Beta-synuclein

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Synuclein, beta
Identifiers
Symbol SNCB
External IDs OMIM602569 MGI1889011 HomoloGene2320 GeneCards: SNCB Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SNCB 207853 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6620 104069
Ensembl ENSG00000074317 ENSMUSG00000034891
UniProt Q16143 Q91ZZ3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001001502 NM_033610
RefSeq (protein) NP_001001502 NP_291088
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
176.05 – 176.06 Mb
Chr 13:
54.76 – 54.77 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Beta-synuclein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNCB gene.[1][2][3]

The protein encoded by this gene is highly homologous to alpha-synuclein. These proteins are abundantly expressed in the brain and putatively inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. The encoded protein, which may play a role in neuronal plasticity, is abundant in neurofibrillary lesions of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This protein has been shown to be highly expressed in the substantia nigra of the brain, a region of neuronal degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease; however, no direct relation to Parkinson's disease has been established. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[3]

Beta-synuclein is a synuclein protein found primarily in brain tissue and is seen mainly in presynaptic terminals. Beta-synuclein is predominantly expressed in the neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. It is not found in Lewy bodies, but it is associated with hippocampal pathology in PD and DLB.[4]

Beta-synuclein is suggested to be an inhibitor of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which occurs in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, beta-synuclein may protect the central nervous system from the neurotoxic effects of alpha-synuclein and provide a novel treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.[5][6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spillantini MG, Divane A, Goedert M (Nov 1995). "Assignment of human alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and beta-synuclein (SNCB) genes to chromosomes 4q21 and 5q35". Genomics 27 (2): 379–81. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1063. PMID 7558013. 
  2. ^ Lavedan C, Leroy E, Torres R, Dehejia A, Dutra A, Buchholtz S, Nussbaum RL, Polymeropoulos MH (Jan 1999). "Genomic organization and expression of the human beta-synuclein gene (SNCB)". Genomics 54 (1): 173–5. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5556. PMID 9806846. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: SNCB synuclein, beta". 
  4. ^ George, JM (2002). "The synucleins". Genome Biology 3 (1): REVIEWS3002. doi:10.1186/gb-2001-3-1-reviews3002. PMC 150459. PMID 11806835. 
  5. ^ Hashimoto, M; Bar-On, P; Ho, G; Takenouchi, T; Rockenstein, E; Crews, L; Masliah, E (2004). "Beta-synuclein regulates Akt activity in neuronal cells. A possible mechanism for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (22): 23622–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M313784200. PMID 15026413. 
  6. ^ Hashimoto, M; Rockenstein, E; Mante, M; Mallory, M; Masliah, E (2001). "beta-Synuclein inhibits alpha-synuclein aggregation: a possible role as an anti-parkinsonian factor". Neuron 32 (2): 213–23. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00462-7. PMID 11683992. 

Further reading[edit]