid transport system within the city. Station: Anhalter Bahnhof

The 1980 incidents turned media and political attention toward what was left of West Berlin's S-Bahn network. The city government decided to enter negotiations with East Germany which were finally successful. On January 9, 1984, the BVG took over the responsibility for operation of S-Bahn services in West Berlin. After further closedowns that same day, a limited service was restored, initially comprising only two short sections without direct interchange between them. In the years between 1984 and 1989, several sections were gradually reopened, resulting in a network of 71 km (44 mi) and three lines - with one line running on the Stadtbahn and two on the Nord-Süd-Bahn - comprising about 50% of West Berlin's original network. This development brought West Berlin's S-Bahn back into public awareness and restored its popularity.

Until 1984, all Berlin S-Bahn routes were allocated letters as a means of identifying the route of the train. These letters were occasionally followed by Roman numerals to indicate a shortworking or bifurcation in the service (e.g., A, BI, BII, C,) and are still used internally by the Berlin S-Bahn GmbH for timetabling and in conjunction with radio call-signs to each train unit. When the BVG took over the responsibility for operation of S-Bahn services in West Berlin in 1984, it introduced a new unified numbering scheme for both the S-Bahn and the U-Bahn, which it also operated. Existing U-Bahn route numbers were prefixed with the letter U, while the new S-Bahn route numbers were prefixed with the letter S. This system of numbering routes was used in other West German cities and was extended to the S-Bahn service for the whole city after reunification.

Reunification[edit]

A modern S-Bahn train at Griebnitzsee

After the Berlin Wall came down in November 1989, the first broken links were re-established, with Friedrichstraße on July 1, 1990, as the first. The BVG and DR jointly marketed the services soon after die Wende. Administratively, the divided S-Bahn networks remained separate in this time of momentous changes, encompassing German reunification and reunification of Berlin into a single city, although the dividing line was no longer the former Berlin Wall. DR and BVG (of the whole of reunified Berlin from January 1, 1992, after absorbing BVB of East Berlin) operated individual lines end to end, both into the other party's territories. For example, S2 was all BVG even after it was extended northward and southward into Brandenburg/former GDR territory. The main east-west route (Stadtbahn) was a joint operation. Individual trains were operated by either BVG or DR end-to-end on the same tracks. This arrangement ended on January 1, 1994, with the creation of Deutsche Bahn due to the merger between DR and the former West Germany's Deutsche Bundesbahn. All S-Bahn operations in Berlin were transferred to the newly formed S-Bahn Berlin GmbH as a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, and the BVG withdrew from running S-Bahn services.

Technically, a number of projects followed in the steps of re-establishing broken links in order to restore the former S-Bahn network to its 1961 status after 1990, especially the Ringbahn. In December 1997 the connection between Neukölln and Treptower Park via Sonnenallee was reopened, enabling S4 trains to run 75% of the whole ring between Schönhauser Allee and Jungfernheide. On June 16, 2002, the section Gesundbrunnen - Westhafen also reopened, re-establishing the Ringbahn operations.

Date Stretch Length (in m) Notes
1 April 1992 Wannsee – Potsdam Stadt 08,968 Closed on 13 August 1961
31 May 1992 Frohnau – Hohen Neuendorf 04,176 Closed on 13 August 1961
31 August 1992 Lichenrade - Blankenfelde 05,750 Closed on 13 August 1961
17 December 1993 Westend – Baumschulenweg 18,344 Closed on 28 September 1980. (Westend – Köllnische Heide)
Closed on 13. August 1961 (Köllnische Heide – Baumschulenweg)
28 May 1995 Schönholz – Tegel 06,846 Closed on 9 January 1984.
Priesterweg – Lichterfelde Ost 03,979 Closed on 9 January 1984.
15 April 1997 Westend – Jungfernheide 02,227 Closed on 28 September 1980.
18 December 1997 Neukölln – Treptower Park 03,358 Closed on 28. September 1980 (Neukölln – Sonnenallee)

Closed on 13. August 1961 (Sonnenallee – Treptower Park)

16 January 1998 Westkreuz - Pichelsberg 04,774 Closed on 28 September 1980.
25 September 1998 Lichterfelde Ost – Lichterfelde Süd 02,668 Closed on 9 January 1984.
15 December 1998 Tegel – Hennigsdorf 08,302 Closed on 9 January 1984. (Tegel – Heiligensee)
Closed on 13. August 1961 (Heiligensee – Hennigsdorf)
30 December 1998 Pichelsberg – Spandau 04,146 Closed on 28 September 1980.
19 December 1999 Jungfernheide – Westhafen 03,146 Closed on 28 September 1980.
17 September 2001 Pankow – Gesundbrunnen 02,648 Closed on 13 August 1961 (Pankow – Bornholmer Straße)
Closed on 9 January 1984 (Bornholmer Straße – Gesundbrunnen)
Schönhauser Allee – Gesundbrunnen 01,783 Closed on 13 August 1961
Schönhauser Allee – Bornholmer Straße 01,688 New construction
15 June 2002 Westhafen – Gesundbrunnen 03,463 Closed on 28 September 1980.
24 February 2005 Lichterfelde Süd – Teltow 02,880 Closed on 13 August 1961, moved to Teltow Stadt.

Service reductions[edit]

On 20 July 2009, known locally as "Black Monday," the S-Bahn service was significantly reduced due to safety checks on the trains ordered by the German Federal Railway Authority. These checks were ordered because of an accident on 3 May 2009, involving an S-Bahn train.[6] Maintenance for this train was delayed by 2 years, symptomatic for the strategy to cut spendings in the Deutsche Bahn subsidiary.[7] Having so many trains taken out of service for inspection left less than 30 percent of the system's rolling stock available for revenue service. Eight routes, including most through services on the Stadtbahn, were closed, and on other lines headways were reduced to 20 minutes and trains shortened.[8]

Some minor restorations in service were made on August 3, 2009. Due to new inspection troubles the S-Bahn network was again reduced dramatically on September 8, 2009. As of that date, three quarters of the trains were withdrawn from the network due to inspection and faulty brake cylinders.[9] There were again no trains on the Stadtbahn between Westkreuz and Alexanderplatz and no S-Bahn trains to Spandau. Trains on the circle lines, S41 and S42, were running at 10-minute intervals. Other routes were running with extended intervals and reduced distances.[10]

In late 2009, the Berlin Senate expected that normal operations would only resume in 2013.[11] In January 2010, DB announced that they expected the system to resume normal service in December 2010 and employed 300 new staff in their workshops.[12] In the same month, the Berlin transport Senator Ingeborg Junge-Reyer rejected an extension of the traffic contract with the operator Deutsche Bahn (DB) which is due to expire in December 2017. MTR Corporation, National Express Group, Berlin S-Bahn GmbH and RATP Development had tendered for their procurement process, and were soon followed by train manufacturer Stadler Rail for their operations from 2018 to 2033.

By spring of 2011, some 420 train sets were in service, a considerable improvement over the situation in 2009 but still insufficient compared to the 500 needed to provide a normal full service. The S-Bahn announced it was to invest 120 million euros (157 million dollars) in order to achieve 500 train sets in service by December 2011.[13] Rüdiger Grube, the head of the DB, announced that losses due to the S-Bahn crisis had reached 370 million euros (482 million dollars) at the end of 2010. He expected them to reach 700 million euros by the end of 2014, with no operating profits to be made before the end of the contract in December 2017.[14]

Infrastructure work[edit]

Starting in 2010, DB Netz is replacing mechanical train stops on the S-Bahn network with electronic balises.[15]

Rolling stock[edit]

Current[edit]

  • BVG Class 480 (since 1986, in use on lines S46, S47 and S8)
  • DB Class 481/482 (since 1996, in use on all lines, but also occasionally on lines S3, S46, S47 and S8)
  • DR Class 485/885 (since 1987, in use on lines S3, S5 and S9)

Former[edit]

  • DR Class ET 125 (from 1935 until 2003)
  • DR Class ET 165 (from 1928 until 1997)
  • DR Class ET 166 (from 1936 until 2000)
  • DR Class ET 167 (from 1938 until 2003)
  • DR Class ET 168 (from 1926 until circa 1962, some units converted to train type EIII for the Berlin U-Bahn)
  • DR Class ET 169 (from 1925 until 1962)
  • DR Class ET 170 (from 1959 until 1970)

Excursion trains[edit]

  • DB Class 488.0 (Panorama train, converted from former DB Class ET 167 coaches from 1997-1999)
  • Museum train Class ET/ES 165
  • Tradition train Class ET/ES/EB 165
  • Viertel train Class ET/EB 167 (built in 1938, converted in 1991)

Expansion[edit]

Redevelopment projects[edit]

Ostkreuz

By 1988, the Deutsche Reichsbahn had plans for the transformation of the Ostkreuz presented. In 2007 the long postponed renovation of the station began.

Ostkreuz, with nine lines (four on the Stadtbahn and five on the Ringbahn), is one of the busiest stations in the network. Since the reorganization is taking place during full operation, a date of completion is not known. Deutsche Bahn expects it to be finished in 2016.

With the progress of construction work on 31 August 2009, the southern connection and the platform A were decommissioned. This line had to change the result. The construction plans insist that the connection be restored by 2014. After its completion, traffic will be able to be redirected from the Southern Ringbahn onto the Stadtbahn.

In October 2009, the new regional station of the Ringbahn was completed enough so that the S-Bahn trains on the Ringbahn can use these now and the demolition of the old ring-S-Bahn platform could begin.

Görlitzer Bahn (Baumschulenweg - Grünauer Kreuz)

The rehabilitation work on the Grünauer Kreuz started on 12 July 2006. The construction cost for this station was reported to be 33 million euros. The latest plans by Deutsche Bahn see a new building, station Schöneweide before, after the realization of the Tram to drive through a tunnel to Sterndamm. The project also includes upgrading the track Grünauer Cross - Berlin-Schoenefeld airport, and railway stations Wildau. A total of 335 million euros for the construction work has been used.

Other major construction projects are planned along the route:

  • Rebuilding the railway station Schöneweide including the construction of a new road underpass
  • Replacement of bridges over the Sterndamm
  • Construction of additional electronic interlocking equipment along the route
  • Conversion of the S-Bahn station Wildau
  • Renewal of the mainline tracks and re-establishment of the overhead contact line system

New lines[edit]

Extension airport Berlin-Schönefeld - Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg

In preparation for the opening of Berlin-Brandenburg Airport in Schönefeld in the south of Berlin, the S-Bahn line from the current end point Airport Berlin-Schoenefeld will be extended to the new terminal. Directly below the terminal under construction, Berlin Brandenburg, a station will be built with six tracks. Four tracks are for the long distance railway as provided through station. With the approach from the west, two tracks for the train will be built. In early July 2008, the first 185 meters long section of the station was completed. On 24 July 2009, the airport company the shell of the airport railway station and the first part of the tunnel opens in late 2011. The construction costs indicated at 636 million euros. This includes also the cost of which contain both long-distance rail link to be created.

planning Berlin S21.svg - Stages 1 and 2
0.0 Berlin ring road
0.2 Perleberger Bridge
1,6 Central Stationrail
2.4 Bundestag
2.8 Frederick Street
3,4 Potsdamer Platz
for pickup station
Planning line S21 (Second Nord-Süd Bahn - first construction phase)

The second Nord-Süd Bahn will link the northern ring to the main train station, train station Potsdamer Platz and the Wannsee train to the southern ring. Already taken place in the 1907-1910 competition, Greater Berlin by Albert Sprickerhof one-way by today's plans almost identical to the proposed course.

The line will be built in sections. In 2005, the zoning approval for the northern part of the route of the Ringbahn to Hauptbahnhof adopted.[16] In October 2009 a loan agreement between the Senate and the German track for the first section closed. Costs shall be in it with € 226.5 million. On 27 November 2009, started the preparatory work for this phase of construction at the main station. For the underground excavation in Invalidenstrasse diaphragm walls incorporated into the soil and covered with a reinforced concrete lid.

This stage involves the construction of a curve to the Westhafen and an eastern connection to the Wedding in front on the northern ring. The unloading of these lines has already been prepared for the construction of the Nord-Süd Bahn and 2006, structurally. From there, the existing line in a southerly direction (in the tunnel layer) to the Berlin Hauptbahnhof east of the north-south mainline run. The realization of an intermediate station by the working name Perleberger Brücke (as the Turmstraße in V-shape) is provided as an option. Until 2016, this 1,600-meter-long section to be built [17]

Plans for the expansion of the S-Bahn[edit]

Expansion decision[edit]

Planning line S21 (Second Nord-Süd Bahn - second stage)

The construction of the second section of the S21 is to begin no earlier than 2018 and be completed until 2023. The new suburban rail line will result in tunnel position from the railway station past the Reichstag Potsdamer Platz. It is equal to the Brandenburg Gate in the existing tunnel of the Nord-Süd Tunnel and open out to him Potsdamer Platz to use. The first north-south S-Bahn in 1939 was designed with a view to a second four-track route. The cost of the S-Bahn rail line (phases 1 and 2) are to present information (2009) amount to 317 million euros. The benefits of an additional budget to the east of Reichstag is still under investigation. Through him, the cost would increase to about 330 million euros.

For the other phases of construction to the southern ring road are currently no dates. They have so far only in the Berlin land use plan defines.

Considerations for further extensions[edit]

Since reunification, there have been suggestions that lines which have not been used since 1961 or 1980 should be rebuilt and add to the network through some new lines. Many of these plans have changed several times since then, or were abandoned.

Following a decision of the Berlin House of Representatives, the goal, the S-Bahn network is essentially the extent of 1961 to restore. This was stated in an agreement between the web, the Federal Ministry of Transport and the Senate on 4 November 1993. The net should be restored until 2002. On this basis, the plans were included in the land use plan of 1995. In a study of the transport development of the then Department for Transport and businesses in 1995, the plan was published for one destination network. Only the connections Jungfernheide - Stresow, Spandau - Staaken and Zehlendorf - chaff which existed until 1980 incorporated in these plans not occur. Political will is now meant only symbolic, since beyond already several projects on the former purpose or value. The tense budget, changing traffic flows and the alternative development through regional trains leads to complete cancellation or postponement of already planned projects.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "S-Bahn Berlin - A company of the Deutsche Bahn Group". S-Bahn Berlin. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  2. ^ a b c "S-Bahn Berlin GmbH - Unternehmen - Mobilität für die Hauptstadt und das Umland" [S-Bahn Berlin GmbH - The Enterprise - Mobility for the capital and the surrounding countryside] (in German). S-Bahn Berlin. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-23. 
  3. ^ "Vier Jahre lang: Endstation Ostkreuz" [For four years: Terminus Ostkreuz] (Interview with Mario Wand, Jens Hebbbe, and Michael Baufeld) (in German). S-Bahn Berlin GmbH. September 20, 2011. Retrieved 2014-03-13. "Die S 3 Erkner – Spandau wird ab 11. Dezember 2011 für voraussichtlich vier Jahre am Ostkreuz enden. Das ist die Folge der neuen Bauphase, die dann auf der Großbaustelle beginnt. Drei Experten begründen diese Entscheidung." 
  4. ^ Oberreichsbahnrat Dr. von Gersdorff (1939). "Die Nordsüd-S-Bahn und der Berliner S-Bahn-Tarif" [The North-South S-Bahn and the Berlin S-Bahn tariff]. Technisch-Wirtschaftliche Bücherei (in German) (71 - Nordsüd-S-Bahn Berlin). Berlin: Otto Elsner Verlagsgesellschaft. 
  5. ^ Fender, Keith; Bent, Mike (February 2011). "Old Berlin/Gdansk S-Bahn cars in museum and in use". Today's Railways (Platform 5 Publishing Ltd). p. 61. 
  6. ^ "Klaus Kurpjuweit: S-Bahn prüft nach Unfall Konsequenzen. In: Der Tagesspiegel. 4. Mai 2009". Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 Oct 2012. 
  7. ^ "Klaus Kurpjuweit, Lars von Törne: S-Bahn stellt Ost-West-Verkehr komplett ein. Züge ab Montag nur noch bis Zoo und Ostbahnhof. Bahn leiht sich Regionalzüge für Innenstadtverkehr". Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 Oct 2012. 
  8. ^ "Chaos in Berlin. Eisenbahn-Bundesamt legt S-Bahnen still". Spiegel Online. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "Berliner S-Bahn droht neues Chaos". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  10. ^ "Wie die S-Bahn in Schieflage geriet" [As the train ran into difficulties] (in German). Der Tagesspiegel. 2009-12-12. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  11. ^ "S-Bahn fährt frühestens 2013 wieder normal" [S-Bahn not back to normal until at least 2013] (in German). Der Tagesspiegel. 2009-12-28. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  12. ^ "Deutsche Bahn: 70 Mio. Euro zusätzliche Entschädigung für S-Bahn-Kunden – Normalisierter Betrieb bis Ende 2010" [Deutsche Bahn: € 70 million additional compensation for S-Bahn customer - Normalized operating by end 2010] (in German). S-Bahn Berlin. 
  13. ^ "Worldwide Review - Germany - Berlin". Tramways & Urban Transit (Ian Allan Ltd / Light Rail Transit Association). May 2011. p. 193. 
  14. ^ "Berliner S-Bahn-Chaos kostet 700 Millionen Euro" [Berlin S-Bahn chaos will cost 700 million euros] (in German). Spiegel-Online. 2010-01-10. 
  15. ^ "Railway Gazette: Berlin S-Bahn control update". Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  16. ^ Federal Railway Office, plan approval to the plan of the DB Netz AG for the construction project S21 - North Ring connection to Hauptbahnhof, Berlin-West Port - Berlin Hauptbahnhof - Berlin-Wedding, 12 February 2005.
  17. ^ Template:Internet source

External links[edit]