Bernard von NotHaus
Bernard von NotHaus is the creator of the Liberty Dollar and co-founder of the Royal Hawaiian Mint Company. He created the Free Marijuana Church of Honolulu. Von NotHaus was labeled as a domestic terrorist by an Assistant US Attorney in 2011.
According to the evidence introduced during his 2011 federal criminal trial in connection with his involvement with the Liberty Dollar, von NotHaus was the founder of an organization called the National Organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve and Internal Revenue Code, commonly known as NORFED and also known as Liberty Services. The FBI claimed that NORFED’s purpose was to mix Liberty Dollars into the current money of the United States and that NORFED intended for the Liberty Dollar to be used as current money in order to limit reliance on, and to compete with, United States currency.
Federal government raid and confiscation 
- In September 2006 U.S. Mint informed Liberty Dollar users that federal prosecutors had determined that the circulation of the medallions is a federal crime.
- In 2007 about a dozen federal government agents seized nearly two tons of coins that featured the image of Ron Paul, a Texas congressman. They also took about 500 pounds of silver and 40 to 50 ounces of gold.
Arrest and conviction 
In connection with the Liberty Dollar business, a federal grand jury brought an indictment against von NotHaus and three others in May 2009, and von NotHaus was arrested on June 6, 2009. Von NotHaus was charged with one count of conspiracy to possess and sell coins in resemblance and similitude of coins of a denomination higher than five cents, and silver coins in resemblance of genuine coins of the United States in denominations of five dollars and greater, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 485, 18 U.S.C. § 486, and 18 U.S.C. § 371; one count of mail fraud in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1341 and 18 U.S.C. § 2; one count of selling, and possessing with intent to defraud, coins of resemblance and similitude of United States coins in denominations of five cents and higher, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 485 and 18 U.S.C. § 2; and one count of uttering, passing, and attempting to utter and pass, silver coins in resemblance of genuine U.S. coins in denominations of five dollars or greater, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 486 and 18 U.S.C. § 2.
On July 28, 2009, von NotHaus entered a plea of not guilty.
On March 18, 2011, after a 90 minute jury deliberation, von NotHaus was found guilty on various counts, including the making of "counterfeit coins" (resembling legal tender coins). Attorney for the Western District of North Carolina, Anne M. Tompkins, described Bernard von NotHaus and the Liberty dollar as "a unique form of domestic terrorism” that is trying “to undermine the legitimate currency of this country.” The Justice Department press release quotes her as saying: “While these forms of anti-government activities do not involve violence, they are every bit as insidious and represent a clear and present danger to the economic stability of this country".
Although he was convicted in March 2011, the U.S. government has still not reached a sentencing decision for Von NotHaus. Since his trial, The New York Times has said that some people describe Von Nothaus as "the Rosa Parks of the constitutional currency movement." Von Nothaus presently resides in a Malibu mansion that was lent to him by a friend, where he faces a possible sentence of upwards of 20 years in prison, for the crime of making his own money.
- "Defendant Convicted of Minting His Own Currency". Press release. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Tom Lovett, "Local Liberty Dollar 'Architect' Bernard von NotHaus convicted," March 19, 2011, Evansville Courier & Press, at .
- Indictment, docket entry 3, May 19, 2009, case no. 5:09-cr-00027-RLV-DCK-1, United States v. Bernard von NotHaus et al., U.S. District Court for the Western District of North Carolina (Statesville Div.).
- Waiver of Personal Appearance at Arraignment and Entry of Plea of Not Guilty, docket entry 36, July 28, 2009, case no. 5:09-cr-00027-RLV-DCK-1, United States v. Bernard von NotHaus et al., U.S. District Court for the Western District of North Carolina (Statesville Div.).
- Mary Jane Skala, "Guilty on two counts," March 18, 2011, Coin World, at .
- Clarke Morrison, "Liberty Dollar creator convicted in federal court," March 19, 2011, Asheville Citizen-Times, at .
- Editorial, "A ‘Unique’ Form of ‘Terrorism’," March 20, 2011, The New York Sun, at 
- Feuer, Alan. "Prison May Be the Next Stop on a Gold Currency Journey". The New York Times (Malibu, California). Archived from the original on December 17, 2012.