Cynodon dactylon

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Cynodon dactylon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: C. dactylon
Binomial name
Cynodon dactylon
(L.) Pers.
Synonyms[1]

Cynodon dactylon, also known as dūrvā grass, Dhoob, Bermuda grass, bermudagrass, dubo, dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, and scutch grass, is a grass native to north and east Africa, Asia, Australia and southern Europe.[citation needed] Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. It is presumed to have arrived in North America from Bermuda, resulting in its common name.[citation needed]

The blades are a grey-green colour and are short, usually 2–15 cm (0.79–5.91 in) long with rough edges.[2] The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm (0.39–11.81 in) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour. The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long.[2] It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 m deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 cm under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground and roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, runners, and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F); in winter, the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

C. dactylon is widely cultivated in warm climates all over the world between about 30° S and 30° N latitude, and that get between 625 and 1,750 mm (24.6 and 68.9 in) of rainfall a year (or less, if irrigation is available). It is also found in the US, mostly in the southern half of the country and in warm climates. It is fast-growing and tough, making it popular and useful for sports fields, as when damaged it will recover quickly. It is a highly desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates, particularly for those regions where its heat and drought tolerance enable it to survive where few other grasses do. It has a relatively coarse-bladed form with numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements. It is also highly aggressive, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, and has become a hard-to-eradicate weed in some areas (it can be controlled somewhat with Triclopyr, Mesotrione, Fluazifob-p-butyl, and Glyphosate).[3][4] This weedy nature leads some gardeners to give it the name of "devil grass".

Bermuda grass has been cultivated on saline soils in California's Central Valley which are too salt-damaged to support agricultural crops; it was successfully irrigated with saline water and used to graze cattle.[5][6]

The hybrid variety 'Tifton 85', like some other grasses (e.g. sorghum), produces cyanide under certain conditions,[7] and has been implicated in several livestock deaths (note that in several places this variety has been incorrectly reported as a genetically modified strain;[8] actually it is a conventionally bred F1 hybrid[9]).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  2. ^ a b Walker, Karen; Burrows, Geoff; McMahon, Lynne (2001). Bidgee bush : an identification guide to common native plant species of the south western slopes of New South Wales. Yarralumla, Australian Capital Territory: Greening Australia. p. 82. ISBN 1-875345-61-2. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  3. ^ "Tenacity and Bermuda Control - LawnSite.com™ - Lawn Care & Landscaping Business Forum". Lawnsite.com. 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  4. ^ Teuton T.C., J.B. Unruh, B.J. Brecke, and G.L. Miller (2005). "Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) Control with Glyphosate and Fluazifop-p-butyl". Applied Turfgrass Science. doi:10.1094/ATS-2005-0119-01-RS. 
  5. ^ Kaffka, Stephen. "Can feedstock production for biofuels be sustainable in California?". California Agriculture 63 (4): 202–207. doi:10.3733/ca.v063n04p202. 
  6. ^ Stephen Kaffka, Stephen Grattan, Dennis Corwi, Maximo Alonso, and George E. Brown Jr. "Bermuda Grass Yield and Quality in Response to Different Salinity and N, Se, Mo, and B Rates in West San Joaquin Valley". UC Center for Water Resources. 
  7. ^ Provin, T. L.; Pitt, J. L. "Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages". Texas A&M University System. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  8. ^ CBS News (June 23, 2012). "GM grass linked to Texas cattle deaths". CBS News. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  9. ^ Glenn W. Burton, Roger N. Gates, and Gary M. Hill. "TIFTON 85 BERMUDAGRASS". University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 

External links[edit]