Beta Carinae

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Beta Carinae
Location of Beta Carinae (circled)
Cercle rouge 100%.svg

Location of Beta Carinae
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Carina
Right ascension 09h 13m 11.97746s[1]
Declination –69° 43′ 01.9473″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 1.68[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type A1III[3]
U−B color index +0.03[2]
B−V color index +0.00[2]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) –5.2[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: –156.47[1] mas/yr
Dec.: +108.95[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 28.82 ± 0.11[1] mas
Distance 113.2 ± 0.4 ly
(34.7 ± 0.1 pc)
Details
Mass 3.5[5] M
Radius 6.8[5] R
Luminosity 288[5] L
Surface gravity (log g) 3.16[3] cgs
Temperature 8,866[3] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] –0.36[3] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 145.7 ± 2.2[6] km/s
Age 260[7] Myr
Other designations
Miaplacidus, GCTP 2213.00, CD−69 600, FK5 348, Gl 339.2, HD 80007, HIP 45238, HR 3685, SAO 250495.[8]

Beta Carinae (β Car, β Carinae) is the second brightest star in the constellation Carina and one of the brightest stars in the night sky, with apparent magnitude 1.68.[5] It is the brightest star in the south polar asterism known as the Diamond Cross, marking the southwestern end of the asterism. Beta Carinae also has the traditional name Miaplacidus, meaning "placid waters". It lies near the planetary nebula, IC 2448. Parallax measurements place it at a distance of 113.2 light-years (34.7 parsecs) from Earth.[1]

Beta Carinae's traditional name Miaplacidus made its debut on star maps in 1856 when the star atlas Geography of the Heavens, composed by Elijah Hinsdale Burritt, was published. The meaning and linguistic origin of the name remained an enigma for many decades, until William Higgins, a great scholar and expert on star names, surmised that the name Miaplacidus is apparently a bilingual combination of Arabic مياه miyāh for "waters" and Latin placidus for "placid".

In Chinese, 南船 (Nán Chuán), meaning Southern Boat, refers to an asterism consisting of β Carinae, V337 Carinae, PP Carinae, θ Carinae and ω Carinae .[9] Consequently, β Carinae itself is known as 南船五 (Nán Chuán wǔ, English: the Fifth Star of Southern Boat.)[10]

The stellar classification of A1 III–[3] suggests this is an evolved giant star, although Malagnini and Morossi (1990) rated it as an A2 IV subgiant star.[5] It has an estimated age of 260 million years.[7] This star does not show an excess emission of infrared radiation that might otherwise suggest the presence of a debris disk.[7] It has about 3.5 times the Sun's mass and has expanded to almost seven times the radius of the Sun.[5] Presently is it radiating 288 times as much luminosity as the Sun[5] from its outer envelope at an effective temperature of 8,866 K.[3] Despite its enlarged girth, this star still shows a rapid rotation rate, with a projected rotational velocity of 146 km s–1.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f van Leeuwen, Floor (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752v1, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357  Note: see VizieR catalogue I/311.
  2. ^ a b c Johnson, H. L. et al. (1966), "UBVRIJKL photometry of the bright stars", Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory 4 (99), Bibcode:1966CoLPL...4...99J 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Gray, R. O. et al. (July 2006), "Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: spectroscopy of stars earlier than M0 within 40 pc-The Southern Sample", The Astronomical Journal 132 (1): 161–170, arXiv:astro-ph/0603770, Bibcode:2006AJ....132..161G, doi:10.1086/504637 
  4. ^ Wielen, R. et al. (1999), Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions (35), Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Bibcode:1999VeARI..35....1W 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Malagnini, M. L.; Morossi, C. (November 1990), "Accurate absolute luminosities, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities for a selected sample of field stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 85 (3): 1015–1019, Bibcode:1990A&AS...85.1015M 
  6. ^ a b Díaz, C. G. et al. (July 2011), "Accurate stellar rotational velocities using the Fourier transform of the cross correlation maximum", Astronomy & Astrophysics 531: A143, arXiv:1012.4858, Bibcode:2011A&A...531A.143D, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201016386 
  7. ^ a b c Su, K. Y. L. et al. (December 2006), "Debris Disk Evolution around A Stars", The Astrophysical Journal 653 (1): 675–689, arXiv:astro-ph/0608563, Bibcode:2006ApJ...653..675S, doi:10.1086/508649 
  8. ^ "HD 80007 -- High proper-motion Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Retrieved 2005-11-05. 
  9. ^ (Chinese) 中國星座神話, written by 陳久金. Published by 台灣書房出版有限公司, 2005, ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7.
  10. ^ (Chinese) 香港太空館 - 研究資源 - 亮星中英對照表, Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.