Bhagat Sadhana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Devotee Sadhna
Mosque of Devotee Sadhna, Sirhind
Full Name : Sadhna Kasaai
Birth : 1180, village Sehwan in Hyderabad Sindh province[1][2][3]
Profession : Butcher
Death : Sirhind, Punjab, India
Other Info: 1 verse in Guru Granth Sahib.
Accepted Gurmat thought from Muslim thought

Bhagat Sadhna, also called Sadhna Qasai(Butcher), was a North Indian Muslim[1][2][3] poet, saint, mystic and one of the devotees whose hymn was incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib. Venerated in region of Punjab, among Sikhs and Ravidassias,[4] his devotional hymn is widely quoted by most of preachers. His one hymn is present in Adi Granth Sahib, in Raga Bilaval.[5]

The followers of Bhagat Sadhna are called Sadhna Panthis.[6] His only memorial is a Mosque, present at Sirhind, where he died.

Life history[edit]

Early life[edit]

Sadhna was born in 1180 AD at Village Sehwaan in Hyderabad, Sindh province in a Muslim family.[1][2][3] As ancestors were butchers by profession, he continued the family profession of slaughtering goats(Dhabihah) and selling Meat. It is said that there were shady trees and drinking water facility available near your shop. Due to this, in addition to customers, travelers, saints and even rogues used to come over and take rest on passing. Sadhna ji was very interested in spirituality from his adolescence and as a result, he used to have spiritual discussions with such saints who stopped over near his shop.[7]

Shaligram Desecration[edit]

Sadhna got Shaligram Shilas and used them as weights in his profession i.e. Butcher. Sadhna annoyed Vaishnav Sadhus and Pundits with this act.[1] On one side, he was of lower profession and caste, and on the other, he was belittling their idol worship by using idol in the flesh of animals, which is consider as sin by the Pundits. Those religious scholars always argued and debated with him, in which Sadhna always outwitted them.

It is recorded that one of Vaishnav Saint took Shaligram Stones with him. Sadhna had no issues with this and did not object. Vaishnav saint continued worshipping Shaligram but got no internal pleasure and wisdom, as he had seen in state, behavior and thoughts of Sadhna. With dashing hopes he returned Shaligram Stones, the weights of Sadhna back.[8] Sadhna preached that "Shaligrams Stones" are not god as these are lifeless stones, and can not give any wisdom to a living being.

Conversation with Goat[edit]

An fable is recorded in few historical accounts regarding conversation of Bhagat Sadhna and Goat:
One evening, a customer came and asked Sadhna, "Weigh for me a leg of mutton." Sadhna said, "There is no meat left now. Please come tomorrow and take it.". The customer said, "I need the meat badly now. I have very important guests and nothing to cook for them. Please you must help me out. I am a loyal, regular and old customer of your family's business. You may charge double the price for it." Sadhna said, "If I slaughter a goat now, it will rot by tomorrow.". The man said, "You have no need to slaughter a goat. Just cut one leg and give it to me." Pressed by the customer, Sadhna went near the goat with a hatchet. As he approached the goat, he felt as if the goat was laughing. This shocked Sadhna. Then the goat said: "O' Sadhna, in your worldly greed, today you are going to open a new account of pain and misery. We have been going through many thousands of births and deaths; but never before has any of us cut a limb off a live animal. You are beginning a new level of cruelty!" At this point, the hatchet fell out of Sadhna's hand and he turned to the customer to tell him of his helplessness. But there was no one there. He did not find any customer there. A thought came to Sadhna's mind, "It was the Lord Himself Who had come to reveal Himself to his devotee in the form of a customer."

His spiritual quest led him to renounce the life of a householder. He left Sehvan and roamed about the country preaching the love of God. There are few objections on this account:

  1. Sadhna was a Muslim butcher. If Sadhna would have to cut only leg of goat, the goat would have die in night. As per Quran, Muslims could not take flesh of carcases. Moreover leather of dead goat will not be usable. This act is religious sacrilege as in Quran it is mentioned in Surah Al Maida:
    5:3 - Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than God, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. Muslims did not take animal food without doing Halal. Sadhna and his customer(probably muslim, as hindus does not take Halal meat), could not break dietary laws within Islam.
  2. Sadhna was not follower of Karmic thought. His hymn suggest that what is use of Guru if his actions could not be erased moreover Nowhere in his hymn, it is present that he was guided by a Goat who changed his life.
ਤਵ ਗੁਨ ਕਹਾ ਜਗਤ ਗੁਰਾ ਜਉ ਕਰਮੁ ਨ ਨਾਸੈ ॥
What is Your value, O Guru of the world, if You will not erase the karma (Actions)?

Dispute with Brahmin's Lusty Wife[edit]

This historical account is from the time when Sadhna was young and good looking with a strong body. During his travels in North India, his looks pleased a young married Brahmin lady, who wanted to have Sex with him. When she asked Sadhna, he replied that he could not have sexual relation with anyone out of his Marriage. She thought Sadhna might be fearing of his husband. Without understanding Sadhna thoughts, she killed her husband. Came back to Sadhna and told what she did. Sadhna got shocked and left the area after sermonizing her. The lady felt ashamed, she burnt herself on husband's funeral pyre, so that people continued thinking her to be Sati-Savitri.[9][10]

According to few authors, He came to Punjab after this incident.[1]

Another view exist that Brahmin's wife complained to local administration that Sadhna raped her. Sadhna was arrested and magistrate sentenced Bhagat Sadhna to have his hands cut off. After punishment was carried out, Bhagat Sadhna Ji was discharged. He set out without a frown on his forehead notwithstanding his barbarous mutilation. Bhagat Sadhna Ji's devotions proved so successful that The Divine blessed him with new hands which sprouted from his body [11][12] but this claim is highly vague.

Death[edit]

It is believed that Bhagat Sadhna Ji did Gurmat preaching in Uttar Pardesh, Rajasthan and Punjab area [7] Bhagat Sadhana spend his last day of Life at Sirhind preaching Gurmati philosophy. At Sirhind, he breathed his last, where a historic Mosque was built in his memory and preserved by Punjab Government.[13] The paintings in the mosque represent the 'T' art form. The mosque is made up of Sirhindi bricks and is situated in the Northwestern part of town Sirhind near Level Crossing, District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab.[14]

Part of a series on
The Ravidasi Panth
ShriGuruRavidasJikijai.png
Ravidasi beliefs and practices
Aarti
Meditation ·
Bhawan
Holy Book
Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji
Ultimate Place of Pilgrimage
Shri Guru Ravidass Janam Asthan
Topics
Guru Ravidass ·
Guru Ravidass Jayanti
Harr Nishan

HarrNishaan2.png


Among Ravidasis[edit]

Ravidasis acknowledge Satgur Sadhna and preach his teaching and thought, as Guru Ravidas Ji in his devotional Hymn acknowledge and admire Satgur Sadhna as great devotee among Kabir, Sain, Namdev:

ਨਾਮਦੇਵ ਕਬੀਰੁ ਤਿਲੋਚਨੁ ਸਧਨਾ ਸੈਨੁ ਤਰੈ ॥ ਕਹਿ ਰਵਿਦਾਸੁ ਸੁਨਹੁ ਰੇ ਸੰਤਹੁ ਹਰਿ ਜੀਉ ਤੇ ਸਭੈ ਸਰੈ ॥੨॥੧॥
naamdayv kabeer tilochan saDhnaa sain tarai. kahi ravidaas sunhu ray santahu har jee-o tay sabhai sarai. ||2||1||

Naam Dayv, Kabeer, Trilochan, Sadhana and Sain crossed over. Says Ravi Daas, listen, O Saints, through the Dear Lord, all is accomplished. ||2||1||
(Satgur Ravidass, Guru Granth Sahib, Page 1106)

Initially the Ravidassia revered the Guru Granth Sahib of the Sikhs, which was the only repository of Ravidass' devotional poetry.[15] However, following their schism from mainstream Sikhs, the Ravidassi compiled their own holy book of Ravidass' teachings, the Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji, and many Ravidassia temples now use this book in place of the Guru Granth Sahib. But thet have not inserted Bhagat Sadhna Vani in it. But Dera Sach Khand Ballan of Jallandhar, Punjab on 30 January 2010 at the 633rd birth anniversary of Ravidass announced the objectives of Ravidassia religion as:

  • "To propagate the Bani and teachings of Satguru Ravidass Ji. Besides, the teachings and thought of Maharishi Bhagwan Balmiki Ji, Satguru Namdev Ji, Satguru Kabir Ji, Satguru Trilochan Ji, Satguru Sain Ji and Satguru Sadhna Ji would also be propagated".[4]

Hymn in Adi Granth Sahib[edit]

This one Shabad of Bhagat Sadhna in the holy Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Bilawal Raga; it is prayer to God to protect the honour of His devotees. In the Guru Granth Sahib on Page 858:

Hymn of Bhagat Sadhna Ji
English Gurmukhi Script Devnagri Script
For a king's daughter, a man disguised himself as Vishnu.
He did it for sexual exploitation, and for selfish motives, but the Lord protected his honor. 1
What is Your value, O Guru of the world, if You will not erase the karma of my past actions?
Why seek safety from a lion, if one is to be eaten by a jackal? 1 Pause
For the sake of a single rain-drop, the rainbird suffers in pain.
When its breath of life is gone, even an ocean is of no use to it. 2
Now, my life has grown weary, and I shall not last much longer; how can I be patient?
If I drown and die, and then a boat comes along, tell me, how shall I climb aboard? 3
I am nothing, I have nothing, and nothing belongs to me.
Now, protect my honor; Sadhana is Your humble servant. 4 1
ਬਾਣੀ ਸਧਨੇ ਕੀ ਰਾਗੁ ਬਿਲਾਵਲੁ ॥
ੴ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
ਨ੍ਰਿਪ ਕੰਨਿਆ ਕੇ ਕਾਰਨੈ ਇਕੁ ਭਇਆ ਭੇਖਧਾਰੀ ॥
ਕਾਮਾਰਥੀ ਸੁਆਰਥੀ ਵਾ ਕੀ ਪੈਜ ਸਵਾਰੀ ॥੧॥
ਤਵ ਗੁਨ ਕਹਾ ਜਗਤ ਗੁਰਾ ਜਉ ਕਰਮੁ ਨ ਨਾਸੈ ॥
ਸਿੰਘ ਸਰਨ ਕਤ ਜਾਈਐ ਜਉ ਜੰਬੁਕੁ ਗ੍ਰਾਸੈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥
ਏਕ ਬੂੰਦ ਜਲ ਕਾਰਨੇ ਚਾਤ੍ਰਿਕੁ ਦੁਖੁ ਪਾਵੈ ॥
ਪ੍ਰਾਨ ਗਏ ਸਾਗਰੁ ਮਿਲੈ ਫੁਨਿ ਕਾਮਿ ਨ ਆਵੈ ॥੨॥
ਪ੍ਰਾਨ ਜੁ ਥਾਕੇ ਥਿਰੁ ਨਹੀ ਕੈਸੇ ਬਿਰਮਾਵਉ ॥
ਬੂਡਿ ਮੂਏ ਨਉਕਾ ਮਿਲੈ ਕਹੁ ਕਾਹਿ ਚਢਾਵਉ ॥੩॥
ਮੈ ਨਾਹੀ ਕਛੁ ਹਉ ਨਹੀ ਕਿਛੁ ਆਹਿ ਨ ਮੋਰਾ ॥
ਅਉਸਰ ਲਜਾ ਰਾਖਿ ਲੇਹੁ ਸਧਨਾ ਜਨੁ ਤੋਰਾ ॥੪॥੧॥
बाणी सधने की रागु बिलावलु
ੴ सतिगुर प्रसादि ॥
न्रिप कंनिआ के कारनै इकु भइआ भेखधारी ॥
कामारथी सुआरथी वा की पैज सवारी ॥१॥
तव गुन कहा जगत गुरा जउ करमु न नासै ॥
सिंघ सरन कत जाईऐ जउ ज्मबुकु ग्रासै ॥१॥ रहाउ ॥
एक बूंद जल कारने चात्रिकु दुखु पावै ॥
प्रान गए सागरु मिलै फुनि कामि न आवै ॥२॥
प्रान जु थाके थिरु नही कैसे बिरमावउ ॥
बूडि मूए नउका मिलै कहु काहि चढावउ ॥३॥
मै नाही कछु हउ नही किछु आहि न मोरा ॥
अउसर लजा राखि लेहु सधना जनु तोरा ॥४॥१॥

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Page 235, Selections from the Sacred Writings of the Sikhs- By K. Singh, Trilochan Singh
  2. ^ a b c Fareedkoti Teeka, Pundit Tara Singh Narotam
  3. ^ a b c Mahankosh, Kahn Singh Nabha
  4. ^ a b Ravidasia Website
  5. ^ Page 858, Adi Granth
  6. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West, HA ROSE
  7. ^ a b Dr Joginder Singh Dhami's article on Bhagat Sadhna
  8. ^ Bhagat Sadhna Ji, Dr Dharampal Singhal
  9. ^ History of the sect of Mahĝrĝjas: or Vallabhĝchĝryas, in western India By Karsandás Múljí, Ralph T. H. (Ralph)
  10. ^ Sketch on the religious sects of the Hindus: Volume 1 - Page 181 Horace Hayman Wilson, Reinhold Rost - 1861)
  11. ^ Bhagatmal
  12. ^ Bhagat Darshan
  13. ^ Sadhna Qasai Mosque at Punjab
  14. ^ AllaboutIndia.com
  15. ^ Gerald Parsons (1993). The Growth of Religious Diversity: Traditions. Psychology Press. pp. 227–. ISBN 978-0-415-08326-3. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 

External links[edit]