Bernard Francis Law
Bernard Francis Law
|Cardinal Archbishop Emeritus of Boston|
|Appointed||January 11, 1984|
|Installed||March 23, 1984|
|Term ended||December 13, 2002|
|Predecessor||Humberto Sousa Medeiros|
|Successor||Seán Patrick O'Malley|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna|
|Ordination||May 21, 1961
by Egidio Vagnozzi
|Consecration||December 5, 1973
by Joseph Bernard Brunini
|Created Cardinal||May 25, 1985|
November 4, 1931 |
Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico
|Motto||To live is Christ|
|Coat of arms|
|Ordination history of Bernard Francis Law|
|Principal consecrator||Joseph Bernard Brunini (Jackson)|
|Date of consecration||December 5, 1973|
|Bishops consecrated by Bernard Francis Law as principal consecrator|
|Tomás Andrés Mauro Muldoon||October 8, 1984|
|Robert Joseph Banks||September 19, 1985|
|Roberto González Nieves||October 3, 1988|
|John Richard McNamara||May 21, 1992|
|John Patrick Boles||May 21, 1992|
|John Brendan McCormack||December 27, 1995|
|William Francis Murphy||December 27, 1995|
|Francis Xavier Irwin||September 17, 1996|
|Emilio Simeon Alluè||September 17, 1996|
|Richard Joseph Malone||March 1, 2000|
|Walter James Edyvean||September 14, 2001|
|Richard Gerard Lennon||September 14, 2001|
Bernard Francis Law (born November 4, 1931) is an American cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the Archbishop emeritus of Boston, a member of the Roman Curia, archpriest emeritus of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, and titular Cardinal Priest of Santa Susanna, the American Catholic church in Rome.
Law resigned as Archbishop of Boston on December 13, 2002, in response to the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal after church documents were revealed which suggested he had covered up sexual abuse committed by priests in his archdiocese.
Pope John Paul II appointed Law as Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome in 2004; he resigned from this position on reaching the age of 80 in November 2011, but continued to live in an apartment in the basilica.
Law, an only child, was born in the Mexican city of Torreón, Coahuila, on November 4, 1931. His father was a United States Army pilot in World War I, and had moved to Torreón to run an airline. His mother, Helen, was a convert to Roman Catholicism from Presbyterianism.
He graduated from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts with a major in medieval history, before beginning philosophy studies at Saint Joseph Seminary College in St. Benedict, Louisiana, from 1953 to 1955, and then theological studies at the Pontifical College Josephinum in Worthington, Ohio, from 1955 to 1961.
On May 21, 1961. Law was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Natchez-Jackson in Mississippi. He served two years as an assistant pastor of St. Paul's Catholic Church in Vicksburg, and was made the editor of the Mississippi Register, the diocesan newspaper. He also held several other diocesan posts from 1963 to 1968, including director of the family life bureau and spiritual director of the minor seminary.
Civil rights activism
Law was a civil rights activist. He was a member of the Mississippi Leadership Conference and Mississippi Human Relations Council. For his civil rights activities and his strong positions on civil rights in the Mississippi Register, of which he was editor, he received death threats. The newspaper lost many subscribers for whom his civil rights stance was repugnant.
Law's civil rights activity led him to develop ties with Protestant church leaders and he received national attention for his work for ecumenism and in 1968 he was tapped for his first national post, as executive director of the U.S. Bishops' Committee for Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs.
Bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau
Pope Paul VI named him to head the Diocese of Springfield-Cape Girardeau on October 22, 1973, for which he was ordained as a bishop on 5 December 1973. Law's predecessor in Springfield-Cape Girardeau was William Wakefield Baum, another future cardinal.
In 1975, he made the news when he arranged for the resettlement in his diocese of one hundred and sixty-six Vietnamese refugees who had arrived in the United States, and who were members of a Vietnamese religious congregation, the Congregation of the Mother Co-Redemptrix.
In continuing his ecumenical work, Law formed the Missouri Christian Leadership Conference. He was made a member of the Vatican's Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity and served from 1976 to 1981 as a consultor to its Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews. In the late 1970s, Law would also chair the U.S. bishops' Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs.
In 1981, Law was named the Vatican delegate to develop and oversee a program instituted by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in which U.S. Episcopal priests would be accepted into the Catholic priesthood. In the program's first year sixty-four Episcopal priests applied for acceptance. This brought married priests with their families into U.S. Roman Catholic dioceses for the first time (Eastern Catholic Churches, in keeping with their own traditions, have ordained married men to the priesthood for centuries).
In this period Law was also a pro-life activist and spoke out against abortion. During the 1984 presidential race, when Geraldine Ferraro, who was a Roman Catholic, was the Democratic vice presidential candidate, Law and then Archbishop of New York John Joseph O'Connor both denounced her renunciation of rights for the unborn. Law called abortion "the critical issue of the moment".
Archbishop of Boston
Bernard Francis Law
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
On January 11, 1984, Cardinal Law was appointed Archbishop of Boston, by Pope John Paul II. He was installed as Archbishop on March 23, 1984.
It was his speech at the 1985 Synod of Bishops marking the 20th anniversary of the end of the Second Vatican Council, that led to development of the Catechism of the Catholic Church in which Law oversaw the first draft of the English translation.
In the mid-1980s, Law chaired the bishops' Committee on Pastoral Research and Practices at the time it distributed a major study report on Freemasonry. The bishops' report concluded that "the principles and basic rituals of Masonry embody a naturalistic religion, active participation in which is incompatible with Christian faith and practice."
In October 2012, former Irish President (and Catholic) Mary McAleese related that, on a state visit to the United States in 1998, she was publicly berated by Law for her stance on the ordination of women. The cardinal ushered McAleese and members of her delegation into a room to hear Mary Ann Glendon lecture them on the Church's views on women priests and where a heated argument then took place. McAleese rebuked him with the statement that she was "the President of Ireland and not just of Catholic Ireland". Cardinals Desmond Connell of Dublin and Cahal Daly of Armagh condemned Law's action.
In 1989 and 1990 Law visited Cuba. He met with Fidel Castro in 1990 and in January 1998 he led a delegation of two hundred and forty Bostonians to Cuba during the papal visit there. In 2000 he was part of an inter-American delegation of bishops that met with Castro for more than four hours.
During his time as Archbishop he continued to oppose abortion. However, in 1995, when John Salvi attacked two Boston abortion clinics, he urged a moratorium on clinic protests.
Sexual abuse scandal
Cardinal Law's reign as Archbishop of Boston began in popularity but declined into turbulence towards the end of his term. Allegations and reports of sexual misconduct by priests of the Archdiocese of Boston became widespread causing Roman Catholics in other dioceses of the United States to investigate similar situations there. Cardinal Law's actions and inactions prompted public scrutiny of all members of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and the steps they had taken in response to past and current allegations of sexual misconduct at the hands of priests. The events in the Archdiocese of Boston exploded into a national Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal.
Under questioning, the cardinal stated that, when a priest committed a sex crime, his practice was to seek the analysis of psychiatrists, clinicians and therapists in residential treatment centers before deciding whether to return a priest accused of sexually abusing a child to the pulpit.
Cardinal Law became the first high-level Church official to be accused of actively participating in the cover-up of child molestation.
The Archdiocese closed sixty-five parishes before Cardinal Law stepped down from service.
Resignation as Archbishop of Boston
Law submitted his resignation as Archbishop of Boston to the Vatican some years before he turned 75 and would be expected to resign; Pope John Paul II accepted his resignation on December 13, 2002. In 2003 Sean O'Malley, O.F.M. Cap. was named Archbishop of Boston.
In a statement and apology, Law said, "To all those who have suffered from my shortcomings and mistakes I both apologize and from them beg forgiveness." He remains a bishop and cardinal, which is a separate appointment. As a cardinal, he participated in the 2005 papal conclave.
Move to Rome
In December 2002, Law left Boston. It is often alleged  that he left just hours before state troopers arrived with subpoenas seeking his grand jury testimony; however, he had previously given evidence before two grand juries and been fully investigated by the state attorney general and the five district attorneys in the counties in which the archdiocese operates. When the state attorney general issued his report entitled Child Sexual Abuse in the Archdiocese of Boston (July 23, 2003) he severely criticized Law mentioning that "the Archdiocese has shown an institutional reluctance to adequately address the problem and, in fact, made choices that allowed the abuse to continue" but did not allege that Law had tried to evade investigation and he did state that Law had not broken any laws because the law requiring abuse to be reported was not expanded to include priests until 2002.
Law is also a member of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches, the Clergy, Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, Evangelisation of Peoples, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Catholic Education, Bishops as well as the Pontifical Council for the Family. He held membership in all these congregations and of the council before resigning from the governance of the Archdiocese of Boston, and at that time was also a member of the Pontifical Council for Culture.
Law reached age 80 on November 4, 2011, and lost the right to participate in any papal conclave and on the same day he ceased to hold his various Curial memberships. He remained as archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore until November 21, 2011, when Archbishop Santos Abril y Castelló was appointed as the new archpriest.
In May 2012, MSNBC reported that Law was "the person in Rome most forcefully supporting" the Vatican response to U.S. Archbishop William E. Lori's petition to investigate the Leadership Conference of Women Religious, a large group of American nuns. Other American churchmen in Rome, including Cardinal Raymond Burke and Cardinal James Stafford also reportedly backed the investigation, which was led by former archbishop of San Francisco Cardinal William Levada. In April 2012, "after a three-year investigation, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [had] appointed Archbishop J. Peter Sartain of Seattle to oversee the nuns' organization and reform its programs to adhere more closely to 'the teachings and discipline of the Church'".
- Roman Catholic sex abuse cases
- List of the Catholic bishops of the United States#American bishops serving outside the United States
- Pham, John-Peter, Heirs of the Fisherman via books.google.ie.
- Boston Globe, 2004, Abuse in the Catholic Church
- National Catholic Reporter, 27 December 2002
- "Cardinal Law told Mary McAleese he was ‘sorry for Catholic Ireland to have you as President", IrishCentral, 7 October 2012
- "irish-priests-followup", wbur.org, 2010/02/10.
- "bring-the-pope-to-justice", thedailybeast.com/newsweek, 2010/04/22.
- "ReillyExecSum", bishop-accountability.org.
- "Cardinal Law Given Post In Rome", The New York Times, May 28, 2004. Accessed April 11, 2008.
- Annuario Pontificio 2002
- Arsenault, Mark, "Law retires from post in Rome", Boston Globe, November 22, 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Allen, John L. Jr. (24 March 2013). "Debunking three 'urban legends' about Pope Francis". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Bratu, Becky, "US priests reportedly behind Vatican crackdown on nuns", nbcnews.com, May 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Bernard F. Law, Romanus Cessario, Mary Ann Glendon (2002). Boston's cardinal: Bernard Law, the man and his witness. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-0341-8.
- Cardinal Bernard Law Biography
- The Boston Globe
- Information of the Press Office of the Holy See about Law
- Bernard Francis Law at Catholic-Hierarchy.
|Catholic Church titles|
William Wakefield Baum
|Bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau
John Joseph Leibrecht
Humberto Sousa Medeiros
|Archbishop of Boston
Sean O'Malley, OFM Cap
|Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
27 May 2004–21 November 2011
Santos Abril y Castelló