|Full Name :||Raja Pipaji|
|Spouse Name :||Rani Sita|
|Children :||Raja Dwarkanath|
|Birth :||At Gagron, in present-day Jhalawar district of Rajasthan|
|Profession :||Ruler of Gagron|
|Other Info:||1 verse in Guru Granth Sahib.
Accepted Gurmat thought from Sakta thought
Bhagat Pipa, also known as Raja Pipaji or Rao Pipa or Sardar Pipa or Sant Pipaji or Pipa Bairagi or Pipanand Acharya, was a mystic poet, Rajput ruler turned saint and one of devotees whose hymns is incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib. Venerated in region of Punjab, among Sikhs his devotional hymn is widely quoted by most of preachers. Since childhood, He was a Sakta follower, thereafter adopted Vaishnavism in company of Ramananda and then adopted Gurmat way of life. His hymn is considered among one of influences of Bhakti movement in India.
Raja Pipaji was born, as Pratap Rao, at Gagaron, in present-day Jhalawar district of Rajasthan in a Khichi Chauhan Rajput family. His great grandfather King Jaitpal obtained possession of Gagron by killing Kamal-Ud-Din, Governor. Raja Pipaji was successor of Rao Khandwa and ruled Gagron possibly between 1360 to 1385.
He had 12 queens among those Rani Sita was his devout lady and was very dear to him. Sita was daughter of King Haja Solanki of Toda Rai Singh in District Tonk. Her name was Padmavati which was changed to sita after marriage.
As ancestors were worshiper of Goddess Bhavani, he continued worshiping Bhavani in the form an Idol with eight arms holding weapons, bearing the head of the slain demon Mahishasura. He accepted Bairagi faith later on under influence of Ramananda.
Ramananda was following tyaga section of Ramanuja's Bairagi tradition, when this historical encounter occurred in Kashi and was ascetic rely upon meditation and strict ascetic practices and also believe that the grace of god is required for them to achieve liberation.
When King Pipa went to Benaras, Ramananda refused to see him in his gaudy robes. Pipa cast off his royal apparel and put on a mendicant’s garment. He returned home after initiation and began to live like an ascetic. At his invitation Ramanand visited Gagrongarh, and the raja lent his shoulder to the palanquin carrying him in a procession. After conversion to Bairagi, one have to adopt following: Karmas:
- Pilgrimage to Dwarka
- Shankha, Chakra etc. Symbols on body
- Tilaka of Gopichand
- Worshipping Idols of Krishna and Rama
- Putting Bead garland of Tulsi around Neck
Pipa devoutly follow all of above Karmas. Pipa now finally decided to give up his throne and retire to a life of seclusion and meditation. He went to Dwarka (Gujrat) where Lord Krishna, after the Mahabharata war, had spent the last years of his life. All the twelve wives of Pipa insisted on accompanying him, but he took along only one, named Sita, who was of a pious temperament. He selected a cave for his residence from where he daily walked through a tunnel to the temple of Krishna on the sea coast. The temple is still a popular place of pilgrimage. and a fair is held there annually in Pipa’s memory. After what he thought was a personal encounter with the Lord, he gave up idol-worship.
He and his companion-wife started living in a jungle. After a period of penance, he set out roaming about the country to serve the common people. He, along with his wife, sang hymns and prayers of his own composition and collected money to be distributed among the poor. He fed the mendicants and treated them as God’s chosen ones.
Bairagi to Strict Monotheism
Though, the prevalent belief is that Ramananda and some of his disciples got converted by Kabir from Bairagi denomination to strict monotheism. Kabir was disciple of Ramananda and when he was not getting any spiritual benefit, Seeking the same he shifted to Maghar and studied Vedas. After attaining spiritual wisdom and essence of vedas, he returned Kashi and discussed his essence with Ramananda and other disciples including Pipaji. They started understang his wisdom and thoughts were accepted by all and everyone left Idolatry and Karmic philosophy thereafter. 
From an Idol worshiper, Pipaji turned worshiper of the Formless One. As he says in his hymn in the Guru Granth Sahib, the subtle body itself is the Supreme Being’s temple (kaiau deval) and one need not make stone images of him and burn incense or light candles in front of them.
The traditional genealogy of Gagron suggests his death as early as 1400. His son, Maharaja Dwarka Nath, was successor of Gagron. His grandson Maharaja Achal Das ruled Gagron from 1410 AD and was killed by hereditary Muslim enemies in 1448 and captured Gagron.
Two collections of Pipa’s sayings are known to exist, namely Shñ Pipa ji Bani and Sarab Gutaka, both in manuscript form. Pipa Math, a monastery in Dwãrkã, honours his memory.
Hymn in Adi Granth Sahib
Raja Pipaji, like Ramananda, used to visit temple for worship Idols with incense, lamps and offerings but when he got to know about Formless attribute of lord he left physical worship and wrote following hymn which was included in Adi Granth Sahib: Shabad by Bhagat Pipa
|English||Gurmukhi Script||Devnagri Script|
|Within the Subtle body, the Divine Lord is embodied.
The Subtle body is the temple, the place of pilgrimage, and the pilgrim.
Within the Subtle body are incense, lamps and offerings.
Within the Subtle body are the flower offerings. ॥1॥
I searched throughout many realms,
but I found the New treasure within the Subtle body.
Nothing comes, and nothing goes;
I pray to the Lord for Mercy. ॥1॥ Pause॥
The One who pervades the Universe also dwells in the physical body;
whoever seeks Him, finds Him there.
Pipa prays, the Lord is the supreme essence;
He reveals Himself through the True Guru.
|ਕਾਯਉ ਦੇਵਾ ਕਾਇਅਉ ਦੇਵਲ ਕਾਇਅਉ ਜੰਗਮ ਜਾਤੀ ॥
ਕਾਇਅਉ ਧੂਪ ਦੀਪ ਨਈਬੇਦਾ ਕਾਇਅਉ ਪੂਜਉ ਪਾਤੀ ॥੧॥
ਕਾਇਆ ਬਹੁ ਖੰਡ ਖੋਜਤੇ ਨਵ ਨਿਧਿ ਪਾਈ ॥
ਨਾ ਕਛੁ ਆਇਬੋ ਨਾ ਕਛੁ ਜਾਇਬੋ ਰਾਮ ਕੀ ਦੁਹਾਈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥
ਜੋ ਬ੍ਰਹਮੰਡੇ ਸੋਈ ਪਿੰਡੇ ਜੋ ਖੋਜੈ ਸੋ ਪਾਵੈ ॥
ਪੀਪਾ ਪ੍ਰਣਵੈ ਪਰਮ ਤਤੁ ਹੈ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਹੋਇ ਲਖਾਵੈ ॥੨॥੩॥
|कायउ देवा काइअउ देवल काइअउ जंगम जाती ॥
काइअउ धूप दीप नईबेदा काइअउ पूजउ पाती ॥१॥
काइआ बहु खंड खोजते नव निधि पाई ॥
ना कछु आइबो ना कछु जाइबो राम की दुहाई ॥१॥ रहाउ ॥
जो ब्रहमंडे सोई पिंडे जो खोजै सो पावै ॥
पीपा प्रणवै परम ततु है सतिगुरु होइ लखावै ॥२॥३॥
- Page 949, History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606-1708 C.E, Surjit Singh Gandhi, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 2007
- Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, ਇੱਕ ਮਹਾਪੁਰਖ, ਜੋ ਗਗਰੌਨ ਦਾ ਸਰਦਾਰ ਸੀ.¹ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਜਨਮ ਸੰਮਤ ੧੪੮੩ ਵਿੱਚ ਹੋਇਆ. ਪੀਪਾ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਦੁਰਗਾ ਦਾ ਭਗਤ ਸੀ ਫੇਰ ਰਾਮਾਨੰਦ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਚੇਲਾ ਹੋ ਕੇ ਵੈਰਾਗਦਸ਼ਾ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਪਣੀ ਇਸਤ੍ਰੀ ਸੀਤਾ ਸਮੇਤ ਘਰ ਤਿਆਗਕੇ ਦੇਸ਼ਾਟਨ ਕਰਕੇ ਅਵਸਥਾ ਵਿਤਾਈ। ਇਸ ਦੀ ਬਾਣੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਵਿੱਚ ਦੇਖੀ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ. "ਪੀਪਾ ਪ੍ਰਣਵੈ ਪਰਮ ਤਤੁ ਹੈ." (ਧਨਾ ਪੀਪਾ)
- Page 295, Four Reports Made During the Years 1862-63-64-65, Alexander Cunningham, At the Government Central Press
- Mahanksoh, Kahn Singh Nabha, ਬੈਰਾਗੀਆਂ ਦੇ ਪੰਜ ਕਰਮ ਧਰਮ ਦਾ ਅੰਗ ਹਨ-ਦ੍ਵਾਰਿਕਾ ਦੀ ਯਾਤ੍ਰਾ, ਸ਼ੰਖ ਚਕ੍ਰ ਆਦਿ ਵਿਸ਼ਨੁ ਚਿੰਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦਾ ਸ਼ਰੀਰ ਪੁਰ ਛਾਪਾ, ਗੋਪੀਚੰਦਨ ਦ ਤਿਲਕ, ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਅਥਵਾ ਰਾਮਮੂਰਤਿ ਦੀ ਉਪਾਸਨਾ ਅਤੇ ਤੁਲਸੀਮਾਲਾ ਦਾ ਧਾਰਣ.
- Michaels 2004, p. 254.
- Page 42, A History of Indian Literature, Ronald Stuart McGregor, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
- Michaels, Alex (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present (English translation of the book first published in Germany under the title Der Hinduismus: Geschichte und Gegenwart (Verlag, 1998) ed.), Princeton: Princeton University Press
- Based on Excerpts from Encyclopedia of Sikhism by Harbans Singh. Published by Punjabi University, Patiala