||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (October 2010)|
|Born||Bernhard Klemens Maria Hoffbauer Pius Grzimek
24 April 1909
Neisse, Prussian Silesia, German Empire (today Poland)
|Died||13 March 1987
|Occupation||television host, filmmaker, author, zoo director, veterinarian, businessman|
|Spouse(s)||Hildegard Prüfer (1930–1973; divorced)
* Rochus (born 1931)
* Michael (1934–1959)
* Thomas (1950–1980) (suicide)
Erika Grzimek (1978–1987; his death)
* Stephan Michael (born 1956, adopted)
* Christian Bernhard (born 1959, adopted)
* Monika Karpel (born 1940)
* Cornelius Grzimek (born 1945)
Bernhard Klemens Maria Grzimek (German pronunciation: [ˈɡʒɪmɛk]; 24 April 1909 – 13 March 1987) was a renowned German zoo director, zoologist, book author, editor, and animal conservationist in postwar West-Germany.
Early years and education
He married Hildegard Prüfer on 17 May 1930 and had three sons: Rochus, Michael, and an adopted son, Thomas.
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World War II and aftermath
During World War II he was a veterinarian in the Wehrmacht and worked for the Reichsernährungsministerium (Food Ministry of the 3rd Empire) in Berlin. In early 1945, the Gestapo raided Grzimek's Berlin apartment, because he had repeatedly supplied food to hidden Jews. Grzimek then fled from Berlin to Frankfurt, which was occupied by the U.S. Army. In April 1945 he was appointed police chief of Frankfurt by U.S. authorities, but he refused the job.
In late 1947, Grzimek was accused of membership of the NSDAP by the U.S. military government, which he denied. He was then removed from office in the Frankfurt Zoo (see below), fined, and sent for denazification where, on 23 March 1948, it turned out he was innocent (Category 5; Exonerated) and had participated in the Resistance War. He was then reinstated at the Zoo by the U.S. government but his reputation was besmirched. The Zoo Director of Munich, Heinz Heck, led a private smear and lawsuit campaign against him. Grzimek was acquitted of any wrongdoing in 1949.
Grzimek became director of the Frankfurt Zoological Garden on 1 May 1945. The zoo then in ruins and all animals killed, except 20, he prevented the permanent closure of the Frankfurt Zoo and the relocation of the "Center Zoo" to the suburbs, which he made into one of the largest zoological gardens in Germany. The Zoo reopened on 1 July 1945, after all bomb craters were filled and buildings temporarily restored. With festivals, dances and actors, Grzimek lured the Frankfurt population into the zoo and received the assent of the Provisional Government and the U.S. military to continue the Frankfurt Zoo.
Grzimek led the Frankfurt Zoo for 29 years, until his retirement on 30 April 1974.
At the same time he served as president of the Frankfurt Zoological Society for over forty years. The society - organized on similar principles as its London and New York counterparts - runs a number of wildlife conservation projects both in Germany and overseas; most well-known is its ongoing work in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania, East Africa.
Conservationism and other activities
In 1954 he founded the image agency Okapia, specialized in animals and nature. Today, the agency specializes in science and employs 650 photographers. The firm is led by Christian Bernhard Grzimek, the son of his son who died in the Serengeti.
In 1975 he co-founded the League for the Environment and Nature Conservation (BUND) and bought ten acres of forest areas and wetlands in the Steiger forest near Michelau im Steigerwald which he left to itself.
Grzimek is most famous for the work he undertook for the conservation of the Serengeti. He spent several years studying the wildlife there along with his son Michael, especially on areal observation and counts of large scale annual migrations. In 1959 Michael was killed in an air crash while flying the Dornier Do 27 due to a collision with a griffon vulture. He wrote a best-selling book called Serengeti Shall Not Die, which appealed enormously to the public and was key in driving the creation of the Serengeti National Park.
He prophesied in his book:
Large cities continue to proliferate. In the coming decades and centuries, men will not travel to view marvels of engineering, but they will leave the dusty towns in order to behold the last places on earth where God’s creatures are peacefully living. Countries which have preserved such places will be envied by other nations and visited by streams of tourists. There is a difference between wild animals living a natural life and famous buildings. Palaces can be rebuilt if they are destroyed in wartime, but once the wild animals of the Serengeti are exterminated no power on earth can bring them back.
The documentary based on the film won the Academy Award for Documentary Feature in 1959.
End of life
Grzimek died in Frankfurt am Main in 1987, falling asleep while watching a circus performance with a group of children. His ashes were later transferred to Tanzania and buried next to his son Michael at the Ngorongoro Crater.
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Grzimek was the editor-in-chief of (and author of a number of articles in) a massive and monumental encyclopedia of animal life. After publication in Germany in 1968, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia was translated into English and published in 1975 in 13 volumes (covering lower life forms, insects and other invertebrates, fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals) plus three additional volumes on Ecology, Ethology and Evolution. The 1975 work was issued in both hardback and less expensive paperback editions and became a standard reference work. After Grzimek's death, the volumes on mammals were revised, and republished in both German and then in English. In 2004, the entire encyclopedia was revised and published in a new and expanded edition. All the versions of the encyclopedia are marked by clear and forceful prose, extensive use of illustrations (both drawings and color plates), and a deep love and concern for animal conservation.
Of national importance were his work as co-editor (together with Austrian Nobel-prize winner Konrad Lorenz) of the then largest popular magazine on animals and wildlife in German language, Das Tier (German language, i.e. "The Animal") and of a very popular television series on wildlife. He also authored a large number of popular books based on his countless experiences with animals which he raised since his student days, managed as zoo director, and encountered in the wild during many research trips.
Awards and honors
- 1956: 2 Golden Bear´s for Kein Platz für wilde Tiere in the categories International Documentary and Audience Award
- 1956: German Film Award for Kein Platz für wilde Tiere
- 1959: Golden Screen for the television program Ein Platz für Tiere
- 1960: Academy Award (Oscar) for Serengeti darf nicht sterben in the category Documentary
- 1960: Honorary Professor at the Veterinary Faculty Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
- 1960: Honorary doctorate from Humboldt University of Berlin, "Dr. met. vet. h. c."
- 1960: Honorary Member of the Scientific Society of Veterinary Medicine of the GDR (WGV)
- 1963: Gold Medal from New York Zoological Society for "outstanding services in conservation of nature“
- 1964: Wilhelm Bölsche-Medal for services to the dissemination of science in Germany
- 1968: Tie Man of the Year
- 1969: Grand Federal Cross of Merit
- 1969: Goldene Kamera
- 1973: Bambi
- 1978: Inauguration of the new nocturnal animal house in the Frankfurt Zoo under the name Grzimek-House
- 1981: Honorary Professor of Lomonosov University
- 2008: Renaming of a portion of the Frankfurt street Am Tiergarten in Bernhard-Grzimek-Allee
- 1956 - Kein Platz für wilde Tiere (German)
- 1959 - Serengeti shall not die (Original German title: Serengeti darf nicht sterben) (German)
- 1956 - 1980 - Ein Platz für Tiere (German TV series) (German)
- 1941 - Wir Tiere sind ja gar nicht so! Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung (German)
- 1943 - Wolf Dschingis: Neue Erlebnisse, Erkenntnisse und Versuche mit Tieren, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung (German)
- 1951 - Affen im Haus und andere Tierberichte, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung (German)
- 1952 - Flug ins Schimpansenland: Reise durch ein Stück Afrika von heute, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung (German)
- 1956 - 20 Tiere und ein Mensch (German)
- 1956 - Thulo aus Frankfurt - Rund um die Giraffe, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung (German)
- 1959 - Serengeti darf nicht sterben (über die Arbeit am Film) (German)
- 1960 - Kein Platz für wilde Tiere (German)
- 1961 - Unsere Brüder mit den Krallen (German)
- 1963 - Wir lebten mit den Baule. Flug ins Schimpansenland (German)
- 1965 - Wildes Tier, weißer Mann (German)
- 1968 - Grzimeks Tierleben, 16 vol. (German)
- 1969 - Grzimek unter Afrikas Tieren: Erlebnisse, Beobachtungen, Forschungsergebnisse (German)
- 1974 - Auf den Mensch gekommen: Erfahrungen mit Leuten (German)
- 1974 - Vom Grizzlybär zur Brillenschlange: Ein Naturschützer berichtet aus vier Erdteilen, Kindler (German)
- 1974 - Einsatz für Afrika: Neue Erlebnisse mit Wildtieren, Kindler (German)
- 1974 - Tiere, mein Leben: Erlebnisse und Forschungen aus fünf Jahrzehnten, Harnack (German)
- 1975 - Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 13 vol., Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York [translation of 1968 work]
- 1977 - Und immer wieder Pferde. Kindler (German)
- 1988 - Grzimeks Enzyklopädie der Säugetiere, Kindler Verlag, München.
- 1990 - Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, 5 vol., McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN 0-07-909508-9 [translation of 1988 work]
- 2004 - Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd. Ed., 17 vol., Thomson-Gale, Detroit, ISBN 0-7876-5362-4 [revision of 1975 work]
- Franziska Torma: Eine Naturschutzkampagne in der Ära Adenauer. Bernhard Grzimeks Afrikafilme in den Medien der 50er Jahre. Martin Meidenbauer Verlag, München 2004, ISBN 3-89975-034-9 (German) (Media studies; on his films on African wildlife)
- Gerhard Grzimek, Rupprecht Grzimek: Die Familie Grzimek aus Oberglogau in Oberschlesien, in: "Deutsches Familienarchiv", Band X, Verlag Degener & Co., Neustadt (Aisch) 1958. - 4., erweiterte und überarbeitete Ausgabe, Herder-Institut, Reutlingen 2000. (German) (genealogy)
- "Ein Leben für die Tiere" (PDF). Zoologische Gesellschaft Frankfurt. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Claudia Sewig 2009, p. 209 (German)
- Sewig 2009, p. 243
- Sewig 2009, p. 260 ff.
- Sewig 2009, p. 269
- Scherpner 1983, p. 155 and 165: Das während der Bauphase ab 1972 noch als 24-Stunden-Haus bezeichnete Tierhaus wurde durch Magistratsbeschluss im September 1978 als Grzimek-Haus eingeweiht.
- Sewig 2009, p. 187
- Biography in English
- Bernhard Grzimek - sein Leben - Biography in PDF-format (2,8 MB), including photographs. (German)
- Private Homepage of Dirk Petzold on the Frankfurt Zoo (German)
- Audio und Manuskript: Wie Bernhard Grzimek 1945 den Frankfurter Zoo rettete (German)
- ZDF: Bernhard Grzimek - Eine deutsche Legende (German)
- Würdigung durch seinen "Haussender" Hessischer Rundfunk (German)
- Würdigung seines Sohnes Michael durch den Hessischen Rundfunk (German)