Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren (traditional Chinese: 高本漢; simplified Chinese: 高本汉; pinyin: Gāo Běnhàn, 15 October 1889 – 20 October 1978) was a Swedish sinologist and linguist who pioneered the study of Chinese historical phonology using modern comparative methods. In the early 1900s, Karlgren conducted large surveys of a number of Chinese dialects and studied historical information on rhyming in ancient Chinese poetry, then used them to create the first ever complete reconstructions of what is now called Middle Chinese and Old Chinese.
Education and first journey to China
A native of Jönköping, Karlgren showed ability in linguistics from a young age, and was interested in Sweden's dialects and traditional folk stories. He published his first scholarly article at the age of 16 on the dialect of the Swedish province of Dalarna. He studied Russian at Uppsala University under Johan August Lundell, a Slavicist interested in comparative linguistics. After graduating in 1909, Karlgren went to St. Petersburg to continue studying. While in St. Petersburg, Karlgren won a grant to study Chinese dialects, even though he had no background in Chinese.
Karlgren lived in China from 1910 to 1912. He achieved basic fluency and literacy after only a few months of study, and prepared a questionnaire of 3,100 Chinese characters to gather information on Chinese dialects. After his grant money ran out, Karlgren supported himself by teaching French and, famously, English, which he had never been taught but had picked up from English-speaking passengers on the ship from Europe to China. He eventually gathered data on 19 different dialects of Mandarin Chinese, as well as Shanghainese, the Fuzhou dialect of Min Dong, and Cantonese, plus the Vietnamese and Japanese pronunciations of the characters in his questionnaire.
Career as sinologist
Karlgren returned to Europe in January 1912, first staying in London, then in Paris, before arriving in Uppsala, where he produced his doctoral dissertation in 1915. (Although his dissertation was written in French, most of his subsequent scholarly works were in English.)
In 1939, Karlgren succeeded the founding director Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960) as director of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (Östasiatiska Museet), a post he held until 1959. This public museum was founded in 1926 on Andersson's pioneering discoveries of prehistoric archaeology made in China in the 1920s, and later expanded to cover later periods as well as other parts of Asia. Karlgren had been in close contact with Andersson for many years, and also succeeded Andersson as editor of the museum's journal, the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (BMFEA, 1929-) and continued in this position until the 1970s. Karlgren himself first published many of his own major works in this annual journal, or as books in the monograph series of the museum.
In 1946, Karlgren began a far-reaching attack on the then rather loosely argued historiography of ancient China. Reviewing the literature on China's pre-Han history in his article Legends and Cults in Ancient China, he pointed out that "a common feature to most of these treatises is a curious lack of critical method in the handling of the material". In particular, Karlgren criticised the unselective use of documents from different ages when reconstructing China's ancient history. "In this way very full and detailed accounts have been arrived at—but accounts that are indeed caricatures of scientifically established ones."
Karlgren died on 20 October 1978 in Stockholm.
Karlgren was the first scholar to use European-style principles of historical linguistics to study the Chinese language. He was also the first one to reconstruct the sounds of what is now called Middle Chinese and Old Chinese (what he called "Ancient Chinese" and "Archaic Chinese" respectively). Karlgren suggested that at the very earliest stage recoverable, the personal pronouns were declined for case.
Karlgren attempted to unearth Chinese history itself from its linguistic development and diffusion. As he writes in his English adaptation Sound and Symbol in Chinese (1923), Chapter I: "Thus, though Chinese traditions give no hint whatever of an immigration from any foreign country, and though there consequently is no external chronological point d'appui, we are nonetheless able to state, from internal evidence, that the Chinese tradition which places the reign of the emperor Yao in the twenty-fourth century B.C. is correct; that the Chinese even in those remote times were skilled astronomers; that they put down in writing in the Chinese language records of memorable events, and in all probability wrote their accounts soon after the events; in short, that a well-developed Chinese civilization—resting undoubtedly on foundations many centuries old—together with the Chinese language, existed on Chinese soil two thousand years before Christ."
Although important as pioneer efforts in historical Chinese linguistics, Karlgren's original findings have been moved beyond. Today the phonological systems proposed by Karlgren have largely been superseded, as their weaknesses are obvious: "Karlgren saw himself as reconstructing phonetics, not phonology, and paid little attention to phonological structure. As a result, the systems he reconstructed often lack the symmetry and pattern which are in the phonological systems of natural languages." Nevertheless, Karlgren's groundbreaking works laid the foundation of modern Chinese historical linguistics and many of his works are still used as works of reference.
- Études sur la phonologie chinoise, 1915–1926.
- Ordet och Pennan i Mittens Rike, 1918, adapted as Sound and symbol in Chinese, London: Oxford University Press, 1923. Reprinted 2007: Toronto: Global Language Press, ISBN 978-0-9738924-0-6.
- "The reconstruction of Ancient Chinese", T'oung Pao, vol. 21, pp. 1–42, 1922.
- Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1923. Reprinted by Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-21887-8.
- "The Authenticity of Ancient Chinese Texts", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1929.
- "The Early History of the Chou Li and Tso Chuan Texts", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1931.
- "Word Families in Chinese", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1933.
- "New Studies on Chinese Bronzes", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1937.
- "Grammata Serica, Script and Phonetics in Chinese and Sino-Japanese", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1940.
- "Huai and Han", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1941.
- "Glosses on the Kuo Feng Odes", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1942.
- "Glosses on the Siao Ya Odes", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1944.
- "Glosses on the Ta Ya and Sung Odes", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1946.
- "Legends and Cults in Ancient China", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1946.
- "The Book of Documents", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1950.
- "Compendium of Phonetics in Ancient and Archaic Chinese", The Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 1954.
- Grammata Serica Recensa, Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1957.
In Swedish he published numerous popular works on Chinese language, culture and history. In the 1940s, he published three novels under the pen name Klas Gullman.
- [ˈbɛːɳaɖ ˈkɒːɭɡɾeːn]
- S. Robert Ramsey, The Languages of China, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), 126.
- Ramsey (1987), 127.
- William H. Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology, (Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 3-4.
- Lothar von Falkenhausen. Review of Göran Malmqvist, "Bernhard Karlgren: Ett forskarporträtt". China Review International 8, no. 1 (2001): 15-33.
- N. G. D. Malmqvist (2010). Bernhard Karlgren: Portrait of a Scholar. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 334. ISBN 1-61146-001-8. Retrieved 1st of March, 2012.
- Göran Malmqvist, Bernhard Karlgren: ett forskarporträtt [Bernhard Karlgren: Portrait of a Scholar], Stockholm: Norstedts. 1995. A biography of Karlgren with bibliography of his work.
- Hans Bielenstein, "Bernhard Karlgren (1889-1978)", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 99, No. 3. (Jul. - Sep., 1979), p. 553. A brief obituary. Available through JSTOR.