Bezhetsky District

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Bezhetsky District
Бежецкий район (Russian)
Tver-oblast-Bezhetsk.png
Location of Bezhetsky District in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 57°47′N 36°42′E / 57.783°N 36.700°E / 57.783; 36.700Coordinates: 57°47′N 36°42′E / 57.783°N 36.700°E / 57.783; 36.700
Flag of Bezhetsky rayon (Tver oblast).png
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2012)
Administrative center town of Bezhetsk[1]
Administrative divisions:[citation needed]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 13
Inhabited localities:[citation needed]
Cities/towns 1
Rural localities 400
Municipal structure (as of July 2009)
Municipally incorporated as Bezhetsky Municipal District[2]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 13
Statistics
Area 2,810 km2 (1,080 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 36,701 inhabitants[5]
- Urban 66.8%
- Rural 33.2%
Density 13.06/km2 (33.8/sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Official website
Bezhetsky District on WikiCommons

Bezhetsky District (Russian: Бе́жецкий райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast and borders with Molokovsky District in the north, Krasnokholmsky District in the northwest, Sonkovsky and Kesovogorsky Districts in the east, Kashinsky District in the southeast, Rameshkovsky District in the south, and with Maksatikhinsky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,810 square kilometers (1,080 sq mi).[4] Its administrative center is the town of Bezhetsk.[1] Population: 36,701 (2010 Census);[5] 14,277 (2002 Census);[8] 18,786 (1989 Census).[9] The population of Bezhetsk accounts for 66.8% of the district's total population.[5]

Geography[edit]

The whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Volga River, and much of the area belongs to the basin of the Mologa. The Mologa flows through the district, entering it from the west and turning north. The town of Bezhetsk, the district center, is located on the banks of the Mologa. The proncipal tributary of the Mologa within the district, the Osen (right), is rather short, but its drainage basin covers the whole eastern part of the district. The Tifina, a tributary of the Volchina, a major left tributary of the Mologa, has its source in the southwestern corner of the district. Minor areas in the southeast of the district belong to the basin of the Kashinka River, a tributary of the Volga. The rivers in the southern part of the district drain into the Drezna River, a left tributary of the Medveditsa River.

History[edit]

Bezhetsk area was first mentioned in chronicles in 1137. At the time, it was a part of the Novgorod Republic. Later, the area, known as Bezhetsky Verkh, became disputed between Novgorod, Tver, and Moscow, and eventually in the 15th century firmly became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The center of Bezhetsky Verkh was Bezhichi, which were destroyed in the end of the 13th century, and then the center was transferred to Gorodetsk (Gorodetsko), currently known as Bezhetsk. Since 1433, Bezhetsk had its own prince, who was subordinate to the Grand Prince of Moscow.[10]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate), but in 1727 it was transferred to Moscow Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates. In 1776, Gorodetsk was renamed Bezhetsk and was made the center of Bezhetsky Uyezd.[10] In 1796, Tver Viceroyalty was transformed into Tver Governorate. Bezhetsk remained the center of the uyezd until 1929.[11]

On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Bezhetsky District, with the administrative center in the town of Bezhetsk, was established within Bezhetsk Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Bezhetsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[11] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

On January 29, 1935 Tebleshsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Kiverichi was established as a part of Kalinin Oblast. On July 4, 1956 it was abolished and split between Bezhetsky and Goritsky Districts.[11]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

There are enterprises of timber, textile, and food industries, as well as a plant producing air compressors, all located in Bezhetsk.[12]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specializations of the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production, as well as growing of potatoes, flax, and vegetables.[13]

Transportation[edit]

Bezhetsk railway station.

A railway connecting Rybinsk and Bologoye via Sonkovo crosses the district from east to west. The most important railway station within the district is Bezhetsk.

Bezhetsk is located on the road connecting Tver and Vesyegonsk, which crosses the district from south to north. It is also connected by roads with Sonkovo, Kesova Gora, and Maksatikha. There are local roads as well, with bus traffic originating from Bezhetsk.

None of the rives within the district are navigable.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The bell-tower of the Church of the Presentation of Mary, Bezhetsk.

The district contains twenty-two cultural heritage monuments of federal significance (seven of them in the town of Bezhetsk) and additionally sixty objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance (twenty-four of them in Bezhetsk). The federal monuments include trade arcades and the Church of the Presentation of Mary in Bezhetsk, a number of (mostly 18th century) churches in the villages, as well as a number of archeological sites.[14]

There are two museums in the district. The Bezhetsk District and Literature Museum, located in Bezhetsk, shows expositions about the author Vyacheslav Shishkov and the musucian Vasily Andreyev, who were both born in Bezhetsk.[15] The House of Poets museum in the selo of Gradnitsy highlights the biography of Anna Akhmatova, one of the most celebrated Russian poets. The building was originally located in the village of Slepnyovo and belonged to the mother of the poet Nikolay Gumilev, who was married to Akhmatova between 1910 and 1918. Akhmatova, Gumilev, and their son, Lev Gumilev, we spending considerable periods of time in the house in the 1910s. In 1918 the house was sold and eventually moved to Gradnitsy. The museum was open in 1989, after serving for many years as a school.[16]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 204», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 204, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b Law #4-ZO
  3. ^ Law #18-ZO
  4. ^ a b Паспорт городского поселения - г. Бежецк и Бежецкого района (in Russian). Государственная административно-техническая инспекция. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Краткий исторический обзор (in Russian). Bezhetsky District administration. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  12. ^ Бежецкий район (in Russian). Законодательное собрание Тверской Области. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  13. ^ Показатели социально-экономического развития муниципального образования "Бежецкий район" Тверской области (in Russian). Администрация Бежецкого района. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  14. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  15. ^ Бежецкий литературно-мемориальный и краеведческий музей (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  16. ^ Музейно-литературный центр "Дом поэтов" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №18-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Бежецкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №55-ЗО от 13 июля 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение №1 к Закону Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Бежецкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #18-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Bezhetsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #55-ZO of July 13, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Bezhetsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).