Bernardo de Gálvez
|Bernardo de Gálvez|
|61st Viceroy of New Spain|
|Preceded by||Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo|
|Succeeded by||Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta|
|5th Spanish Governor of Louisiana|
|Preceded by||Luis de Unzaga|
|Succeeded by||Esteban Rodríguez Miró|
|Born||Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid
July 23, 1746
Macharaviaya, Kingdom of Granada, Spain
|Died||November 30, 1786
Tacubaya, Kingdom of Mexico, New Spain
|Battles/wars||American War of Independence|
Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez (Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain July 23, 1746 – November 30, 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain.
Gálvez aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War, defeating the British at the Siege of Pensacola (1781) and reconquering Florida for Spain. He spent the last two years of his life as Viceroy of New Spain, succeeding his father Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo. The city of Galveston, Texas was named for him.
Origins and military career
Gálvez was born in Macharaviaya, a mountain village in the province of Málaga, Spain, on July 23, 1746. He studied military sciences at the Academia de Ávila and at the age of 16 participated in the Spanish invasion of Portugal, which soon stalled after the Spanish had captured Almeida. During the conflict he was promoted to Lieutenant. He arrived in Mexico, then New Spain, in 1762. As a captain, he fought the Apaches, with his Opata Indian allies. He received many wounds, several of them serious. In 1770, he was promoted to commandant of arms of Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora, northern provinces of New Spain.
In 1772, he returned to Spain in the company of his uncle, José de Gálvez. Later, he was sent to Pau, France with the Cantabria regiment. There, he learned to speak French, which served him well when he became governor of Louisiana. He was transferred to Seville, in 1775, and then participated in the disastrous expedition of O'Reilly to Algiers. Gálvez himself was seriously wounded. After capturing the fortress that guarded the city, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. He then became a professor at the military academy of Ávila.
Spanish governor of Louisiana
In 1777, he was sent to Louisiana, as a colonel and interim governor of the province. This was the vast territory that later became the object of the Louisiana Purchase. It had been ceded by France to Spain, in 1763, obstensibly as compensation for the loss of Florida to Britain, when Spain was urged late in the Seven Years War to enter into battle on the French side. In 1779, he was promoted to brigadier.
In 1777, he married doña Marie Felice de Saint-Maxent Estrehan, a young Criolla widow. They had three children, Miguel, Matilde and Guadalupe.
He practiced an anti-British policy as governor, taking measures against British smuggling and promoting trade with France. He also established free trade with Cuba and Yucatán. He founded Galvez Town, in 1779, and promoted colonization of Nueva Iberia.
Prior to Gálvez, Spanish policy had always been to deny firearms to the native peoples (Native Americans) in the New World. However, Gálvez had relatively few troops and was vastly outnumbered by the Native Americans, who had historically warred with each other. He therefore, reversed the Spanish policy and actively provided guns to the Native Americans.
American Revolutionary War
Under Royal Order from Charles III of Spain, Gálvez continued the smuggling operations to supply the North American rebels early in 1777. The British blockaded the eastern colonial ports, and the route from New Orleans up the Mississippi River was an effective alternative. Gálvez worked with Oliver Pollock, a North American patriot, shipping gunpowder, muskets, uniforms, medicine and other supplies.
Gálvez let an American force through New Orleans before Spain joined the cause. Gálvez was sent to Florida by New Spain Viceroy Martín de Mayorga, at the head of an expedition of colonial troops to aid American colonists in their rebellion against Britain. Spain's motive was the chance to recover territories lost to the British, particularly Florida, and to remove the on-going British threat.
On June 21, 1779 Spain declared war on Great Britain. On June 25, 1779 a letter from London marked secret and confidential, went to General John Campbell of Strachur at Pensacola from King George III and Lord George Germain. General John Campbell was instructed that it was the object of greatest importance to organize an attack upon New Orleans. If General John Campbell thought it was possible to reduce the Spanish fort at New Orleans, he was ordered to proceed immediately to make preparations. These preparations included: (1) secure from Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Parker as many armed vessels as could be spared from Jamaica, (2) collect all forces which could be drawn together in the province, (3) take as many faithful Indians as the Superintendent could supply, (4) draw on the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for all expenses.
As an unfortunate twist of fate for General John Campbell, upon which his whole career was decided, this secret communication fell into the hands of Governor Galvez. After reading the communication from King George III and Germain, Gálvez, Governor of Louisiana swiftly and secretly organized Louisiana and New Orleans for war.
Gálvez carried out a masterful military campaign and defeated the British colonial forces at Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez in 1779. The Battle of Baton Rouge on September 21, 1779 freed the lower Mississippi Valley of British forces and relieved the threat to the capital of Louisiana, New Orleans. In 1780, he recaptured Mobile from the British at the Battle of Fort Charlotte.
His most important military victory over the British forces occurred May 9, 1781, when he attacked and took by land and by sea Pensacola, the British (and formerly, Spanish) capital of West Florida from General John Campbell of Strachur. The loss of Mobile and Pensacola left the British with no bases in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1782, forces under his overall command captured the British naval base at New Providence in the Bahamas. Galvez was angry that the operation had gone ahead without his permission, and arranged for the commander of the expedition Juan de Cagigal to be imprisoned.
He received many honors from Spain for his military victories against the British, including promotion to lieutenant general and field marshal, governor and captain general of Louisiana and Florida (now separated from Cuba), the command of the Spanish expeditionary army in America, and the titles of viscount of Gálveztown and count of Gálvez.
The American Revolution ended while Gálvez was preparing a new campaign to take Jamaica.
The importance of Galvez's campaign from the American perspective was that he denied the British the opportunity of encircling the American rebels from the south, and kept open a vital conduit for supplies. Galvez also assisted the American revolutionaries with supplies and soldiers, a good deal of it through Oliver Pollock.
Gálvez, who saw it convenient for France and Spain to advance the cause of the American revolutionaries, was among those who drafted the terms of the Peace of Paris (1783) that ended the war. By the 1783 treaty Spain officially regained East and West Florida from the British.
In recognition of his work and help to the American cause, George Washington took him to his right in the parade of July 4 and the American Congress cited Gálvez for his aid during the Revolution.
Galveston Bay, Galveston, Texas, Galveston County, Texas, Galvez, Louisiana, and St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana were, among others, named after him. The Louisiana parishes of East Feliciana and West Feliciana were named after his wife Marie Felice de Saint-Maxent Estrehan.
In 1911 in Galveston, TX, the Hotel Galvez was built and named after him. The hotel was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 4, 1979. In Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Galvez Plaza is laid out next to City Hall and used frequently as a site for the city's social events, including festivals and live music. Also, the 12-story Galvez Building is part of the state government's administrative office building complex in the "Capitol Park" section of downtown Baton Rouge.
Victory of New Spain
Gálvez returned to Spain, in 1783, and fought in the campaign in the Netherlands. The following year he was sent back to the Indies, this time as governor and captain general of Cuba. Shortly after he arrived in Havana, his father, Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo (then the viceroy of New Spain), died. Bernardo de Gálvez was named to fill the position. He arrived in Veracruz, on May 26, 1785, and made his formal entry into Mexico City in June.
During his administration two great calamities occurred, the freeze of August 27, 1785, which led to famine, and the plague of 1786. During the famine, he donated 12,000 pesos of his inheritance and 100,000 pesos he raised from other sources to buy maize and beans for the populace. He also took measures to increase agricultural production in the future.
He reconstructed Chapultepec Castle, which had been unoccupied. He began the installation of street lights in Mexico City, and the construction of the towers of the cathedral. He continued work on the highway to Acapulco, and he took measures to reduce the abuse of Indian labor on the project. He dedicated 16% of the income from the lottery and other games of chance to charity.
He promoted science in the colony by sponsoring the expedition of Martín Sessé y Lacasta. This expedition sent to Spain a comprehensive catalog of the diverse species of plants, birds and fish found in New Spain.
On one occasion, when the viceroy was going on horseback to meet with the Audiencia (according to his own report), he encountered a party of soldiers escorting three criminals to the gallows. He suspended the hanging, and later had the criminals freed.
According to legend he was simple, amiable, gallant and frank. He traveled about the city in an open, two-horse carriage, attended bullfights, pilgrimages and public fiestas, and was generally welcomed with applause. The Audiencia, however, did not have such a favorable view of the viceroy. They were suspicious of Gálvez's popularity, fearing that he would follow the American example and declare New Spain's independence. The Audiencia communicated these suspicions to Madrid, and were helped by Galvez's good opinion of the American leadership. The Crown severely rebuked Galvez. He was said to have become melancholy and unsociable.
Then, he became ill and was confined to his bed. On November 8, 1786, he turned over all his governmental duties except the captain generalship to the Audiencia. He died November 30, 1786, in Tacubaya (now part of Mexico City). He died at age 40. Rumor had it that he was poisoned by his enemies with the approval of the Court. His body was interred in the cemetery of San Fernando, in the city proper.
He left some writings, including Ordenanzas para el Teatro de Comedias de México and Instrución para el Buen Gobierno de las Provincias Internas de la Nueva España.
In popular culture
In Lila Guzmán's Lorenzo series of young adult novels (Arte Publico Press and Blooming Tree Press), Don Bernardo de Gálvez is a main character. Lorenzo's Secret Mission, 2001; Lorenzo's Revolutionary Quest, 2003; Lorenzo and the Turncoat, 2006; Lorenzo and the Pirate, 2008.
In "The Great Galvez" episode of the Liberty's Kids animated series (first aired November9' 2002), General Galvez makes an appearance that highlighted his involvement in the American Revolution. The voice was Mario Kreutzberger, best known as the famous Don Francisco, the host and creator of the world's longest-running variety show in TV history, Sabado Gigante.
- Caughey, John Walton (1998). Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana 1776-1783, Gretna: Pelican Publishing Company.
- Chávez, Thomas E. (2002). Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- Gálvez, Bernardo de (1967) . Instructions for Governing the Interior Provinces of New Spain, 1786. New York: Arno Press.
- Mitchell, Barbara (Autumn 2010). "America’s Spanish Savior: Bernardo de Gálvez marches to rescue the colonies". MHQ (Military History Quarterly). pp. 98–104.
- Thonhoff, Robert H. (2000). The Texas Connection With The American Revolution. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 1-57168-418-2.
- (Spanish) "Gálvez, Bernardo de," Enciclopedia de México, v. 6. Mexico City: 1987.
- (Spanish) García Puron, Manuel (1984). México y sus gobernantes, v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua.
- (Spanish) Orozco L., Fernando (1988). Fechas Históricas de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, ISBN 968-38-0046-7.
- (Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando (1985). Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bernardo de Gálvez.|
- De Gálvez entry at US National Park Service
- Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army
- Bernardo de Gálvez
- Spain's Role in the American Revolution
- Overview of Spain's Extensive Involvement in the American War of Independence
- Contribution of Spanish and Hispanic Americans to the American Revolutionary War
- Gálvez, Bernardo de: Memorial near the State Department in Washington, D.C.
- Bergantin Galveztown Foundation
- The New Brig Galvezton´s Shipyard
- (Spanish) Association of Bernardo de Galvez
Luis de Unzaga
|Spanish Governor of Louisiana
1777 – 1785
Esteban Rodríguez Miró
Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo
|Viceroy of New Spain
1785 – 1786
Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta