Bess of Hardwick
Elizabeth Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury (c. 1521 – 13 February 1608), known as Bess of Hardwick, a notable figure of 16th century Elizabethan English society. By a series of well-made marriages, she rose to the highest levels of English nobility and became enormously wealthy. She was married four times, firstly to Robert Barlow, who died in his teens in December 1535; secondly to the courtier Sir William Cavendish; thirdly to Sir William St Loe; and lastly to George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, sometime keeper to the captive Mary, Queen of Scots. An accomplished needlewoman, Bess joined her husband's captive charge, Queen Mary Stuart, at Chatsworth House for extended periods in 1569, 1570, and 1571, during which time they worked together on the Oxburgh Hangings.
In 1601, Bess ordered an inventory of the household furnishings including textiles at her three properties at Chatsworth, Hardwick and Chelsea, which survives, and in her will she bequeathed these items to her heirs to be preserved in perpetuity. The 400-year-old collection, now known as the Hardwick Hall textiles, is the largest collection of tapestry, embroidery, canvaswork, and other textiles to have been preserved by a single private family. Bess is also well known for her building projects, the most famous of which are: Chatsworth, now the seat of the Dukes of Devonshire (whose family name is still "Cavendish", because they are descended from the children of her second marriage), and Hardwick Hall, which inspired the rhyme, "Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall", because of the number and size of its windows.
Elizabeth Hardwick was the daughter of John Hardwick of Derbyshire by his wife Elizabeth Leeke, daughter of Thomas Leeke and Margaret Fox. Although Richardson suggests she was born c. 1521, the exact year of her birth is unknown, and others place it as late as 1527. The family lived on an estate of about 5,000 acres (20 km2) in the parish of Ault Hucknall on the north-east border of Derbyshire, looking over Nottinghamshire. The arms of Hardwick of Hardwick were: Argent, a saltire engrailed azure on a chief of the second three cinquefoils of the first.
John Hardwick died aged about forty leaving a widow, son (and heir), and four daughters. His widow, Elizabeth Leeke then re-married to the son of the neighbouring Leche ( or Leach) family of Chatsworth, in Derbyshire. Little is known of Bess' early life. She appears to have been espoused to her first husband during the 1530s and married for the first time in 1543. There is no contemporary evidence whatsoever to support claims that she became familiar with city life and the Tudor Court after being sent to live, aged twelve, in the London household of Anne Gainsford, Lady Zouche of Codnor Castle in Derbyshire. Here supposedly she was influenced by Lady Zouche, although evidence connecting her with the Zouche family dates from the late seventeenth century and not before. Despite a lack of evidence, it is possible that at some point, perhaps after the death of her first husband, she entered the service of the Zouches at Codnor Castle in Derbyshire and from there entered the service of The Greys at Bradgate in Leicestershire where she met and married her second husband, Sir William Cavendish.
Bess's four marriages
Bess, then assumed to be aged 15, married 13 year-old Robert Barley, heir to a neighbouring estate, late May 1543. The exact date is unknown. It is likely that she had been espoused to Robert some years before the marriage took place. There is no evidence that they lived together as man and wife. Robert died in December 1544. There was no issue from the marriage which had been arranged locally, probably to mitigate the impact of wardship on the Barley estate. The traditional story that they met in London while in the service of Lady Zouche is a myth. Although it is believed that Bess nursed Robert through sickness at around the time the marriage was arranged. Following Roberts death, Bess was refused her Dowager rights and a court battle ensued which resulted in Bess being awarded her rightful claim on the estate and compensation, albeit several years after Roberts death.
On 20 August 1547, Bess married the twice-widowed Sir William Cavendish (died 1557), Treasurer of the King's Chamber, and became Lady Cavendish. The wedding took place at two o'clock in the morning, at the home of the Grey family, friends of the couple. Sir William was more than twice Bess's age and the father of two daughters. His fortune had been made following the Dissolution of the Monasteries since as an official of the Court of Augmentations he was able to select choice properties for himself. Possibly acting on Bess's advice, Sir William sold his lands in the south of England and bought the Chatsworth estates in her home county of Derbyshire. Sir William Cavendish died on 25 October 1557, leaving Bess widowed a second time. Upon his death, Bess claimed the sum of his property, having insisted that his land be settled on their heirs. Eight children were born of the marriage, two of whom died in infancy:
- Frances Cavendish (18 June 1548 - January 1632), eldest child, wife of Sir Henry Pierrepont, MP. Their children were as follows:
- Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull who married Gertrude Talbot. They had five sons including Henry Pierrepont, 1st Marquess of Dorchester and William Pierrepoint, MP. Robert was also the forbear of the Dukes of Kingston-upon-Hull, extinct since 1773. Also part of this family are the Earls Manvers, extinct in 1955.
- Elizabeth Pierrepont married Sir Thomas Erskine, 1st Earl of Kellie, forbear of the Earls of Kellie. The title of Earl of Kellie is extant.
- Grace Pierrepont married Sir George Manners. They had four children, including John Manners, 8th Earl of Rutland.
- Temperance Cavendish (10 June 1549 – 1550), 2nd child, died in infancy.
- Henry Cavendish (17 December 1550 – 28 October 1616), 3rd child, a godson of Queen Elizabeth I. He married Grace Talbot. An illegitimate son, Henry Cavendish, is the forbear of the Barons Waterpark. The title of Baron Waterpark is extant. He left several further illegitimate issue.
- William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire (27 December 1552 – 3 March 1626), 4th child, forebear of the extant Dukes of Devonshire.
- Charles Cavendish (28 November 1553 – 4 April 1617), 5th child, a godson of Queen Mary I. He married Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle. Their son was William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, forbear of the Dukes of Newcastle, extinct since 1988. The title Earl of Lincoln is extant, due to a very distant relative. The Barony of Ogle is in abeyance, as more than one person has a legal right to claim the title. Also of this family line is the Earl of Portland, whose titles are extant.
- Elizabeth Cavendish (31 March 1555 – 21 January 1582), 6th child, wife of Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox. Their daughter, Lady Arbella Stuart, 2nd Countess of Lennox, married William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, an extant title.
- Mary Cavendish (January 1556 - April 1632), 7th child, wife of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury. They had five children including:
- Lady Alatheia (or Alethea) Talbot, who married Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Norfolk. The title of Duke of Norfolk is extant.
- Mary Talbot who married William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke. The title Earl of Pembroke is extant.
- Elizabeth Talbot married Henry Grey, 8th Earl of Kent. The title Earl of Kent from the Grey family has been extinct since 1740.
- Lucrece Cavendish (born and died 1556), eighth child, probably the twin of Mary.
In 1559, Bess married a third time, to Sir William St Loe (1518–1565) (alias St Lowe, Saintlowe, Sentloe, etc.) and became Lady St Loe. Her new husband was Captain of the Guard to Elizabeth I and Chief Butler of England. He owned large West Country estates at Tormarton in Gloucestershire and Chew Magna in Somerset, while his principal residence was at Sutton Court in Stowey. When he died without male issue in 1564/5, in suspicious circumstances (probably poisoned by his younger brother), he left everything to Bess, to the detriment of his daughters and brother. In addition to her own six surviving children, Bess was now responsible for the two daughters of Sir William Cavendish from his first marriage. However, those two daughters were already adults and otherwise well provided for.
Sir William St. Loe's death left Bess one of the wealthiest women in England. Her annual income was calculated to amount to £60,000, (£15.9 million as of 2014). Further, she was a Lady of the Bedchamber with daily access to the Queen, whose favour she enjoyed. Still in her late 30s, Bess retained her looks and good health, and a number of important men began courting her.
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Despite being courted by several suitors, Bess did not remarry until 1568, when she married for the fourth time to become Countess of Shrewsbury. Her new husband, George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, was one of the premier aristocrats of the realm, and the father of seven children by his first marriage. Indeed, two of his children were married to two of hers in a double ceremony in February 1568: Bess's daughter Mary Cavendish, aged 12, was given in marriage to Shrewsbury's eldest son Gilbert, aged 16; while Bess's son, Sir Henry Cavendish, aged 18, married Shrewsbury's daughter Lady Grace Talbot, aged 8.
In the year before Bess and the Earl of Shrewsbury were married, a political disturbance arose in Scotland to the north, which would profoundly affect their lives. Rebel Scottish lords rose up against their queen, Mary I, known as Mary, Queen of Scots, imprisoned her and forced her to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old infant son, James. In May 1568, Mary escaped captivity in Scotland, and fled south towards England, seeking the protection of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth. However, the English authorities were not sure how to receive her. On 18 May, she was taken into protective custody at Carlisle Castle by local officials.
Queen Elizabeth felt an obligation to host and protect Mary, her cousin, against the rebellious Scottish lords. However, due to Queen Mary's persistent claim to the English throne, Queen Elizabeth also regarded her as a threat. Elizabeth had Mary moved to Bolton Castle in Yorkshire, where she was lodged under the guard of Francis Knollys, pending the York Conference inquiry, regarding Mary's fate. The inquiry results were inconclusive; yet Elizabeth did not set Mary free. Instead, Mary would be detained under the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and his wife Bess. Elizabeth's instruction to Bess and her husband amounted to little more than Mary's house arrest. Mary reached her new residence, Tutbury Castle, in February 1569, when she was 26 years old, and would remain in the custody of Shrewsbury and Bess for 15 years. Elizabeth shifted the burden of the imprisonment costs to Shrewsbury. Her presence in their home, as well as the financial costs and political tensions, may have contributed to the rift between Shrewsbury and Bess, which would lead eventually to the breakup of their marriage.
While in the care of the Earl and Countess, Queen Mary lived at one or another of their many houses in the Midlands: Tutbury, Wingfield, Chatsworth and Sheffield. Throughout this period, Bess spent time as Mary's companion, working together on embroidery and textile projects. Indeed, all Mary's work would become part of Bess's historical collection at Hardwick Hall.
It was not until Mary was removed to another keeper, Sir Amias Paulet, that she got into the trouble that would lead ultimately to her execution. Previous to the Queen's change in custody, Shrewsbury and Bess separated for good. They had been apart, off and on, since about 1580; and even Queen Elizabeth had tried to get them to reconcile. Mary seems to have aggravated, if not created, their problems by playing them off against each other. The Countess spread rumors that her husband Shrewsbury had been in a relationship with Mary, a charge which has never been proved or disproved, but seems unlikely given Shrewsbury's disposition and increasingly poor health. On his death in 1590, Bess became Dowager Countess of Shrewsbury.
The Stuart connection
In 1574 Bess arranged a marriage between one of her daughters and the son of the Countess of Lennox. This was a significant match for Bess because the Countess of Lennox was Margaret Douglas, a member of the royal family, being the daughter of Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland and sister of Henry VIII, and therefore, also being Queen Elizabeth's first cousin. In this match, the bride was Bess's daughter, Elizabeth Cavendish, and the groom was Charles Stuart who was, himself, also, the first cousin of Mary, Queen of Scots, (also through their grandmother, the same, Margaret Tudor). The groom was also the younger brother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley who had been married to Queen Mary Stuart, until his death. This marriage, therefore, enabled a claim to the throne for any of Bess's grandchildren born of the marriage. The marriage ceremony took place without the knowledge of Shrewsbury, who, though well aware of the suggested match some time prior to this event, declined to accept any responsibility. Due to the Lennox family's claim to the throne, the marriage was considered potentially treasonable since Queen Elizabeth's consent had not been obtained. The Countess of Lennox, mother of the bridegroom, went to the Tower for several months, and Bess was ordered to London to face an official inquiry, but she ignored the summons, and remained in Sheffield until the row died down. The child of the marriage was Arbella Stuart, who had a claim to the thrones of Scotland and England, being the second cousin to King James VI of Scotland (and who later became King James I of England), through their great grandmother, Margaret Tudor.
Arbella was at times invited to Elizabeth's court, but spent most of her time with her grandmother away from it. A BBC documentary  showed that Bess very much desired Arbella to become Queen, even imprisoning the young lady to prevent her from eloping. Arbella blamed her grandmother for this, and the two fell out irrevocably when Arbella attempted to run away and marry a man who also had a claim to the throne. Bess cut Arbella from her will and begged the Queen to take her granddaughter off her hands. Arbella's royal claim was never recognized but Bess eventually ended up with a descendant on the throne: Queen Elizabeth II.
Death & burial
Bess of Hardwick died on 13 February 1608, having reached, and possibly exceeded, the age of 80. She was interred in a vault in Derby Cathedral, also known as All Saints Cathedral, where there is a memorial to her.
Bess is the main character in Venus in Winter by Gillian Bagwell (July 2, 2013).
Title character of A Woman of Passion by Virginia Henley.
She also features prominently in the book The Captive Queen of Scots by Jean Plaidy,
|Ancestors of Bess of Hardwick|
- Richardson, Douglas; Everingham, Kimball G. Plantagenet ancestry: a study in colonial and medieval families, Genealogical Publishing Com, 2004. pg 379.
- Digby, Elizabethan Embroidery, p. 58-63
- Levey, Of Household Stuff, p.10-11; Levey, An Elizabethan Inheritance, p. 20-39 passim
- Royal Institute of British Architects
- Burke's General Armory, 1884
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.355, Duke of Devonshire
- Genealogy Database by Daniel de Rauglaudre (retrieved 23 December 2012).
- Girouard, Mark; The National Trust of England and Wales, David Durant (1989). Hardwick Hall guidebook. The National Trust of England and Wales. ISBN 978-1-84359-217-4.
- Burke's General Armory, 1884
- Mary S. Lovell: Bess of Hardwick, pp185-186
- UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2013), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.1015, E. of Shrewsbury & Waterford
- Bess of Hardwick Empire Builder 2005 Mary S. Lovell p 210.
- Roderick Graham The life of Mary Queen of Scots 2009 pp 314-316
- E. Carleton Williams, Bess of Hardwick pp 74-80
- Lovell, 2005, pp 220-221
- "BBC Documentary Site".
- Jamison, Catherine; Batho, G. R. (1971). A Calendar of the Talbot Papers in the College of Arms. London: Derbyshire Archaeology Society / HMC /HMSO. OCLC 535572.
- Bill, E. G. W (1966). A Calendar of the Shrewsbury Papers in Lambeth Palace Library. London: Derbyshire Archaeology Society / HMC/ HMSO.
- Costello, Louisa Stuart (1844). Memoirs of Eminent Englishwomen, Vol. 1. "Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury". London: Richard Bentley.
- Digby, George Wingfield (1964). Elizabethan Embroidery. New York: Thomas Yoseloff.
- Durant, David N. (1977). Bess of Hardwick: Portrait of an Elizabethan Dynasty. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-77305-4.
- Durant, David N. (1977). Bess of Hardwick: Portrait of an Elizabethan Dynasty (American Edition ed.). New York: Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-10835-4.
- Eisenberg, Elizabeth (1985). This Costly Countess: Bess of Hardwick. Derby: Hall. ISBN 0-946404-95-X.
- Hubbard, Kate (2001). Material Girl: Bess of Hardwick: 1527–1608. London: Short Books. ISBN 0-571-20800-2.
- Kettle, Pamela (2000). Oldcotes: The Last Mansion Built by Bess of Hardwick. Cardiff: Merton Priory Press. ISBN 1-898937-39-7.
- Levey, Santina; Peter Thornton (2001). Of Houshold Stuff: The 1601 Inventory of Bess of Hardwick. London: National Trust. ISBN 0-7078-0329-2.
- Levey, Santina (1998). An Elizabethan Inheritance: The Hardwick Hall Textiles. London: National Trust. ISBN 1-905400-21-7.
- Lovell, Mary S. (2006). Bess of Hardwick: First Lady of Chatsworth: 1527–1608 (American ed.). New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-06221-X.
- Lovell, Mary S. (2005). Bess of Hardwick: First Lady of Chatsworth: 1527–1608 (British ed.). London: Little-Brown. ISBN 0-316-72482-3.
- Pearson, John (1984). The Serpent and the Stag. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-055431-5.
- Plowden, Alison (1972). Mistress of Hardwick. London: BBC. ISBN 0-563-10664-6.
- Rowse, A.L. (1983). Eminent Elizabethans. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press.
- Westcott, Jan (1974). The Tower and the Dream. New York.: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-11128-X. [Biographical fiction]
- Williams, Ethel Carleton (1977). Bess of Hardwick. Bath: Chivers. ISBN 0-85997-238-0.[Biography]
- Bess of Hardwick's Letters: The Complete Correspondence, c.1550–1608, ed. by Alison Wiggins, Alan Bryson, Daniel Starza Smith, Anke Timmermann and Graham Williams, University of Glasgow, web development by Katherine Rogers, University of Sheffield Humanities Research Institute (April 2013)