Bernie Sanders

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Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Sanders in February 2007
United States Senator
from Vermont
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2007
Serving with Patrick Leahy
Preceded by Jim Jeffords
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2013
Preceded by Patty Murray
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's At-large district
In office
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by Peter P. Smith
Succeeded by Peter Welch
Mayor of Burlington, Vermont
In office
1981–1989
Preceded by Gordon Paquette
Succeeded by Peter Clavelle
Personal details
Born Bernard Sanders
(1941-09-08) September 8, 1941 (age 73)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political party Independent
Other political
affiliations
Liberty Union
Affiliated non-member
Democratic
Vermont Progressive
Spouse(s) Jane O'Meara Driscoll
Children 4
Residence Burlington, Vermont, U.S.
Alma mater University of Chicago (B.A.)
Occupation Carpenter, filmmaker, author, researcher
Religion Judaism[1]
Signature
Website www.sanders.senate.gov
This article is about the Independent member of the U.S. Senate. For the former member of the U.S. House of Representatives with a similar name, see Barney Frank.

Bernard "Bernie" Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician and the junior United States Senator from Vermont. Before serving in the Senate, he represented Vermont's at-large congressional district in the United States House of Representatives and served as mayor of Burlington, the largest city in Vermont. Sanders is a self-described democratic socialist,[2][3] and has praised Scandinavian-style social democracy.[4][5]

Sanders runs for office as an independent but caucuses with the Democratic Party and is counted as a Democrat for purposes of committee assignments. He was the only independent member of the House during most of his service and is the longest-serving independent in U.S. Congressional history.

In an interview with The Nation on March 6, 2014, Sanders stated that he is "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016.[6]

Early life and education[edit]

Bernie Sanders was born on September 8, 1941, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Polish Jewish immigrants, Dorothy (née Glassburg) and Eli Sanders.[7][8] He attended James Madison High School in Brooklyn, where he ran for his school's track team and from which he graduated in 1959.[9][10]

Sanders spent a year studying psychology at Brooklyn College before transferring to the University of Chicago.[11] While a student in 1963, Sanders was active in the Civil Rights Movement, becoming a student organizer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.[12] He was one of several thousand students who traveled on buses to Washington, D.C., for the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.[13] Sanders graduated from the University of Chicago in 1964 with a Bachelor of Arts in political science.[14]

After graduating, Sanders spent time on an Israeli kibbutz.[11] In 1964, he moved to Vermont, where he worked as a carpenter, filmmaker, writer, and researcher, among other jobs.[15]

Early political career[edit]

Liberty Union[edit]

Sanders's political career began in 1971 when he joined the anti-Vietnam War Liberty Union Party (LU) in Vermont. Thereafter he ran in and lost several elections, including for the U.S. Senate in 1972 and 1974, and for governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976. In 1979, Sanders resigned from the LU and worked as a writer and the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society.[16]

Mayor of Burlington[edit]

In 1981, at the suggestion of his friend Richard Sugarman, a professor of religion at the University of Vermont, Sanders ran for Mayor of Burlington and defeated six-term Democratic incumbent Gordon Paquette by 10 votes in a four-way contest. Sanders won three more terms, defeating both Democratic and Republican candidates. In his final run for Mayor in 1987, Sanders defeated a candidate endorsed by both major parties.[17]

During Sanders's first term his supporters, including the first Citizens Party City Councilor Terry Bouricius, formed the Progressive Coalition, the forerunner of the Vermont Progressive Party. The Progressives never held more than six seats on the 13-member city council but held enough votes to keep the council from overriding Sanders's vetoes. Under Sanders, Burlington became the first city in the country to fund community-trust housing. His administration also sued the local cable television provider and won considerably reduced rates and a substantial cash settlement.

After serving four terms, Sanders chose not to seek reelection in 1989, and went on to teach political science briefly at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government in 1989 and Hamilton College in 1991.[18]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Elections[edit]

In 1988, incumbent Republican Congressman Jim Jeffords decided to run for the U.S. Senate, vacating Vermont's at-large congressional district. Republican Lieutenant Governor Peter Smith won the House election with a plurality of 41% of the vote. Sanders, who ran as an independent, placed second with 38% of the vote, while Democrat State Representative Paul N. Poirier placed third with 19% of the vote.[19] In 1990, Sanders ran for the seat again and defeated Smith in a rematch, 56%–40%. Sanders became the first independent elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 40 years,[20] since Frazier Reams of Ohio. Thereafter Sanders continually won reelection with high margins, with his closest bid in 1994 during the Republican Revolution, when he won just 50% of the vote.

Tenure[edit]

In 1991, Sanders co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus, and chaired the grouping of mostly liberal Democrats for its first eight years. In 1993, Sanders voted for a National Rifle Association (NRA)-supported bill to restrict lawsuits against gun manufacturers[21] and against the Brady Bill.[22] Upon the resignation of Democrat Ron Dellums in 1998, Sanders became the only Congressman to describe himself as a socialist.

Sanders voted against the resolutions authorizing the use of force against Iraq in 1991 and 2002, and opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He voted for the initial 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists[23] that has been cited as the legal justification for controversial military actions since the September 11 attacks.[24] Sanders also voted for a non-binding resolution expressing support for troops at the outset of the invasion of Iraq, but gave a floor speech criticizing the partisan nature of the vote and the George W. Bush administration's actions in the run-up to the war. On April 7, 2006, about the investigation of what turned out to be a leak of CIA agent Valerie Plame's identity by a Pentagon official, Sanders said, "The revelation that the President authorized the release of classified information in order to discredit an Iraq war critic should tell every member of Congress that the time is now for a serious investigation of how we got into the war in Iraq and why Congress can no longer act as a rubber stamp for the President."[25]

In June 2005, Sanders proposed an amendment to limit provisions that allow the government to obtain individuals' library and book-buying records. The amendment passed the House by a bipartisan majority but was removed on November 4 that year in House-Senate negotiations and never became law.[26] Sanders followed this vote on November 5, 2005, by voting against the Online Freedom of Speech Act, which would have exempted the Internet from the restrictions of the McCain-Feingold Bill.

In March 2006, after a series of resolutions calling for him to bring articles of impeachment against the President passed in various towns in Vermont, Sanders stated it would be impractical to impeach George W. Bush, given the "reality that the Republicans control the House and the Senate". Still, Sanders made no secret of his opposition to the Bush Administration, which he regularly attacked for cuts to social programs he supports.[27][28][29]

Sanders was a critic of Alan Greenspan; in June 2003, during a question-and-answer discussion with the then-Federal Reserve Chairman, Sanders told Greenspan that he was concerned that Greenspan was "way out of touch" and "that you see your major function in your position as the need to represent the wealthy and large corporations".[30] Sanders said in 1998 that investment banks and commercial banks should remain as separate entities.[31]

Republicans have attacked Sanders as "an ineffective extremist" for successfully sponsoring only one law and 15 amendments in his eight terms in the House.[32][33] Sanders responded by saying that he had passed "the most floor amendments of any member of the House since 1996".[34]

Legislation[edit]

As a Representative, Sanders sponsored one hundred forty-three bills of his own, including:[35]

102nd Congress (1991-1992)[edit]

  • H.R. 2439, a bill to promote competition between cable providers, and to prevent unfair practices that may occur in the absence of such competition, introduced May 22, 1991
  • H.R. 2530, a bill to allow for federal block grants to states that are implementing universal health care systems, June 4, 1991
  • H.R. 4206, a bill to allow for federal grants or contracts to states to operate state-wide registries of information regarding cancers in that state, introduced February 2, 1992
  • H.R. 5207, a bill to provide that elections for federal office be held during the weekend instead of on Tuesday, introduced May 19, 1992
  • H.R. 6041, a bill to apply the National Labor Relations Act to U.S. companies and their subsidiaries operating in any country in a Free Trade Agreement with the United States, to allow for certain rights for employees who are members of a union, and to require employees to be represented in the trusteeship for any single-employer pension plan, introduced September 25, 1992, reintroduced in the 103rd Congress as H.R. 5126, in the 104th Congress as H.R. 1355, in the 105th Congress as H.R. 2012, and in the 106th Congress as H.R. 1277

103rd Congress (1993-1994)[edit]

  • H.R. 692, a bill to increase the federal minimum wage and index it to the cost of living, introduced January 27, 1993, reintroduced in the 104th Congress as H.R. 363, in the 105th Congress as H.R. 2278, in the 106th Congress as H.R. 627, and in the 107th Congress as H.R. 2812
  • H.R. 3323, a bill to bind members of Congress and the President's pay to their Mexican counterparts upon agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement, introduced October 20, 1993
  • H.R. 4618 and H.R. 4669, bills to require milk and milk products originating from cows treated with synthetic bovine growth hormone to be labeled as such, introduced June 21 and 28, 1993, both reintroduced in the 104th Congress as H.R. 2084 and H.R. 2085
  • H.R. 4710, a bill to extend labor rights to countries that enter into trade agreements with the United States, introduced June 30, 1994, reintroduced in the 104th Congress as H.R. 2714
  • H.R. 5278, a bill to expand investment in highways and other mass transit, airports, railroads, water and sewage treatment facilities, environmental restoration, community development, community banking, education, renewable energy and energy efficiency, and job training, to be paid for by introducing a Securities turnover excise tax, repealing a preferential tax rate on capital gains, and creating a carryover basis for certain property received from an individual's descendants, introduced October 7, 1994

104th Congress (1995-1996)[edit]

  • H.R. 1356, a bill to require congressional employees to disclose of any asset or interest in excess of $1,000 in stocks, bonds, commodity futures, or other securities, or to place all such assets and interests in a blind trust, introduced March 29, 1995
  • H.R. 1629, a bill to eliminate the foreign tax credit, to allow for a deduction of foreign taxes in place of the foreign tax credit, to eliminate the exclusion of various foreign incomes from taxation, to reduce the Export-Import Bank's budget, and to abolish the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and transfer its functions to the Department of State, introduced May 12, 1995. A modified version of this bill that also eliminates various domestic and foreign agricultural and industry subsidies, and reforms the National Parks concession process, was introduced as H.R. 2534.
  • H.R. 2654, a bill to prohibit insurers from rescinding coverage of any individual who has sustained injuries as a result of domestic abuse, and to prohibit insurers from distributing information about domestic abuse victims unless ordered to do so by a court or other regulatory agency, introduced November 16, 1995, reintroduced in the 105th Congress as H.R. 1117
  • H.R. 4270, a bill to require the public release of certain information pertaining to drugs that were developed using federal funds, introduced September 26, 1996

105th Congress (1997-1998)[edit]

  • H.R. 1079, a bill to allow for the President to enter into a trade agreement eligible for fast-track consideration only if the agreement extends labor rights to countries party to the agreement, introduced March 13, 1997
  • H.R. 2475, a bill to ban the importation of any goods produced through the use of bonded child labor, introduced September 15, 1997
  • H.R. 3017, a bill to seek the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, introduced November 9, 1997
  • H.R. 4084, a bill to create a consumer price index for elderly consumers to be used as the cost-of-living adjustment for benefits provided to seniors under Social Security, introduced June 18, 1998, reintroduced in the 106th Congress as H.R. 1422, in the 107th Congress as H.R. 2035, in the 108th Congress as H.R. 2262, and in the 109th Congress as H.R. 3601

106th Congress (1999-2000)[edit]

  • H.R. 2835, a bill to study the effects of radio frequency emissions on human health, introduced September 9, 1999
  • H.R. 3608, a bill to create a reserve of heating oil to be drawn from when oil companies are engaging in uncompetitive activities, a fuel oil shortage occurs, or during periods of extreme winter-weather, introduced February 9, 2000
  • H.R. 5085, a bill to reform the International Monetary Fund's practices when dealing with poor nations, introduced July 27, 2000

107th Congress (2001-2002)[edit]

  • H.R. 1252, a bill to reduce the quantity of arsenic in drinking water, introduced March 27, 2001
  • H.R. 1512, a bill to create a voluntary prescription drug program in Medicare for individuals who are aged, disabled, or have end-stage renal disease, introduced April 4, 2001, reintroduced in the 108th Congress as H.R. 2498. Versions of many of this bill's provisions would later be included in the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act in 2003, which created Medicare Part D. After the 2003 bill was signed into law, Sanders modified H.R. 1512 to repeal the law, and reintroduced the modified bill in the 109th Congress as H.R. 4697.
  • H.R. 2806 and H.R. 2807, bills to allow federal employees covered under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program to receive covered care from licensed chiropractors, acupuncturists, massage therapists, naturopathic physicians, or midwives without supervision or referral from another health care practitioner, introduced June 6, 2001
  • H.R. 2319, a bill to exempt individuals whose food stamps total less than $1,000 in a single calendar year from being subject to overissuance regulations, introduced June 26, 2001
  • H.R. 2349, a bill to create the National Affordable Housing Trust Fund to support the development of affordable and safe housing for low-income individuals, introduced June 27, 2001, reintroduced in the 108th Congress as H.R. 1102. The bill's trust fund was later created by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008.
  • H.R. 2476, a bill to expand the Pell grant and eligibility for federal student loans, introduced July 11, 2001
  • H.R. 3274, a bill to promote renewable energy sources, to raise fuel economy standards, to create a national tire efficiency program, to create a tax credit for the purchasing of fuel-efficient cars, and to impose an excise tax on windfall profits from electricity, fuel oil, natural gas, or coal, introduced November 9, 2001
  • H.R. 4476, a bill to reward grants to states to help them reduce shortages of dentists, introduced April 17, 2002
  • H.R. 4614, a bill to permit pharmacists to import drugs from Canada, excluding drugs injected intravenously or inhaled during surgery, introduced April 25, 2002, reintroduced in the 108th Congress as H.R. 847 and H.R. 2497
  • H.R. 5191, a bill to add dental care to care covered by the State Children's Health Insurance Program, introduced July 23, 2002, reintroduced in the 109th Congress as H.R. 594
  • H.R. 5306, a bill to award grants and loans to states to support the development of indoor recreational facilities, introduced July 26, 2002, reintroduced in the 108th Congress as H.R. 1022, and in the 109th Congress as H.R. 2240
  • H.R. 5631 and H.R. 5632, bills to prohibit the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) from issuing regulations that would preempt any state or local government's ability to place, construct, or modify any broadcast station transmission facilities or personal wireless service facilities, introduced October 10, 2002

108th Congress (2003-2004)[edit]

  • H.R. 1157, a bill to prohibit the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other federal agencies from receiving a court warrant to search individuals for counter-terrorism purposes if the warrant applies specifically to personal information held by a library or bookstore, introduced March 6, 2003, reintroduced in the 109th Congress as H.R. 1157
  • H.R. 2724, a bill to prohibit credit card issuers from raising rates on any individual for reasons unrelated to the credit card's account, introduced July 14, 2003, reintroduced in the 109th Congress as H.R. 3492
  • H.R. 2969, a bill to promote employee ownership of banks and employee stock ownership plans, introduced July 25, 2003. A modified version of this bill that extends to all financial institutions, not just banks, was introduced in the 109th Congress as H.R. 2457.
  • H.R. 3228, a bill to withdraw from normal trade relations with the People's Republic of China, introduced October 2, 2003, reintroduced in the 109th Congress as H.R. 728

109th Congress (2005-2006)[edit]

  • H.R. 1440, a bill to limit the FCC's authority to impose forfeiture penalties for indecent utterances to the broadcast of such utterances by a radio or television broadcasting station, introduced March 17, 2005
  • H.R. 1619, a bill to place a cap on the annual percentage rate for any extension of credit and on any fee or charge imposed by a creditor on the transaction, introduced April 13, 2005
  • H.R. 4420, a bill to repeal tax subsidies, credits, and deductions for oil and natural gas companies, introduced February 1, 2006
  • H.R. 5761, a bill to create records and storage facilities for all spent fuel rods from nuclear reactors, including fragments of spent fuel rods, that result from loading or dismantling a fuel assembly, and to require annual inspections to ensure compliance with record-keeping and storing, introduced July 11, 2006

U.S. Senate[edit]

Elections[edit]

Sanders being sworn in by Vice President Dick Cheney

Sanders had mentioned on several occasions that he would run for the Senate if Jeffords were to retire, and after Jeffords's announcement that he would not seek a fourth term, Sanders entered the race on April 21, 2005. New York Senator Chuck Schumer, the Chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, endorsed Sanders: a critical move, as it meant that no Democrat running against Sanders could expect to receive financial help from the party. Sanders was also endorsed by Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada, and Democratic National Committee Chairman and former Vermont Governor Howard Dean. Dean said in May 2005 that he considered Sanders an ally who "votes with the Democrats 98% of the time".[36] Then-Senator Barack Obama also campaigned for Sanders in Vermont. Sanders entered into an agreement with the Democratic Party, much as he had as a congressman, to be listed in their primary but to decline the nomination should he win, which he did.[37]

In the most expensive political campaign in Vermont's history,[38] Sanders defeated businessman Rich Tarrant by an approximately 2-to-1 margin. Many national media outlets projected Sanders the winner before any returns came in.

Sanders was reelected in 2012 with 71% of the vote.[39]

Tenure[edit]

Polling conducted in August 2011 by Public Policy Polling found that Sanders' approval rating was 67% and his disapproval rating 28%, making him then the third-most popular senator in the country.[40]

Sanders has an agreement with the Democratic leadership in the Senate under which he votes with the Democrats on all procedural matters except with permission of Democratic whip Dick Durbin—a request which is rarely made or granted—in exchange for the committee seats and seniority that would be available to him as a Democrat. He is free to vote as he pleases on policy matters, but almost always votes with the Democrats.

Environment[edit]

Sanders and Senator Barbara Boxer introduced the Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act of 2007 on January 15, 2007. The measure would have provided funding for research and development on geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide, set emissions standards for new vehicles and a renewable fuels requirement for gasoline beginning in 2016, established energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards beginning in 2008 and low-carbon electric generation standards beginning in 2016 for electric utilities and would have required periodic evaluations by the National Academy of Sciences to determine whether emissions targets are adequate.[41]

Sanders is a vocal advocate about the ramifications of global warming.[42] In a speech on the Senate floor on July 26, 2012, Sanders addressed claims made by fellow Senator Jim Inhofe; "The bottom line is when Senator Inhofe says global warming is a hoax, he is just dead wrong, according to the vast majority of climate scientists".[43]

Following the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, Sanders called for a moratorium on the licensing of new nuclear plants and re-licensing of existing ones, in an effort to slow down what's been touted as a nuclear renaissance in the United States.[44] Sanders wrote to President Barack Obama asking for him to appoint a special commission to review the safety of U.S. nuclear plants. Sanders also wants to repeal a federal law that he says leaves the taxpayers to pick up most of the costs of a major nuclear accident. He says, "in a free-enterprise system, the nuclear industry should be required to insure itself against accidents".[44]

Public disclosure and transparency[edit]

Sanders supports the DISCLOSE Act, which would make campaign finances more transparent and ban U.S. corporations controlled by foreign interests from making political expenditures.[45]

Media reform[edit]

Sanders has been a leader in calling for media reform and opposes increased concentration of ownership of media outlets,[46] as well as being a contributing author for OpEdNews.[47] He appeared in Orwell Rolls in His Grave and Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism, two documentaries on the subject.[48]

Health Care[edit]

Sanders is a staunch supporter of a universal health care system, and has said "If you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer".[49] Sanders is a social liberal, supporting LGBT rights, same-sex marriage, and pro-choice legislation.[15] In the House he voted against the Defense of Marriage Act.[50]

Budget[edit]

On September 24, 2008, Senator Sanders posted on his website a letter to Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, against the initial bailout proposal, drawing more than 8,000 citizen cosigners in the first 24 hours.[51] On January 26, 2009, Sanders and Democrats Robert Byrd, Russ Feingold and Tom Harkin were the sole majority members to vote against confirmation of Timothy Geithner to be United States Secretary of the Treasury.[52]

On December 10, 2010, Sanders delivered an 8½-hour speech against the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, the proposed extension of the Bush-era tax rates that eventually became law, saying "Enough is enough! [...] How many homes can you own?" A long speech such as this is traditionally a filibuster, but because it didn't block action, it was not technically a filibuster under Senate rules.[53]

National acclaim[edit]

On January 19, 2011, Sanders announced that his "filibuster" speech would be published in February 2011 by Nation Books as The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class, with authorial proceeds going to Vermont nonprofit charitable organizations.[54]

In response to his "filibuster", "activists across the country started talking up the notion of a 'Sanders for President' run in 2012, either as a dissident Democrat in the primaries or as a left-leaning Independent".[55] Hundreds of people signed online petitions urging Sanders to run, and pollsters began measuring his support in key primary states.[55] Progressive activists such as Rabbi Michael Lerner and economist David Korten publicly voiced their support for a prospective Sanders run against President Barack Obama.[55] At that time, Sanders disavowed any interest in a presidential run, saying he was "very proud to be Vermont's Senator", and maintaining that "I am very content to be where I am, but I am flattered by that kind of response".[55] But Sanders has shown openness to running for president in 2016,[6] and as of May 2014 has been making public appearances in various states,[56] as is typical of potential candidates.[57]

Sanders won the 2014 Col. Arthur T. Marix Congressional Leadership Award from the Military Officers Association of America for his leadership in support of veterans.[58]

2013 U.S. government shutdown[edit]

Committee assignments[edit]

[edit]

Sanders introduced the Veterans' Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustment Act of 2013 (S. 893; 113th Congress) into the Senate on May 8, 2013.[61] The bill would increase the disability compensation rate for American veterans and their families.[62]

Sanders co-wrote, with Senator John McCain, the Veterans' Access to Care through Choice, Accountability, and Transparency Act of 2014, a bill intended to reform the United States Department of Veterans Affairs in response to the Veterans Health Administration scandal of 2014.[63]

HIV/AIDS advocates have praised Sanders for a bill he introduced in 2012 that aimed to lower the cost of prescription drugs for HIV patients.[64]

Possible 2016 presidential run[edit]

In a March 6, 2014 interview with The Nation, Sanders stated that he is "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016[6] but did not officially announce a campaign. When pressed on the issue, Sanders said, "If the question is am I actively right now organizing and raising money and so forth for a campaign for president, I am not doing that. On the other hand, am I talking to people around the country? Yes, I am. Will I be doing some traveling around the country? Yes, I will be. But I think it’s premature to be talking about a campaign when we still have a 2014 congressional race in front of us."[6]

Personal life[edit]

Sanders is married to Jane O'Meara Driscoll, a former president of Burlington College; he has one child and three stepchildren.[7][65][66] His brother, Larry Sanders, was a Green Party County Councillor representing the East Oxford division on Oxfordshire County Council, in England, until his retirement in 2013.[67][68][69]

Sanders is one of two sitting U.S. Senators who went to James Madison High School in Brooklyn, the other being Chuck Schumer.

Electoral history[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Faith on the Hill: The Religious Composition of the 113th Congress". Pew Forum. November 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 
  2. ^ Lisa Lerer (July 16, 2009). "Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?". The Politico. Retrieved April 19, 2010. 
  3. ^ Michael Powell (November 6, 2006). "Exceedingly Social But Doesn't Like Parties". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  4. ^ Sanders, Bernie (May 26, 2013). What Can We Learn From Denmark? The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
  5. ^ Sasha Issenberg (January 9, 2010). Sanders a growing force on the far, far left. Boston Globe. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
    • “You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs.'’ – Bernie Sanders
  6. ^ a b c d Nichols, John (March 6, 2014). "Bernie Sanders: 'I Am Prepared to Run for President of the United States'". The Nation. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". New York Times. 
  8. ^ Who's Who in American Politics – Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved December 4, 2013. 
  9. ^ Helena Andrews (January 27, 2007). "Brooklyn School Boasts Famous Graduates in Washington". politico.com. 
  10. ^ James Madison High School. "The wall of distinction". jamesmadisonalumni.org. 
  11. ^ a b Mark Leibovich (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2013. 
  12. ^ April Burbank (August 23, 2013). "'Something important was going to come' Q&A: Sen. Bernie Sanders remembers the March on Washington". burlingtonfreepress.com. 
  13. ^ Barre Montpelier Times Argus (August 25, 2013). "Sanders was part of 1963 March on Washington". timesargus.com. 
  14. ^ "WP Politics: Bernard Sanders". washingtonpost.com. June 30, 2004. 
  15. ^ a b Mark Leibovich (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times Magazine (The New York Times). Retrieved July 18, 2007. 
  16. ^ Jack Jodell (July 3–4, 2011). "Great Progressive Voices (Part VII)". RoundTree7. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Re-election easy for Socialist mayor". Spokane Chronicle. March 4, 1987. p. 46. 
  18. ^ "WSJ Sanders Profile". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  19. ^ "VT At-Large Race – Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  20. ^ Adam Pertman (November 11, 1990). "'The Times Caught Up' To Vermont Socialist". The Boston Globe. 
  21. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 534". Office of the clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved July 18, 2007. 
  22. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 614". US House of Representatives. Office of the clerk. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  23. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342". http://clerk.house.gov/. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  24. ^ Johnsen, Gregory D. (16 January 2014). "60 Words And A War Without End: The Untold Story Of The Most Dangerous Sentence In U.S. History". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  25. ^ Yost, Pete (April 7, 2006). "Libby: Bush, Cheney OK’d leak campaign". Associated Press. Retrieved July 18, 2007. 
  26. ^ "Message". Lists.wisc.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  27. ^ [Previous Page]. "Bernie :: Release :: Sanders Blasts Bush'S Housing Secretary on Housing Cuts in Vermont". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  28. ^ Rep. Bernie Sanders (I-VT). "Have They No Shame? | TPMCafe". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Bernie :: Multimedia :: Video". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  30. ^ [Previous Page]. "bernie :: statement :: Congressman Sanders' Questioning of Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  31. ^ "News Sept 24 – Newsroom: U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders (Vermont)". Sanders.senate.gov. September 24, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  32. ^ "National Republican Senatorial Committee". Web.archive.org. November 13, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  33. ^ episode49, LLC and The Bivings Group. "National Republican Senatorial Committee". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  34. ^ "» Bernie on GOP Hit List". Web.archive.org. November 14, 2007. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Representative Sanders's Legislation". Library of Congress. Retrieved November 28, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Transcript for May 22 – Meet the Press, online at MSNBC". MSNBC. May 22, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  37. ^ "U.S. Senate: Tarrant-Sanders duel set". Burlington Free Press. September 12, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2006. [dead link]
  38. ^ Ring, Wilson (November 7, 2006). "Sanders, Welch are winners in Vermont". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  39. ^ "Vermont Election Results". Decision 2012. NBC News. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  40. ^ Americans Love Socialism: Bernie Sanders Is The 3rd Most Popular US Senator Politics USA August 2, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2012.'
  41. ^ Climate Change Bills of the 110th Congress Environmental Defense, May 29, 2007.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Tom W. Rice, "Who Votes for a Socialist Mayor?: The Case of Burlington, Vermont," Polity, vol. 17, no. 4 (Summer 1985), pp. 795–806. In JSTOR
  • Steven Rosenfeld, Making History in Vermont: The Election of a Socialist to Congress. Wakefield, NH: Hollowbrook Publishing, 1992.
  • Steven Soifer, The Socialist Mayor: Bernard Sanders in Burlington, Vermont. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1991.
  • Bernie Sanders, The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class (2011)
  • Bernie Sanders, Outsider in the House (1998, Verso)

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Gordon Paquette
Mayor of Burlington, Vermont
1981–1989
Succeeded by
Peter Clavelle
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Peter P. Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's at-large congressional district

January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007
Succeeded by
Peter Welch
United States Senate
Preceded by
Jim Jeffords
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Vermont
January 4, 2007 – present
Served alongside: Patrick Leahy
Incumbent
Preceded by
Patty Murray
Chairman of the Senate Veteran's Affairs Committee
2013 – present
Incumbent
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Ben Cardin
D-Maryland
United States Senators by seniority
45th
Succeeded by
Sherrod Brown
D-Ohio