Bernardino Ramazzini

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bernardino Ramazzini
Ramazzini.jpg
Bernardino Ramazzini
Born 3 November 1633
Carpi
Died 5 November 1714
Padua
Nationality Italian
Fields medicine
Institutions University of Modena, University of Padua
Alma mater University of Parma
Known for cinchona, occupational medicine

Bernardino Ramazzini (1633 – 1714) was an Italian physician.(Italian pronunciation: ['bernardino ramat'tsini])

Ramazzini was an early proponent of the use of cinchona bark (from which quinine is derived) in the treatment of Malaria. His most important contribution to medicine was his book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba ("Diseases of Workers").

Life[edit]

Ramazzini was born in Carpi on 3 November 1633. He studied medicine at the University of Parma, where his interest in occupational diseases began.

Career[edit]

He was appointed to the chair of theory of medicine at University of Modena in 1682 then served as professor of medicine at the University of Padua from 1700 until his death. He is often called "the father of occupational medicine" [1][2]

The first edition of De Morbis was published in 1700 in Modena, the second in 1713 in Padua.

Occupational medicine[edit]

His book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers) outlined the health hazards of chemicals, dust, metals, repetitive or violent motions, odd postures, and other disease-causative agents encountered by workers in 52 occupations.[3] This was one of the founding and seminal works of occupational medicine and played a substantial role in its development.[1] [2]

He proposed that physicians should extend the list of questions that Hippocrates recommended they ask their patients by adding, "What is your occupation?".[1]

Malaria[edit]

In regards to malaria, Ramazzini was one of the first to support the use of the quinine-rich bark cinchona. Many falsely claimed that quinine was toxic and ineffective, but Ramazzini recognized its importance. He is quoted, "It [quinine] did for medicine what gun powder did for war."[4]

Cancer[edit]

In 1713, Bernardino Ramazzini said that nuns developed breast cancer at a higher rate than married women because they did not engage in sexual intercourse, and the "unnatural" lack of sexual activity caused instability of the breast tissues that sometimes developed into breast cancer.[5]

Death[edit]

Ramazzini died in Padua on 5 November 1714.[2][6]

Acknowledgement[edit]

In a lifestyle article "Sitting can lead to an early death," the writer acknowledged Ramazzini's pioneering study of this field in the 17th century.[7]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Gochfeld, Michael (February 2005). "Chronologic history of occupational medicine". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47 (2): 96–114. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000152917.03649.0e. ISSN 1076-2752. PMID 15706170.  Gochfeld, Michael. "Chronologic history of occupational medicine" (pdf). Retrieved 3 March 2009. [dead link] A PDF copy of the article.
  2. ^ a b c Ramazzini, Bernardino (1 September 2001). "VOICES FROM THE PAST - De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers)". Am J Public Health 91 (9): 1380–1382. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.9.1380. PMC 1446785. PMID 11527762. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  The article contains excerpts from the English translation by Wilmer Cave Wright (Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1940) based on the Latin text of 1713, and includes a biographical note, Bernardino Ramazzini: The Father of Occupational Medicine, by Giuliano Franco, MD and Francesca Franco MD, MPH
  3. ^ Cockayne, Emily (2007). Hubbub: Filth Noise & Stench in England. Yale University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-300-13756-9. 
  4. ^ Poser, Charles M; Bruyn, GW (1999). An illustrated history of malaria. New York: Parthenon Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85070-068-5. OCLC 40354694. 
  5. ^ Olson, James Stuart (2002). Bathsheba's breast: women, cancer & history. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-8018-6936-6. 
  6. ^ "History". Collegium Ramazzini. Retrieved 3 March 2009.  History (of Occupational Medicine) with notes on the life of Ramazzini.
  7. ^ [1] Sydney Morning Herald Sitting can lead to an early death article by Esther Han, Mar 28, 2012

External links[edit]