Bess Truman

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Bess Truman
Beth Truman cropped.jpg
Truman in 1950
First Lady of the United States
In office
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
Preceded by Eleanor Roosevelt
Succeeded by Mamie Eisenhower
Second Lady of the United States
In office
January 20, 1945 – April 12, 1945
Preceded by Ilo Wallace
Succeeded by Jane Barkley
Personal details
Born (1885-02-13)February 13, 1885
Independence, Missouri, U.S.
Died October 18, 1982(1982-10-18) (aged 97)
Independence, Missouri, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Harry S. Truman (1919-1972; his death)
Children Margaret (1924-2008)
Parents David Wallace and Margaret Gates
Occupation First Lady of the United States
Religion Episcopalian
Signature

Elizabeth Virginia "Bess" Truman (née Wallace) (February 13, 1885 – October 18, 1982), was the wife of Harry S. Truman and First Lady of the United States from 1945 to 1953.

She had known her future husband since they were children attending the same school in Independence, Missouri. As First Lady, she did not enjoy the social and political scene in Wasington as had her enormously popular predecessor Eleanor Roosevelt, and at the end of her husband's term in 1953, she was relieved to return to Independence. At her death in 1982, aged 97, she became the longest-lived First Lady.

Early life and education[edit]

Bess Truman was born Elizabeth Virginia Wallace on February 13, 1885, to David Willock Wallace (1860–1903) and his wife, the former Margaret Elizabeth Gates (1862–1952), in Independence, Missouri, and was known as Bessie during her childhood. She was the eldest of four; three brothers: Frank Gates Wallace, (4 March 1887 - 12 August 1960), George Porterfield Wallace, (1 May 1892 - 24 May 1963), David Frederick Wallace, (7 January 1900 - 30 September 1957).[1]

Harry Truman met Bess soon after his family moved to Independence, and the two attended school together until graduation.[2]

After graduating from William Chrisman High School (then known as Independence High School) she studied at Miss Barstow's Finishing School for Girls in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1903 her father got up very early one morning, climbed into the family bathtub and committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. According to biographer David McCullough, the cause for his suicide is unknown, with speculation ranging from depression to mounting debts.[3][4][5]

Bess and Harry Truman married in 1919.[6]

First Lady of the United States[edit]

Bess found the White House's lack of privacy distasteful. As her husband put it later, she was "not especially interested" in the "formalities and pomp or the artificiality which, as we had learned..., inevitably surround the family of the President Harry Truman." Though she steadfastly fulfilled the social obligations of her position, she did only what she thought was necessary. When the White House was rebuilt during Truman's second term, the family lived in Blair House and kept their social life to a minimum. In most years of her husband's presidency Mrs. Truman was not regularly present in Washington other than during the social season when her presence was expected.[7] The contrast with Bess's activist predecessor Eleanor Roosevelt was considerable. Unlike her, Bess held only one press conference after many requests from the media.[8] The press conference consisted of written questions in advance and the written replies were mostly monosyllabic along with many no comments.[9] Bess's response to whether she wanted her daughter Margaret to become President was "most definitely not." Her reply to what she wanted to do after her husband left office was "return to Independence".[10]

Death and longevity[edit]

In 1953 the Trumans went back to Independence and the family home at 219 North Delaware Street, where the former president worked on building his library and writing his memoirs. Bess fully recovered following a 1959 mastectomy in which doctors removed a large, but benign, tumor.[11]

When President Lyndon Johnson signed Medicare into law in 1965, the Trumans were the first to be given its benefits.[12]

At the time of her husband's death in 1972 at age 88, she was 87 making them the oldest couple having occupied the White House at that time. Bess agreed to be the honorary chairman for the reelection campaign of Sen. Thomas Eagleton (D-Missouri).[13]

Bess continued to live quietly in Independence for the last decade of her life, being visited by her daughter and grandchildren. She died October 18, 1982, from congestive heart failure at the age of 97; a private funeral service was held October 21, afterwards she was buried beside her husband in the courtyard of the Harry S. Truman Library.[14]

She remains the longest lived First Lady in United States history.[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Brinkley, Alan (1 January 2012). e-Study Guide for: American History : Survey, Volume II. Cram101. p. 354. ISBN 978-1-4672-9686-1. 
  2. ^ Klapthor, Margaret Brown (1 October 2002). The First Ladies. Government Printing Office. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-912308-83-8. 
  3. ^ American Experience: Truman PBS. 1997. Episode 1 of 2.
  4. ^ "24,000 Pages of Bess Truman’s Family Papers Are Released". The New York Times/The Associated Press. February 14, 2009.
  5. ^ "Bess Truman". Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to American Presidents. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
  6. ^ Margolies, Daniel S. (30 July 2012). A Companion to Harry S. Truman. John Wiley & Sons. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-118-30075-6. 
  7. ^ Christensen, Lawrence O.; Foley, William E.; Kremer, Gary (October 1999). Dictionary of Missouri Biography. University of Missouri Press. p. 752. ISBN 978-0-8262-6016-1. 
  8. ^ Watson, Robert P. (2000). The Presidents' Wives: Reassessing the Office of First Lady. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-55587-948-8. 
  9. ^ Burnes, Brian (1 November 2003). Harry S. Truman: His Life and Times. Kansas City Star Books. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-9740009-3-0. 
  10. ^ Wertheimer, Molly Meijer (1 January 2004). Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-7425-2971-7. 
  11. ^ Neal, Steve (2004). Eleanor and Harry: The Correspondence of Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. Kensington Publishing Corporation. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-8065-2561-7. 
  12. ^ "President Johnson signs Medicare Bill on July 30, 1865". Politico. Retrieved December 15, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Algeo, Matthew (1 May 2009). Harry Truman's Excellent Adventure: The True Story of a Great American Road Trip. Chicago Review Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-56976-251-6. 
  14. ^ "Bess Truman Buried - October 22, 1982". The Gettysburg Times. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Ilo Wallace
Second Lady of the United States
1945
Succeeded by
Jane Barkley
Preceded by
Eleanor Roosevelt
First Lady of the United States
1945–1953
Succeeded by
Mamie Eisenhower