Bert Hölldobler

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Bert Hölldobler
Bert Hölldobler-2013.jpg
Born (1936-06-25) 25 June 1936 (age 78)
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Fields Sociobiology
Institutions Arizona State University
Known for Ants
Notable awards Pulitzer Prize, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize

Bert Hölldobler (born 25 June 1936) is a German behavioral biologist, sociobiologist and evolutionary biologist.


Hölldobler studied biology and chemistry at the University of Würzburg. His doctoral thesis was on the social behavior of the male carpenter ant and their role in the organization of carpenter ant societies. He was named professor of zoology at the University of Frankfurt in 1971. From 1973 to 1990 he was professor of biology and Alexander Agassiz professor of zoology at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1989 he returned to Germany to accept the chair of behavioral physiology and sociobiology at the Theodor-Boveri-Institute of the University of Würzburg. From 2002 to 2008 Hölldobler was an Andrew D. White Professor at Large at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Since his retirement in 2004 Hölldobler has worked as a research professor in the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona. There he is one of the founders of the Social Insect Research Group (SIRG) and of the Center for Social Dynamics and Complexity.

Research fields and results[edit]

Hölldobler is an international scientist of excellence. His experimental and theoretical contributions cover sociobiology, behavioral ecology, and chemical ecology. His primary study subjects are social insects and in particular ants. His comprehensive work on social insects, mainly on ants provided lots of valuable insights into:

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39]

  • the regulation of reproduction
    • A) in primitive, hierarchical insect organisations

[22] [33] [34] [37] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]

    • B) in superorganisms

[57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63]

  • Superorganisms
    • general

[15] [17] [18] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74]

[18] [38] [64] [75] [76] [77] [78]

[14] [15] [61] [65] [66] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]

[114] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133]

  • ant nests as ecological islands

[134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150]


Academic associations[edit]

Web interviews[edit]

Hölldobler's 2007 interview on the Ask A Biologist podcast program details his early life growing up in Germany as well as his interest in ants and writing.

Documentary films[edit]

In addition to his published scientific papers and books, Hölldobler's work was the subject of the documentary film Ants - Nature's Secret Power the winner of the 2005 Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festivals Special Jury Prize.


External links[edit]


  1. ^ B. Hölldobler, U. Maschwitz, 1965. Der Hochzeitsschwarm der Rossameise Camponotus herculeanus L. (Hym. Formicidae). Z. Vergl. Physiol. 50:551-568
  2. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1971. Sex pheromone in the ant Xenomyrmex floridanus J. Insect. Physiol. 17:1497-1499
  3. ^ B. Hölldobler, M. Wüst, 1973. Ein Sexualpheromon bei der Pharaoameise Monomorium pharaonis (L.) Z. Tierpsychol. 32:1-9
  4. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1976. The behavioral ecology of mating in harvester ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Pogonomyrmex) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1:405-423
  5. ^ B. Hölldobler, C.P. Haskins, 1977. Sexual calling behavior in primitive ants Science 195:793-794
  6. ^ H. Markl, B. Hölldobler, T. Hölldobler, 1977. Mating behavior and sound production in harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex, Formicidae) Insectes Sociaux 24:191-212
  7. ^ B. Hölldobler, H. Engel-Siegel, 1982. Tergal and Sternal Glands in Male Ants Psyche 89:113-132
  8. ^ B. Hölldobler, S. Bartz, 1985. Sociobiology of Reproduction in ants. Experimental Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology B. Hölldobler and M. Lindauer (eds.), Fortschritte der Zool. 31:237-257
  9. ^ N.R. Franks, B. Hölldobler, 1987. Sexual competition during colony reproduction in army ants Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 30:229-243
  10. ^ J. Heinze, S. Kühnholz, K. Schilder, B. Hölldobler, 1993. Behavior of ergatoid males in the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda Ins. Soc. 40:273-282
  11. ^ J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, 1993. Fighting for a harem of queens: Physiology of reproduction in Cardiocondyla male ants Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA 90:8412-8414
  12. ^ J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, K. Yamauchi, 1998. Male competition in Cardiocondyla ants Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42:239-246
  13. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1962. Zur Frage der Oligogynie bei Camponotus ligniperda LATR.und Camponotus herculeanus L. (Hym. Formicidae). Z. ang. Entomologie 49:337.352
  14. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, 1974. Home range orientation and territoriality in harvesting ants Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 71:3274-3277
  15. ^ a b c B. Hölldobler, 1976. Recruitment behavior, home range orientation and territoriality in harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1:3-44
  16. ^ B. Hölldobler, E.O. Wilson, 1977. The number of queens: an important trait in ant evolution Naturwissenschaften 64:8-15
  17. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, C.D. Michener, 1980. Mechanisms of Identification and Discrimination in Social Hymenoptera Evolution of Social Behavior: Hypotheses and Empirical Tests, ed. H. Markl, Dahlem Konferenzen, 35-38
  18. ^ a b c d B. Hölldobler, C. Lumsden, 1980. Territorial Strategies in Ants Science 210:732-739
  19. ^ B. Hölldobler, N. Carlin, 1985. Colony founding, queen dominance and oligogyny in the Austrian meat ant Iridomyrmex purpureus Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18:45-58
  20. ^ K. Sommer, B. Hölldobler, 1992. Pleometrosis in Lasius niger In: J. Billen (Ed.) Biology and Evolution of Social Insects. Leuven University Press, 47-50
  21. ^ J. Heinze, N. Lipski, B. Hölldobler, 1992. Reproductive competition in colonies of the ant Leptothorax gredleri Ethology 90:265-278
  22. ^ a b K. Sommer, B. Hölldobler, 1992. Coexistence and dominance among queens and mated workers in the ant Pachycondyla tridentata Naturwissenschaften 19:470-472
  23. ^ J. Heinze, J. Gadau, B. Hölldobler, 1994. Genetic Variability in the Ant Camponotus floridanus Detected by Multilocus DNA Fingerprinting Naturwissenschaften 81:34-36
  24. ^ K. Sommer, B. Hölldobler, 1995. Colony founding by queen association and determinants of reduction in queen number in the ant Lasius niger Animal Behaviour 50:287-294
  25. ^ J. Heinze, N. Lipski, K. Schlehmeyer, B. Hölldobler, 1995. Colony structure and reproduction in the ant, Leptothorax acervorum Behav. Ecology 6:359-367
  26. ^ J. Heinze, S. Foitzik, A. Hippert, B. Hölldobler, 1996. Apparent Dear-enemy Phenomenon and Environment- based Recognition Cues in the Ant Leptothorax nylanderi Ethology 102:510-522
  27. ^ J. Gadau, J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, M. Schmid, 1996. Population and colony structure of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus Molecular Ecology 5:785-792
  28. ^ J. Heinze, C. Elsishans, B. Hölldobler, 1997. No Evidence for Kin Assortment during Colony Propagation in a Polygynous Ant. Naturwissenschaften 84:249-250
  29. ^ J. Heinze, W. Puchinger, B. Hölldobler, 1997. Worker reproduction and social hierarchies in Leptothorax ants Anim. Behav. 54:849-864
  30. ^ J. Gadau, P.J. Gertsch, J. Heinze, P. Pamilo, B. Hölldobler, 1998. Oligogyny by unrelated queens in the carpenter ant, Camponotus ligniperdus Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 44:23-33
  31. ^ K. Schilder, J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler Colony structure and reproduction in the thelytokous parthenogenetic ant Platythyrea punctata (F. Smith) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Insectes Sociaux 46:150-158
  32. ^ J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, G. Alpert, 1999 Reproductive Conflict and Division of Labor in Eutetramorium mocquerysi, a Myrmicine Ant Without Morphologically Distinct Female Reproductives Ethology 105:701-717
  33. ^ a b K. Tsuji, K. Egashira, B. Hölldobler, 1999. Regulation of worker reproduction by direct physical contact in the ant Diacamma sp. from Japan Animal Behaviour 58:337-343
  34. ^ a b J. Liebig, C. Peeters, B. Hölldobler Worker policing limits the number of reproductives in a ponerine ant Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266:1865-1870
  35. ^ J. Heinze, B. Trunzer, B. Hölldobler, J.H.C. Delabie, 2001. Reproductive skew and queen relatedness in an ant with primary polygyny Insectes Sociaux 48:149-153
  36. ^ O. Rüppell, J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, 2002. Sex ratio variation in a facultatively polygynous ant with size- dimorphic queens Ethology Ecology & Evolution 14:53-67
  37. ^ a b K. Kolmer, B. Hölldobler, J. Heinze, 2002. Colony and population structure in Pachycondyla cf. inversa, a ponerine ant with primary polygyny. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 14:157-164
  38. ^ a b J. Gadau, C.P. Strehl, J. Oettler, B. Hölldobler, 2003. Determinants of intracolonial relatedness in Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) – mating frequency and brood raids, Molecular Ecology 12: 1931-1938
  39. ^ Frank E. Rheindt, Jürgen Gadau, Christoph-Peter Strehl, Bert Hölldobler, 2004. Extremely high mating frequency in the Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 56: 472-481
  40. ^ P.S. Oliveira, B. Hölldobler, 1990. Dominance orders in the ponerine ant Pachycondyla apicalis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Behav Ecol Sociobiol 27:385-393
  41. ^ P.S. Oliveira, B. Hölldobler, 1991. Agonistic interactions and reproductive dominance in Pachycondyla obscuricornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Psyche 98:215-225
  42. ^ F.N.S. Medeiros, L.E. Lopes, R.S. Moutinho, P.S. Oliveira, B. Hölldobler, 1992. Functional polygyny, agonistic interactions and reproductive dominance in the neotropical ant Odontomachus chelifer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Ponerinae)
  43. ^ C. Peeters, J. Billen, B. Hölldobler, 1992. Alternative Dominance Mechanisms Regulating Monogyny in the Queenless Ant Genus Diacamma Naturwissenschaften 79:572-573
  44. ^ C. Peeters, J. Billen, B. Hölldobler Alternative Dominance Mechanisms Regulating Monogyny in the Queenless Ant Genus Diacamma Naturwissenschaften 79:572-573
  45. ^ J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, 1995. Thelytokous Parthenogenesis and Dominance Hierarchies in the Ponerine Ant, Platythyrea punctata Naturwissenschaften 82:40-41
  46. ^ K. Sommer, B. Hölldobler, K. Jessen, 1994. The Unusual Social Organization of the Ant Pachycondyla tridentata (Formicidae, Ponerinae) J. Ethol. 12:175-185
  47. ^ C. Peeters, B. Hölldobler, 1995. Reproductive cooperation between queens and their mated workers: The complex life history of an ant with a valuable nest Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92:10977-10979
  48. ^ O. Düssmann, C. Peeters, B. Hölldobler, 1996. Morphology and reproductive behavior of intercastes in the ponerine ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis Ins. Soc. 43:421-425
  49. ^ P.S.Oliveira, M. Obermayer, B. Hölldobler, 1998. Division of Labor in the Neotropical ant Pachycondyla stigma (Ponerinae), with Special Reference to Mutual Antennal Rubbing between Nestmates (Hymenoptera) Sociobiology 31:9-24
  50. ^ B. Trunzer, J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, 1998. Cooperative colony founding and experimental primary polygyny in the ponerine ant Pachycondyla villosa Insectes Sociaux, 45:267-276
  51. ^ K. Tsuji, C. Peeters, B. Hölldobler, 1998. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanism of Reproductive Differentiation in the Queenless Ant, Diacamma sp., from Japan Ethology, 104:633-643
  52. ^ B. Trunzer, J. Heinze, B. Hölldobler, 1999. Social Status and Reproductive Success in Queenless Ant Colonies Behaviour 136:1093-1105
  53. ^ J. Liebig, C. Peeters, N.J. Oldham, C. Markstädter, B. Hölldobler, 2000. Are variations in cuticular hydrocarbons of queens and workers a reliable signal of fertility in the ant Harpegnathos saltator? PNAS 97:4124-4131
  54. ^ J. Tenschert, K. Kolmer, B. Hölldobler, H.-J. Bestmann, J.H.C. Delabie, J. Heinze, 2001. Chemical profiles, division of labor and social status in Pachycondyla queens (Hymenoptera:Formicidae). Naturwissenschaften 88:175-178
  55. ^ V. Dietemann, B. Hölldobler, C. Peeters, 2002. Caste specialization and differentiation in reproductive potential in the phylogenetically primitive ant Myrmecia gulosa Insectes Sociaux 49:289-298
  56. ^ V. Dietemann, C. Peeters, J. Liebig, V. Thivet, B. Hölldobler, 2003. Cuticular hydrocarbons mediate discrimination of reproductives and nonreproductives in the ant Myrmecia gulosa PNAS 100: 10341-10346
  57. ^ B. Hölldobler, E.O. Wilson, 1983. Queen Control in Colonies of Weaver Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Ann. of the Ent. Soc. of America 76:235-238
  58. ^ N.F. Carlin, B. Hölldobler, 1984. Nestmate and Kin Recognition in Interspecific Mixed Colonies of Ants Science 222:1027-1029
  59. ^ N.F. Carlin, B. Hölldobler, 1986. The kin recognition system of carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) I. Hierarchical cues in small colonies Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 19:123-134
  60. ^ N.F. Carlin, B. Hölldobler, 1987. The recognition system of carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) II. Larger colonies Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 20:209-217
  61. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, N.F. Carlin, 1987. Anonymity and specificity in the chemical communication signals of social insects J. Comp. Physiol. A 161:567-581
  62. ^ N.F. Carlin, R. Halpern, B. Hölldobler, P. Schwartz, 1987. Early learning and the recognition of conspecific cocoons by carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) Ethology 75:306-316
  63. ^ N.F. Carlin, B. Hölldobler, 1988. Influence of Virgin Queens on Kin Recognition in the Carpenter Ant Camponotus Floridanus (Hymenopera: Formicidae) Insectes Sociaux, Paris 35:191-197
  64. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, 1976. Tournaments and slavery in a desert ant Science 192:912-914
  65. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, E.O. Wilson, 1977. Weaver ants: social establishment and maintenance of territory Science 195:900-902
  66. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, E.O. Wilson, 1977. Colony-specific territorial pheromone in the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (LATREILLE) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74:2072-2075
  67. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1979. Territoriality in ants Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 123:211-218
  68. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1979. Territories of the African weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda LATREILLE) Z. Tierpsychol. 51:201-213
  69. ^ B. Hölldobler, M. Möglich, 1980. The Foraging System of Pheidole militicida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Insectes Sociaux 27:237-264
  70. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1981. Foraging and Spatiotemporal Territories in the Honey Ant Myrmecocystus mimicus Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 9:301-314
  71. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1982. Interference Strategy of Iridomyrmex pruinosum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) During Foraging Oecologia (Berl.) 52:208-213
  72. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1983. Territorial behavior in the green tree ant Oecophylla smaragdina Biotropica 15:241-250
  73. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1986. Konkurrenzverhalten und Territorialität in Ameisen- pupulationen In Information Processing in Animals 3:25-70
  74. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1988. Communication and Competition in Ant Communities Evolution and Coadaptation in Biotic Communities University of Tokyo Press, 95-124
  75. ^ S.H. Bartz, B. Hölldobler, 1982. Colony Founding in Myrmecocystus mimicus Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the evolution of foundress associations Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 10:137-147
  76. ^ C. Lumsden, B. Hölldobler, 1983. Ritualized Combat and Intercolony Communication in Ants J. Theoret. Biol. 100:81-98
  77. ^ D.J.C. Kronauer, J. Gadau, B. Hölldobler, 2003. Genetic evidence for intra- and interspecific slavery in honey ants (genus Myrmecocystus). Proceedings of the Royal Society 270:805-810
  78. ^ D.J.C. Kronauer, B. Hölldobler, and J. Gadau, 2004. Phylogenetics of the new world honey ants (genus Myrmecocystus) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 416-421
  79. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1971. Homing in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius Science 171:1149-1151
  80. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1971. Recruitment behavior in Camponotus socius (Hym. Formicidae) Z. vergl. Physiol. 75:123-142
  81. ^ F.E. Regnier, M. Nieh, B. Hölldobler, 1973. The volatile Dufour's gland components of the harvester ants Pogonomyrmex rugosus and P. barbatus J. Insect Physiol. 19:981-992
  82. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1973 Chemische Strategie beim Nahrungserwerb der Diebsameise (Solenopsis fugax LATR.) und der Pharaoameisen (Monomorium pharaonis L.) Oecologia (Berl.) 11:371-380
  83. ^ B. Hölldobler, M. Möglich, U. Maschwitz, 1974. Communication by tandem running in the ant Camponotus sericeus J. Comp. Physiol. 90:105-127
  84. ^ M. Möglich, U. Maschwitz, B. Hölldobler, 1974. Tandem calling: a new kind of signal in ant communication Science 186:1046-1047
  85. ^ U. Maschwitz, B. Hölldobler, M. Möglich, 1974. Tandemlaufen als Rekrutierungsverhalten bei Bothroponera tesserinoda FOREL (Formicidae: Ponerinae) Z. Tierpsychol. 35:113-123
  86. ^ M. Möglich, B. Hölldobler, 1975. Communication and orientation during foraging and emigration in the ant Formica fusca J. Comp. Physiol. 101:275-288
  87. ^ B. Hölldobler, E.O. Wilson, 1978. The multiple recruitment systems of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (LATREILLE) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 3:19-60
  88. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1978. Ethological aspects of chemical communication in ants Advances in the study of behavior 8:75-115
  89. ^ B. Hölldobler, R.C. Stanton, H. Markl, 1978. Recruitment and food-retrieving behavior in Novomessor Formicidae, Hymenoptera). I. Chemical Signals Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol. 4:163-181
  90. ^ H. Markl, B. Hölldobler, 1978. Recruitment and food-retrieving behavior in Novomessor (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). II. Vibration Signals Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 4:183-216
  91. ^ M.S. Blum, T.H. Jones, B. Hölldobler, H.M. Fales, T. Jaouni, 1980. Alkaloidal venom mace: offensive use by a thief ant Naturwissenschaften 67:144
  92. ^ B. Hölldobler, J. Traniello, 1980. The Pygidial Gland and Chemical Recruitment Communication in Pachycondyla (=Termitopone) leavigata Journal of Chemical Ecology 6:883-893
  93. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1980. Canopy Orientation: A New Kind of Orientation in Ants Science 210:86-88,
  94. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1982. Communication, Raiding Behavior and Prey Storage in Cerapachys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Psyche 89:3-23
  95. ^ J.F.A. Traniello, B. Hölldobler, 1984. Chemical Communication during tandem running in Pachycondyla obscuriocornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) J. of. Chem. Ecol. 10:783-794
  96. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1984. Communication during foraging and nest-relocation in the African stink ant, Paltothyreus tarsatus Fabr. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae) Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 65:40-52
  97. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1984. Evolution of insect communication Insect Communication, the Royal Entomological Society of London, 349-377
  98. ^ T. Bellas, B. Hölldobler, 1985. Constituents of mandibular and Dufour's glands of an Australian Polyrhachis weaver ant J. Chemical Ecology 11:525-538
  99. ^ B. Hölldobler, 1988. Chemical communication in Meranoplus (Hymenopera: Formicidae) Psyche 95:139-151
  100. ^ P.S. Oliveira, B. Hölldobler, 1989. Orientation and communication in the Neotropical ant Odontomachus bauri Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicida, Ponerinae) Ethology 83:154-166
  101. ^ E.D. Morgan, B. Hölldobler, T. Vaisar, B.D. Jackson, 1992. Contents of poison apparatus and their relation to trail-following in the ant Daceton armigerum J. of Chemical Ecology 18:2161-2168
  102. ^ F. Roces, J. Tautz, B. Hölldobler, 1993. Stridulation in Leaf-Cutting Ants Naturwissenschaften 80:521-524
  103. ^ F. Roces, B. Hölldobler, Leaf density and a trade-off between load-size selection and recruitment behavior in the ant Atta cephalotes Oecologia 97:1-8
  104. ^ J. Tautz, F. Roces, B. Hölldobler, 1995. Use of a Sound-Based Vibratome by Leaf-Cutting Ants Science 267:84-87
  105. ^ H.J. Bestmann, U. Haak, F. Kern, B. Hölldobler, 1995. 2,4-Dimethyl-5-hexanolide, a trail pheromone component of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Naturwissenschaften 82:142-144
  106. ^ H.J. Bestmann, E. Hanssen, F. Kern, B. Liepold, B. Hölldobler, 1995. All-trans Geranylgeranyl Acetate and Geranylgeraniol, Recruitment pheromone Components in the Dufour gland of the Ponerine Ant Ectatomma ruidum Naturwissenschaften 82:334-336
  107. ^ B. Hölldobler, N.J. Oldham, E.D. Morgan, W.A. König, 1995. Recruitment Pheromones in the Ants Aphaenogaster albisetosus and A. cockerelli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) J. Insect Physiol 41:739-744
  108. ^ B. Hölldobler, E. Janssen, H.J. Bestmann, I.R. Leal, P.S. Oliveira, F. Kern, W.A. König, 1996. Communication in the migratory termite-hunting ant Pachycondyla (=Termitopone) marginata (Formicidae, Ponerinae) J. Comp. Physiol. A 178:47-53
  109. ^ F. Roces, B. Hölldobler, 1996. Use of stridulation in foraging leaf-cutting ants: mechanical support during cutting or short-range recruitment signal? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 39:93-299
  110. ^ H.J. Bestmann, E. Übler, B. Hölldobler, 1997. First Biosynthetic Studies on Trail Pheromones in Ants Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36:395-397
  111. ^ R. Wirth, W. Beyschlag, R.J. Ryel, B. Hölldobler, 1997. Annual foraging of the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica in a semideciduous rain forest in Panama Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:741-757
  112. ^ E. Janssen, B. Hölldobler, F. Kern, H.J. Bestmann, K. Tsuji, 1997. Trail Pheromone of Myrmicine Ant Pristomyrmex pungens Journal of Chemical Ecology, 4:1025-1034
  113. ^ C. Liefke, U. Maschwitz, B. Hölldobler, 1997. Rekrutierungsstrategien als wichtige Nischendimension: Polyrhachis illaudata und Polyrhachis proxima (Formicidae), syntope Zwillingsarten aus Westmalaysia Mitteilg .der Deutsch. Gesellsch. f. allgem. u. angew. Entomologie, 11:759-762
  114. ^ a b B. Hölldobler, M. Obermayer, G.D. Alpert, 1998. Chemical trail communication in the amblyoponine species Mystrium rogeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae) Chemoecology, 8:119-123
  115. ^ E. Janssen, B. Hölldobler, H.J. Bestmann, 1999. A trail pheromone component of the African stink ant, Pachycondyla (Paltothyreus) tarsata Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) Chemoecology 9:9-11
  116. ^ E. Kohl, B. Hölldobler, H.-J. Bestmann, 2000. A trail pheromone component of the ant Mayriella overbecki Viehmeyer (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Naturwissenschaften 87:320-322
  117. ^ E. Kohl, B. Hölldobler, H.J. Bestmann, 2001. Trail and recruitment pheromones in Camponotus socius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Chemoecology 11:67-73
  118. ^ B. Hölldobler, E.D. Morgan, N.J. Oldham, J. Liebig, 2001. Recruitment pheromone in the harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex Journal of Insect Physiol. 47:369-374
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