Bhadrakali

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For the village in Nepal, see Bhadrakali, Nepal. For the 1976 film, see Bhadrakali (film).
Bhadrakālī (Good Kali, Mahamaya Kali)
Goddess Bhadrakali Worshipped by the Gods- from a tantric Devi series - Google Art Project.jpg
Bhadrakali worshipped by the Trimurti – the male Trinity in the North Indian Basohli style.
Devanagari भद्र कालि
Sanskrit Transliteration भद्र कालि
Tamil script பத்ர காளி
Malayalam ഭദ്രകാളി
Affiliation Devi
Mantra oṁ glauṁ bhadrakālyai namaḥ
Consort Virabhadra
Region Southern India

Bhadrakālī (Sanskrit: भद्रकाली, Tamil: பத்ரகாளி, Telugu: భద్రకాళి, Malayalam: ഭദ്രകാളി, Kannada: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ, Kodava: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ) (literally "Good Kali,")[1] is a Hindu goddess popular in Southern India. She is one of the fierce forms of the Great Goddess (Devi) mentioned in the Devi Mahatmyam. Bhadrakali is the popular form of Devi worshipped in Kerala as Sri Bhadrakali and Kariam Kali Murti Devi. In Kerala she is seen as the auspicious and fortunate form of Kali who protects the good. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity that was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. She is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. Her worship is also associated with the Tantric tradition of the Matrikas as well as the tradition of the ten Mahavidyas and falls under the broader umbrella of Shaktism.

Etymology[edit]

In Sanskrit, Bhadra means good.[1] A major religious interpretation of this name is that Bhadra comes from 'Bha' and 'dra', The letter 'Bha' means 'delusion' or 'Maya' in Devanagiri and 'dra' is used as a superlative i.e. meaning 'the most/the greatest e.t.c' which makes the meaning of Bhadra as Maha Maya.[2][3] The Sanskrit word 'Bhadra Kali' therefore can be translated to Hindi as 'Mahamaya Kali'.

Origins[edit]

There are at least three traditional versions regarding the origin-incarnations or avatar of Bhadrakali. The first version is from Devi Mahatmyam and basically a part of Shaktism, and it was during the battle between Raktabija and Shakti, according to this tradition. The second is associated with the Daksha and Dakshayaga, from the more Shaivism related tradition, and glimpses of this version can be seen in some Puranas. The third and the equally most famous one is her divine birth as the daughter of Shiva to liberate the world from demon Daruka.

According to the Vayu Purana and the Mahabharata, Bhadrakali came into being by Devi's wrath, when Daksha insulted Shiva, during the great Ashvamedha Yagna (horse sacrifice).[4][5]

According to Tantra Rahasya, she arose from the North (Uttaramnaya) face (Amnayas) of Shiva, which is blue in color and with three eyes.[6]

Various traditions and forms of worship[edit]

According to her Keralan devotees, the events described in the Markandeya Purana associated with Bhadrakali (her slaying of the demon Daruka to liberate the universe from the evil) took place in Kerala, near Madayi in the Kannur District.[7] Bhadrakali temples in Kerala commemorate this event during traditional festivals and Bhadrakali is worshipped as the daughter of Lord Shiva, from whose third eye she sprung to defeat the demon. According to the Markandeya Purana, her worship purifies the devotee and grants liberation from the cycle of birth and death.[8] She is seen to protect the honour of women and to bestow all spiritual knowledge. In Kerala, she called Virabhadra her "brother" and refused to be treated by him when she was attacked by the deity Vasoorimala, who had marked her face with smallpox. She said that a brother must not touch the face of his sister. Thus, mild pockmarks are sometimes visible on her face in some Keralan depictions of her.[4][9]

Among the people of the neighboring states, especially in Tamil Nadu, this form of Shakti is known as 'Malayala Bhagavathy' or 'Malayala Bhadrakali', who provides protection to her devotees irrespective of caste and religion.

In Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and the Southern Travancore area of Kerala, especially in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, the Tamil, Kannada and Telugu speaking communities worship a form of Mahakali as 'Ujjaini Mahakali', and they consider Emperor Vikramaditya as their first teacher in this spiritual tradition as having established the tradition in the South.

In other parts of India, the Tantric name 'Kali' or 'Mahakali' is generally more popular as the consort of Shiva in his form of Rudra or Mahakala, and Bhadrakali is identified as Durga's daughter who helped her during the battle with Raktabija. Other sources state that she is the sister of Virabhadra, who was himself born of the wrath of Shiva as Rudra, and that she is the consort of a form of Mahakala or Bhairava. The deeply Tantric-influenced traditions mostly consider 'Kali' as the consort of Shiva.

Goddess Bhadrakali, gouache on paper (ca. 1660–70)

Martial arts and Bhadrakali[edit]

It is believed Bhadrakali protects the practitioners of Kalarippayattu, a traditional martial arts form. In Malabar, it is believed that all the victories of Thacholi Othenan and other martial artists were due to the blessings of Bhadrakali of the Lokanarkavu Temple, also known as 'The Shaolin Temple of Malayalees'. Most traditional villages in Kerala have their own Kalari, the ancient martial arts schools and local temples dedicated to Bhadrakali associated with them. Among Tamils, Bhadrakali is equally important as the patron deity of traditional martial arts and a guardian of all law abiding citizens.

Family deity of communities[edit]

Some communities, like the Kodavas and Nairs, worship this deity as family deity. They worship certain weapons at their temples which they believe to be the weapons used by the goddess.the Kuladevata or community deity of Kudumbicommunity is Kodungallur amma,the mother goddess of kodungallur.Kodungallur Bhagavathy Templeis one of the most famous temples in kerala, dediated to bhadrakali.during the 'thalappoli' festival,which is celebrated mainly on Makar Sankranti,kudumbi people from all over the state(especially south kerala) comes to the temple. Bhadrakali is also the tutelary deity of the Nadar community of Tamil Nadu.[10]


Kalidasa and Vikramaditya[edit]

According to legends, the famous Indian Sanskrit poet Kalidasa became what he was thanks to the divine will of Bhadrakali. Another legend states that the emperor Vikramaditya and his brother Bhatti were also ardent devotees of Bhadrakali, whose blessings resulted in all the success showered upon them. Vikramaditya also helped to establish small wayside Bhadrakali temples and prayer centers for pilgrims in many parts of Southern India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The devotional traditions focused around these small temples exist even today.[11]

Folk Art ritual of Kerala and Bhadrakali[edit]

Murti of Bhadrakali in Madurai Meenakshi Temple

Kerala has a tradition of folk artist rituals and dances associated with worship of Devi in the form of Bhadrakali. These rituals are performed in places of worship called Kavu (roughly translated as grove) or in small temples. Besides the general welfare of the village, these rituals aim at warding off of such calamities like smallpox and other epidemic diseases. The ritual themes generally revolve around the triumph of Bhadrakali over the demon Daruka and other evil characters.

The dance forms are:

  1. Theyyam
  2. Theeyattu
  3. Padayani
  4. Poothanumthirayum
  5. Mudiyettu
  6. Kuthiyottam
  7. Kettukazcha
  8. Alpindi Vilakku
  9. Thira

Famous Bhadrakali temples[edit]

Ma Bhadrakali Temple Ujjain
Bhadrakali, circa 1675 painting; made in: India, Himachal Pradesh, Basohli, now placed in LACMA Museum (M.72.53.7)
  • Kalighat Kali Temple,Kalighat Kali Temple is a Hindu temple in West Bengal, India dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali.[1] It is one of the 51 Shakti Peethas.The temple is visited by pilgrims from all over India irrespective of sectarian differences.Kalighat is also associated with the worship offered to Kali by a Dasanami Monk by name Chowranga Giri, and the Chowringee area of Calcutta is said to have been named after him.
  • Warangal Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh. Bhadrakali (Maha Kali Mata) was the principal deity of the Hindu Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (Oragallu or Ekashilanagaram) that ruled most of Andhra Pradesh during that period. Rituals and animal (and human, by some accounts) sacrifices on a large scale were performed to invoke the blessings of Goddess Bhadrakali before the Kakatiya warriors went off for battle. As per the writings on the temple wall this temple is believed to be constructed by the King Pulakesi II of Chalukya dynasty around 625 A.D
  • Thiruvarkadu Bhagavaty Temple in Payangadi, Kannur, Kerala is the first and foremost Bhadrakali Temple at a place believed to be the fortress of Darukasura. Bhadrakali beheaded Daruka here. The Shakteya Sampradaya pooja is well known here. It is done by Bhattarakas (Pidararas) who are migrant priests from Kashmir and Bengal. The idol of Bhadrakali is around 6 feet tall and is portrayed in the form of slaying Daruka. Tiruvarkattu Bahagavaty Temple is famous for the removal of black magic.
  • Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple, Thrissur, Kerala; is one of the oldest temple in India built during the Sangam age. Mahodayapuram (Kodungallur) was the capital of the Chera Empire which ruled Kerala. Shri Bhadrakali in her fierce form is worshipped along with Mahadevar(Siva) and Saptamathrukkal.
Shri Kodungallur Bhagavathy

- See more at: http://keralapilgrimcenters.com/kodimatha-pallipurathu-kavu-bhagavathy-temple-kerala/#sthash.aDinhaHK.dpuf

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=bhadra&link=m
  2. ^ http://sanskritdictionary.com/
  3. ^ "A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary". Dsal.uchicago.edu. 2002-06-01. Retrieved 2012-02-23. 
  4. ^ a b the Horse-worship of the Prajapati Daksha The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 12: Santi Parva: Mokshadharma Parva: Section CCLXXXIV. p. 317. “I am known by the name of Virabhadra’’ and I have sprung from the wrath of Rudra. This lady (who is my companion), and who is called Bhadrakali, hath sprung from the wrath of the goddess.”
  5. ^ Vishnu Purana SACRIFICE OF DAKSHA (From the Vayu Purana.) The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840. p. 62, "In former times, Daksha commenced a holy sacrifice on the side of Himaván, at the sacred spot Gangadwara, frequented by the Rishis. The gods, desirous of assisting at this solemn rite, came, with Indra at their head, to Mahadeva, and intimated their purpose; and having received his permission, departed in their splendid chariots to Gangadwára, as tradition reports.” 62:2 The Linga (Purana) is more precise, calling it Kanakhala, which is the village still called Kankhal, near Haridwar. p. 68 I am called Virabhadra, the issue of the wrath of Rudra. Bhadrakálí also, who has sprung from the anger of Devi
  6. ^ Shakti and Shâkta by Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe), [1918], Chapter Six Shakti and Shakta. “4) The face in the North is blue in color and with three eyes. By this face, I revealed the Devis, Dakshinakalika, Mahakali, Guhyakah, Smashanakalika, Bhadrakali, Ekajata, Ugratara, Taritni, Katyayani, Chhinnamasta, Nilasarasvati, Durga, Jayadurga, Navadurga, Vashuli, Dhumavati, Vishalakshi, Gauri, Bagalamukhi, Pratyangira, Matangi, Mahishamardini, their rites and Mantras.”
  7. ^ Maha Kshethrangalude Munnil, D. C. Books, Kerala
  8. ^ Markandeya Purana
  9. ^ Purana
  10. ^ Robert L. Hardgrave (1969). The Nadars of Tamilnad: The Political Culture of a Community in Change. University of California Press. p. 38. ISBN 81-7304-701-4. 
  11. ^ Ujjaini Mahakali Ammanin Varalaru, Mahatmyam
  12. ^ Amit Nigam: Ratlam ki Tripura sundari, Democratic World, 28 December 2006

External links[edit]