The Bernoullis (//; Swiss German: [bɛʁˈnʊli];) were a patrician family of merchants and scholars, originally from Antwerp, who settled in Basel, Switzerland. The name is sometimes misspelled Bernou-ill-i and mispronounced accordingly.
Leon Bernoulli was a doctor in Antwerp, which at that time was in the Spanish Netherlands. He died in 1561 and in 1570 his son, Jacob, emigrated to Frankfurt am Main to escape from the Spanish persecution of the Huguenots. Jacob’s grandson, a spice trader also named Jacob, moved in 1620 to Basel, Switzerland, and was granted Swiss citizenship. His son Niklaus (1623-1708), Leon’s great-great-grandson, married Margarethe Schönauer.
Niklaus had three sons:
- Jacob Bernoulli (1654–1705; also known as James or Jacques) Mathematician after whom Bernoulli numbers are named.
- Nicolaus Bernoulli (1662–1716) Painter and alderman of Basel.
- Johann Bernoulli (1667–1748; also known as Jean) Mathematician and early adopter of infinitesimal calculus.
In addition to those mentioned above, the Bernoulli family produced many notable artists and scientists, in particular a number of famous mathematicians in the 18th century:
- Nicolaus I Bernoulli (1687–1759) Mathematician.
- Nicolaus II Bernoulli (1695–1726) Mathematician; worked on curves, differential equations, and probability.
- Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782) Developer of Bernoulli's principle and St. Petersburg paradox.
- Johann II Bernoulli (1710–1790; also known as Jean) Mathematician and physicist.
- Johann III Bernoulli (1744–1807; also known as Jean) Astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
- Jacob II Bernoulli (1759–1789; also known as Jacques) Physicist and mathematician.
Devices and ideas named for members of the family
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bernoulli.|
- Family tree at the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
- Bernoulli family in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.