Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway

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This article is about the former Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway company that existed between 1906 and 2006. For the company that succeeded it in 2006, see BLS AG. For the railway line between Spiez and Brig, see Lötschberg railway line.
Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway
Re44 180.jpg
BLS Re 4/4 class on the Lötschberg ramp
Dates of operation 1913–2006
Predecessor Lake Thun railway
Bern–Neuchâtel railway
Gürbetal–Bern–Schwarzenburg railway
Spiez–Erlenbach-Zweisimmen railway
Successor BLS AG
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 15 kV, 16⅔ Hz, AC

The Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway (BLS), known between 1997 and 2006 as the BLS Lötschbergbahn, was a Swiss railway company. In 2006 the company merged with Regionalverkehr Mittelland AG to form a new company called BLS AG.

The Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway was the largest standard gauge network on the Swiss Railway system apart from the Swiss Federal Railways. The railway had not been built at the time that the Federal government took control of the five big Swiss standard gauge railway companies in 1902 and so it led a separate existence, being considered the largest of the Swiss "private" railways, although the majority of its capital was owned by the cantonal government of Bern, with the Confederation holding about one fifth.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

With the opening of the Gotthard line in 1882 the canton of Bern became separated from the main north–south route. The administration, not being happy with the situation, made full use of its federal rights to build its own line but it could not rely on financial aid from the Swiss Confederation, the authorities being vehemently opposed to any rival transit route. Bern had to look elsewhere to raise the necessary funds and these were to come from an unexpected source. In 1871, due to the Franco-Prussian War, France had surrendered Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. As part of this annexation, the French-Swiss border crossing at Basel was lost.

Because of this, business circles in Paris were interested in co-financing a viable international transit route through Switzerland. Several alternative routes via FrutigenLötschberg were proposed but eventually, the Pro-Lötschberg Initiative Committee won the day. The Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway was founded on 27 July 1906 and within a few months construction work commenced.

The Lötschberg tunnel[edit]

Car transport service (Kandersteg)

Possibly because of French finance the construction of the “Mountain Route” the 58 km Frutigen–Brig line, was assigned to a French construction consortium, the major civil engineering work on the section being 13.7 km (8.5 mi) single-track Lötschberg Tunnel. Construction began on 15 October 1906 but within months the Swiss federal authorities ordered the BLS to enlarge the tunnel to double track and to profile its access ramps to suit. Money was not forthcoming for the provision of a double track line throughout and only the Lötschberg Tunnel itself was constructed in this way. Due to an accident on 24 July 1908 in which rock, washed with alpine waters, collapsed into the tunnel gallery killing 25 Italian miners, construction work was halted for six months before the gallery was sealed and plans made to bypass the site. The plan was to construct three curves inside the mountain and extending the length of the tunnel to 14.612 km (9.079 mi). The breakthrough was finally made on 31 March 1911. With the completion of the access ramps, the other civil engineering works on the line, 33 tunnels, 3 avalanche galleries and 22 bridges, together with the provision of electrical support masts, power stations, sub-stations, etc., the line, powered at 15,000 volts, alternating current, 16⅔ Hz was officially opened on 19 June 1913.

Take overs and wartime changes[edit]

In 1913 the BLS made a successful takeover of the Lake Thun railway (TSB) (Thun/Scherzligen–Interlaken–Bönigen), and became the operating company for three other companies in the area, the Bern–Neuchâtel railway (BN), the Gürbetal–Bern–Schwarzenburg railway (GBS) and the Spiez–Erlenbach-Zweisimmen railway (SEZ) adding some 130 km (80.8 mi) to its system. The BLS/TSB merger meant that the Lötschbergbahn also became the proprietor of the shipping company on Lake Thun and Lake Brienz.

In 1915, to shorten the distance through the Jura Mountains, to the French border, the company inaugurated the Grenchenberg line between Moutier and Lengnau, which included the 8.5 km (5.3 mi) Grenchenberg tunnel.

Following World War I, in 1919, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France under the Treaty of Versailles, and Basel was restored as a border crossing between France and Switzerland. As a consequence, the importance of Delle as a border crossing point into France became less. Transit traffic was more and more routed via Basle/St Louis. Freight traffic between Germany and Italy, which could be routed via the Lötschberg line meant that the company was able to offset the loss of transit via Delle.

Double-track and piggyback[edit]

Problems with the operation of a single line railway were being seriously felt in the 1960s, but it was not until 1976 that the Federal Council gave their approval to loan of CHF 620,000,000 to upgrade the line to double track, the work to be carried in several stages, commencing the following year. The line, entirely double-track, was officially inaugurated on 8 May 1992.

At the end of 1993, the Swiss Confederation commissioned the BLS to provide a “piggyback” corridor along its line for road vehicles with a width of 2.5 m (98.4 in) and a corner height of 4 m (13 ft 1.5 in). The construction work began in January 1994 and the opening was delayed, due to geological problems on the southern side of the Simplon, until 11 June 2001. Since opening, the "rolling highway", the transportation of trucks by rail from Germany to Italy via Lötschberg, has made a considerable contribution towards transferring transit traffic from road to rail.

In 1994 the BLS moved 9.2 million passengers.

Politics and railways[edit]

The economic, political and legal operating environment for European railways changed to such an extent towards the end of the 20th century that restructuring amongst railway operators became inevitable. Liberalisation and competition also started to make an impact on railways. (Using EU legislation Britain’s railway network can probably show best and worst what happened with its divisions and fragmentation). Although not bound by EU directives Switzerland is surrounded by EU countries and as details arrived from Brussels notice was taken of happenings elsewhere. The BLS Lötschbergbahn reacted early and realigned itself strategically. On 1 January 1997, the jointly-operated BN, GBS and SEZ railways merged with BLS to form BLS Lötschbergbahn AG. The organisation was also changed, the company being now based around the three profit-focused core business of infrastructure, passenger traffic and cargo.

The south side of the Lötschberg Base Tunnel

On 15 May 2001, in order to secure their future, the BLS and SBB agreed on a new task-sharing arrangement. This was largely implemented as part of the timetable changes made on 12 December 2004 when the BLS took over the running of the SBB's S-Bahn lines and with it, system responsibility for Bern's S-Bahn network, the second largest in the country. This was accompanied by the transfer of long-distance railway operations from the BLS to the SBB. Within the cargo sector the SBB assumed overall control for full-load traffic in Switzerland. Transit and block train traffic has been subject to competition since the signing of the 2001 agreement. The SBB became responsible for rail network management across Switzerland.

On 27 September 1992, the Swiss people voted with an overwhelming majority in favour of the NEAT Project (Neue Alpentransversale), also known as the “AlpTransit”. In voting "Yes" the Swiss people gave their approval for the construction of two transverse routes through the Alps, one at the Gotthard, the other at the Lötschberg. The original AlpTransit Lötschberg Project provided for two single bore tunnels between Frutigen and the Rhône valley, a distance of 41 km (25.5 mi). For financial reasons the tunnel length was shortened to 34.6 km (21.5 mi), and the greater part of one of the bores was only be constructed as a shell. The new base line was inaugurated on 15 June 2007 and full standard traffic started with the new timetable on 9 December 2007. In full operation trains are able to travel through the Lötschberg Base Tunnel at speeds of 160–200 km/h (99.4–124.3 mph). Since the completion of NEAT and the opening of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the BLS is responsible for the operation of train services along the entire Lötschberg–Simplon route.

BLS RABe 535 on the southern Lötschberg ramp between Lalden and Brig.

Creation of BLS AG[edit]

A BLS train at a low lying platform

In June 2006, following their respective Annual General Meetings and with the approval of the shareholders, the Regionalverkehr Mittelland AG and the BLS Lötschbergbahn AG were merged to form the BLS AG. The new undertaking belongs to the canton of Bern (55.8%), the Swiss Confederation (21.7%), further cantons and private persons (22.5%). The BLS AG was actually founded on 24 April 2006, when the cantons of Berne, Lucerne, Solothurn, Valais and Neuchâtel exchanged their BLS and RM shares for BLS AG ones.

As a result of the fusion of the companies, the BLS AG becomes the second biggest traffic undertaking in Swiss standard-gauge railways after the Swiss Federal Railways. The BLS AG operates regional traffic in an area which lies between the Lake Neuchâtel and Lake Lucerne and the Jura Mountains and the Simplon Massif. It is also responsible for operating most routes of the Bern S-Bahn, together with some of those of the Lucerne S-Bahn.

Route[edit]

ETR 610 train on the Lötschberg line

The directly owned main line of the Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway ran from Thun, where it connected with the Swiss Federal Railways through Spiez and the Lötschberg Tunnel to Brig, where it connects with the Swiss Federal Railways owned Simplon Tunnel to Italy. The route between Thun and Spiez formed part of Lake Thun line, which also serves a terminus at Interlaken, whilst from Spiez to Brig the Lötschberg line was used.

This classic main line formed part of a longer route, from the border with France and Germany through the Simplon Tunnel to the border with Italy and Milan. As part of one variant of this route, the Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway also owned and built the Grenchenberg line between Moutier and Lengnau, which included the 8.5 km (5.3 mi) Grenchenberg tunnel, and shortened the distance between the French border at Delle and Bern. However most of this longer route was always operated by other railway companies.

Besides the lines mentioned above, the Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway also operated several other independently owned operating companies in the canton of Bern, including the Bern–Neuchâtel railway (BN), the Gürbetal–Bern–Schwarzenburg railway (GBS) and the Spiez–Erlenbach-Zweisimmen railway (SEZ). In 1997, the ownership of these lines was taken over by the Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway.

Between 2004 and 2006, when it was subsumed into the BLS AG, the company also operated extensive commuter services as part of the Bern S-Bahn network. The BLS network operated trains over 245 km (152.2 mi) of standard gauge track, but the BLS actually owned only 115 km (71.5 mi). The whole network was electrified at 15 kV 16⅔ Hz.

Locomotives and multiple units[edit]

The Bern–Lötschberg–Simplon railway operated the following locomotives and multiple units.

Class Re 4/4 (Re 425)[edit]

BLS No. Name UIC No. Builders details SLM No. Built Equipmt Date /Notes.
161 Domodossola SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4452 1964 Thyristor test unit 1968–1976
162 Court SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4453 1965
163 Grechen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4635 1966
164 Lengnau SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4636 1966
165 Moutier SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4637 1966
166 Aeschi SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4804 1969
167 Ausserberg SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4805 1969
168 Baltschieder SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4806 1969
169 Bönigen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4872 1970
170 Brig-Glis SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4873 1970 ETCS
171 Därligen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4874 1970 ETCS
172 Eggerberg SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4875 1970 ETCS
173 Lötschental SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4876 1970 ETCS
174 Frutigen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4894 1972 ETCS
175 Gampel SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4895 1972 ETCS
176 Hohtenn SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4896 1972 ETCS
177 Zweisimmen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4897 1973 ETCS ex-SEZ
178 Schwarzenburg SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4898 1973 ETCS ex-GBS
179 Bern SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4899 1973 ETCS ex-BN
180 Ville de Neuchâtel SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 4900 1973 ETCS ex-BN
181 Interlaken SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5037 1974 ETCS
182 Kandergrund SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5038 1974 ETCS
183 Kandersteg SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5039
5153
1974
1979
ETCS second carbody after avalanche
184 Krattigen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5040 1975 ETCS
185 Lalden SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5041 1975 ETCS
186 Leissigen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5042 1975 ETCS
187 Mund SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5043 1975 ETCS withdrawn after collision 2007
188 Naters SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5044 1975 ETCS
189 Niedergesteln SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5045 1975 ETCS
190 Raron SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5222 1982 ETCS ETCS equipment ex 187
191 Reichenbach SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5223 1982 Railvox
192 Spiez SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5224 1982 Railvox
193 Steg SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5225 1983 Railvox
194 Thun SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5226 1983 Railvox
195 Unterseen SLM/BBC/MFO/SAAS 5227 1983 Railvox

Re 425 170–190 are fitted with ETCS and thus able to pull trains over NBS Mattstetten – Rothrist and through Lötschberg Base Tunnel. Other Re 425 could act in MU as second or third engine and, if required, also behind an Re 465.

Re 425 191–195 were fitted with Railvox public address system and thus primarily used for push-pull services. There are 6 driving trailers for passenger services. By December 2010 the use of such consists for additional trains of S-Bahn Bern ended. Five consists are in use around Spiez (2011).

Third field of use are the car shuttles through (old) Lötschberg Tunnel. A total of 9 driving trailers is available for this purpose.

Class Re4/4 II (Re 420)[edit]

BLS No. Name UIC No. CFF/SBB No. Builders details SLM No. Year Built Date / Notes.
501 420 501-9 11110 SLM/SAAS/BBC/MFO 4642 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,July 2004
502 420 502-7 11117 SLM/SAAS/BBC/MFO 4649 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2004
503 420 503-5 11119 SLM/SAAS/BBC/MFO 4651 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2004
504 420 504-3 11123 SLM/SAAS/BBC/MFO 4655 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2004
505 420 505-0 11137 SLM/SAAS/BBC/MFO 4669 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2004
506 420 506-8 11142 SLM/SAAS/BBC/MFO 4674 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2004
507 420 507-6 11107 SLM/BBC/MFO 4639 1966 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2005, withdrawn 2009, 2010 scrapped
508 420 508-4 11102 SLM/BBC/MFO 4445 1964 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2005, withdrawn 2009, 2010 scrapped
509 420 509-2 11103 SLM/BBC/MFO 4446 1964 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2005, withdrawn 2009, 2010 scrapped
510 420 510-0 11104 SLM/BBC/MFO 4447 1964 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2005, withdrawn 2009, scrapped
511 420 511-8 11105 SLM/BBC/MFO 4448 1964 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2005, withdrawn 2009, 2010 scrapped
512 420 512-6 11106 SLM/BBC/MFO 4449 1964 Ex-SBB/CFF,December 2005, withdrawn 2009, 2010 scrapped

Other classes[edit]

Class TSI prefix UIC No. Builders details SLM No. Built Equimt Date /Notes.
Re 465 91 85 4 465 001 – 008 SLM/ABB 5638–5645 1994–1995 ETCS
Re 465 91 85 4 465 009 – 018 SLM/ABB 5733–5742 1996–1997 ETCS originally owned by SBB, now BLS
Re 485 91 85 4 485 001 – 020 Bombardier 2002–2004 ETCS owned by BLSC
Re 486 91 85 4 486 501 – 510 Bombardier 2009 owned by BLSC
RABe 525 94 85 7 525 001 – 038 Bombardier/Alstom 1998–2005 "Nina"; 031 burnt out Dec 2010; 037-038 ex-TRN;
RBDe 565 94 85 7 565 721 – 742 SWP/SIG/BBC 1982–1992 730 burnt out Dec 2009
RBDe 566 94 85 7 566 230 – 242 SWP/SIG/BBC 1984–1985 ex-RM

Abbreviations[edit]

Business activities[edit]

The BLS was engaged in the following activities:

  • Maintenance of the infrastructure used by the BLS,
  • Passenger rail transportation
    • Since a 1994 agreement with the SBB, the BLS has operated many suburban services in Bern, and runs regional services towards Neuchâtel, Luzern and Brig using SBB lines
  • BLS was part of the consortium Cisalpino, together with SBB-CFF-FFS and Trenitalia. Later BLS left Cislapino, and in December 2009 Cisalpino ceased operations
  • Rail freight transportation via the BLS Cargo subsidiary (in 2002 870 million ton-kilometres of freight were conveyed)
  • Rail transportation of accompanied cars through the Lötschberg tunnel
  • Rail transportation of trucks between Switzerland and Italy via RAlpin SA (a BLS subsidiary), the SBB, and Hupac (a Swiss road-rail transporter company)
  • Lake transport ferries on Lakes Thun and Brienz.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Florian Inäbnit, Jürg Aeschlimann: Bern–Neuenburg-Bahn. Die Linie Bern–Neuenburg der BLS. Prellbock Druck & Verlag, Leissigen 2001. ISBN 3-907579-18-6
  • Ulf Degener: Neue Wege im Alpentransit. Umorientierung bei der BLS Lötschbergbahn. In: Lok Magazin. GeraNova, München 41/2002,255, S. 25–26. ISSN 0458-1822
  • W. Brügger: Das Frutigbuch. Heimatkunde für die Landschaft Frutigen. Kapitel "Die Bahnen". Paul Haupt, Bern 1977, pp. 419–437.

External links[edit]