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Gregory was born in Bergerac, Dordogne, France. During World War II he was a prisoner of war in a German camp for military officers. After the war he graduated from the École Polytechnique and École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, then went to the United States to study fundamental particle interactions in high-energy cosmic rays.
After earning his Ph.D. in the U.S., Gregory returned to France, where he was soon made deputy director of the Polytechnique physics lab organized in 1936 by Louis Leprince-Ringuet. Here he worked with a number of physicists including Charles Peyrou, Jean Crussard, André Lagarrigue, and later André Astier.
In 1958 Gregory was appointed professor of physics at the Polytechnique.
He was Directorate Member for Research at CERN from 1964 to 1965, then he was selected to replace Victor Weisskopf as director-general. At CERN he supervised most of the construction of the world's first hadron collider, the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR).
Gregory left CERN in 1970, returning to the Polytechnique laboratory in Paris. Soon he became director-general of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). In 1975 he took charge of the General Delegation for Scientific and Technical Research (DGRST). He died on December 24, 1977.
- Tyurin, Nikolai (1 November 2003). "Forty years of high-energy physics in Protvino". CERN Courier. CERN. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Bernard GREGORY: Directorate Member for Research". CERN Courier 4 (3): 28. March 1964.
- "Tribute to Professor Gregory". CERN Courier 10 (12): 378. December 1970.
- "People and things: Bernard Gregory". CERN Courier 18 (1-2): 27. February 1978.
- Bernard Gregory bio at CERN