Bhai Mani Singh

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Bhai Mani Singh
Harminder Sahib
Bhai Mani Singh was the Head Granthi of the Harmandir Sahib and Jathedar of the Akal Takht between 1721 and 1734-1738
Born Mani Ram (Mania)
1662-1670
Alipur, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
Died 1734-1738
Nakhaas Chowk, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Known for Transcribing the Guru Granth Sahib, Compiling Bachitar Natak Granth Writing Gyan Ratnavali, Writing Bhagat Ratnavali, Being the 3rd Granthi of Akal Takht, Being executed by dismemberment.
Spouse(s) Bibi Sito
Children Bhai Chitar Singh, Bhai Bachittar Singh, Bhai Udai Singh, Bhai Anaik Singh, Bhai Ajab Singh, Bhai Ajaib Singh, Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Bhai Bhagwan Singh, Bhai Balram Singh, Bhai Desa Singh
Parents Father: Bhai Mai Das, Mother: Unknown

Bhai Mani Singh was an 18th century Sikh scholar and martyr. He was a childhood companion of Guru Gobind Singh[1] and took the vows of Sikhism when the Guru inaugurated the Khalsa in March 1699. Soon after that, the Guru sent him to Amritsar to take charge of the Harimandar, which had been without a custodian since 1696. He took control and steered the course of Sikh destiny at a critical stage in Sikh history.

A scholar, a devoted Sikh, and a leader, Bhai Mani Singh laid down his life to uphold the dignity of the Sikh religion as well as nation. The nature of his martyrdom in which he was dismembered joint by joint has become a part of the daily Sikh Ardas (prayer).

Biography[edit]

Year of birth[edit]

Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed came, according to Bhai Kesar Singh ji Chhibbar [1], his contemporary, of a Kamboj family, but according to Giani Gian Singh Dullat [1822-1921], author of the Panth Parkash, of a Dullat Jatt family of Kamboval village (now extinct), near Sunam [2] in Sangrur district of the Punjab. Since Giani Gian Singh himself belonged to Dullat lineage, hence he has claimed Bhai Mani Singh as one of his Dullat ancestors . [3]On critical review of Giani's own family history, its chronology and other relevant issues in the light of available physical evidence, it is virtually impossible to accept Giani Gian Singh's claim on Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed. [4]. Even in the well-known classic Punjabi Mahankosh, the distinguished Sikh scholar of 20th century, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabhha, clarifies that the Dullat Jatt ethnicity of Bhai Mani Singh is being pressed forward solely and solely by Giani Gian Singh alone. Numerous other scholars/writers, on the other hand, invest Bhai Sahib with a Kamboj ethnicity [5]. According to Giani Garja Singh, no person by the name Mani Singh has ever been in the ancestral line of Giani Gian Singh [6]. Since Bhai Kesar Singh Chhibber, a contemporary of Bhai Mani Singh [7], claims to have personally met and seen the latter several times during his early age [8], he therefore, is a very reliable eyewitness on Bhai Mani Singh's family particulars. Moreover, being a non-Kamboj himself, Bhai Chhibber can be assumed to be absolutely non-committed with regard to his write-up on Bhai Mani Singh's ethnic background. In contrast, Giani Gian Singh ji Dullat is far removed in time by over a century and half from Bhai Sahib ji. And he has also an understandable motivation for investing Bhai Mani Singh ji with a Dullat Jatt lineage and thus connecting him with his own (Dullat) family to claim credit and honor for his family. Hence, his claim or evidence on Bhai Mani Singh's ethnicity |ethnic identity apparently becomes much weaker and dubious as compared to the evidence of a non-committed eyewitness like Bhai Kesar Singh ji Chhibber. Koir Singh Kalal, another contemporary of Bhai Mani Singh, also lends support to Bhai Kesar Singh Chhibber's evidence on the Kamboj lineage of Bhai Mani Singh [9]. Based on Shaheed Bilaas by Kavi Seva Singh, Giani Garja Singh ji (a Punwar Vanjara Rajput) has claimed that Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed belonged to Punwar (Vanjara) Rajput lineage and was born on March 10, 1644 AD [10] in village Alipore in Multan, now Pakistan. Shaheed Bilaas was originally written in Bhattakhri in 1803 AD and is claimed to be based on Bhat Vahis. It is stated to have been transliterated into Gurmukhi draft by Chhajju Singh Bhat in 1870 AD which curiously remained unpublished over 90 years until Giani Garja Singh ji edited and published it with his own comments in 1961 AD. It is notable that in spite of persistent demands, the original drafts of Shaeed Bilaas by Sewa Singh in Bhattakhri (1803 AD) as well as its transliterated version in Gurmukhi script (1870 AD) have not been presented by Giani Garja Singh or his supporters to the Scholars at Punjabi University Patiala for the review and examination of their authenticity, genuineness and contemporariness. Giani Garja Singh�s claim on Bhai Mani Singh and Bhai Dayala Ji has recently been rejected by scholars of note from Punjabi University Patiala who call in question the authenticity of the referential sources cited by Giani Garja Singh to prove the Rajput lineage of Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed. These sources have yet to be reviewed for their authenticity and trustworthiness [11] . Scholars assert that, in order to seek favors and to please his patron Bhai Sangat Singh who was a great Grand son of Bhai Mani Ram Rajput [22], Kavi Sewa Singh Bhat has wrongly transmuted Bhai Mani Ram Dewan (Rajput) into Dharama Acharya, Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed [12]. Dr G. S. Nayer, Member Editorial Board, Punjabi University Patiala, also asserts that there is no real reason to reject the evidence of Bhai Kesar Singh Chhibber on Bhai Mani Singh as coming of Kamboj lineage [13]. Prof Gurmukh Singh Waraich of Patiala University has also rejected Garja Singh's unattested and uncritiqued referential sources about Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed as being unscientific. In his research article on the identity of Bhai Mani Singh, prof Waraich asserts that Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed belonged to the Kamboj lineage [14]. According to Sher Singh Sher (a Non Kamboj scholar), Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed was a paternal nephew (i.e. Bhateeja) of Bhai Dayala Ji and belonged to the Kamboh |Kambo caste.[15] Latest, a well known Punjabi writer and historian, S. Kirpal Singh has written a research book on Bhai Mani Singh Shaheed which was published in 2004. The book is in response to Shaheed Bilaas of Giani Garja Singh and it treats of the subject from the very fundamentals, and establishes that it was Bhai Mani Singh Kamboh (Kamboj) of village Kambohwal (now Longowal) and not Bhai Mani Ram Dewan (a Punwar Rajput) of village Alipore, Multan, who was martyred by being cut piece by piece at Lahore. [16] [17]. According to Karam Singh historian, in the wake of Anandpore disaster when Bhai Mani Singh had escorted the wives (Mehils) of Tenth Guru ji to Delhi, they were also accompanied by some devoted Kamboh families who had been in the service of Gurughar. It appears highly likely that these families originally belonged to Kambohwal and had moved to Anandpur in the shelter of Gurughar and had permanently stayed there in the service of ninth Guru ji. Bhai Dayala Ji |Bhai Dayala ji and Bhai Mani Singh, to all probability, belonged to these devoted families of the Kamboh lineage. Karam Singh Historian had recommended further research on these Kamboj families

There is some uncertainty about the exact year of birth of Bhai Mani Singh. Giani Thakur Singh writes his year of birth as 1672 AD while some other writers put it at 1670 AD. But according to Sohan Singh Seetal, a well known Sikh historian, Bhai Mani Singh was born in 1664 AD. Principle Satbir Singh wrote the year of birth as 1672 in his 1970 edition but changed it to 1662 AD in the later editions of "Sada Itihaas" (See: Sada Itihaas, 1998, p 154, Principle Satbir Singh). According to Dr Santokh Singh also, Bhai Mani Singh was born in 1662 AD (The Guru's Word). These earlier dates are indirectly based on Giani Giani Singh's references to ninth Guru's visit to village Akoi/Malwa in year 1665 AD. Based on critical analysis of ancient Sikh writings, it appears certain that Bhai Mani Singh was born no later than 1665 AD, hence years given by Giani Sohan Singh Seetal or Principal Satbir Singh/Dr Santokh Singh etc. appear more closer to truth. According to Shaheed Bilaas edited and published by Giani Garja Singh ji in 1961, the birth date of Bhai Mani Ram (alias Bhai Mani Singh Rajput) of Alipore, Multan is 1644 AD.

Family background[edit]

Bhai Mani Singh was from a distinguished family of Sikh warriors. His brother, Bhai Dayala who attained martyrdom at Dehli with Guru Tegh Bahadur. Eleven brothers of Bhai Mani Singh and 7 out of 10 children attained martyrdom.

Bhai Mani Singh spent a considerable part of his life in service at Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar. He was one of the 12 sons of Mai Das. His grandfather was Bhai Bhaloo Rai, a reputable warrior, who was a soldier in Guru Hargobind's army who took part in all the battles fought by Guru Hargobind Sahib against the Mughal attackers. Bhai Mani Singh, his grandfather, eleven brothers and seven of his ten sons died in battles fought on behalf of the Guru.

Saheed Bhai Mani Singh te ana da parivar. Bhai Mani Singh deh Khandan da pesoker. Bhai Mani Singh Parmaar Sikh Rajput. The following seven sons of the Mai Das were from his wife Madribai:

  1. Bhai Jetha Singh, martyred at Alowal in 1711.
  2. Bhai Dial Das, accompanied Guru Teg Bahadur to Delhi where he was martyred in 1675.
  3. Bhai Mani Singh, martyred in Lahore in 1734.
  4. Bhai Dan Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1705.
  5. Bhai Man Singh, killed in the battle of Chittorgarh in 1708.
  6. Bhai Amar Chand, died in infancy.
  7. Bhai Roop Singh, killed with his elder brother Jetha Singh in Alowal in 1711.

The following five sons of Mai Das were from his wife Ladki:

  1. Bhai Jagat Singh, martyred together with Bhai Mani Singh in Lahore in 1734.
  2. Bhai Sohan Chand, killed in the battle of Nadaun in 1691.
  3. Bhai Lehna Ji, killed in the battle of Gular in 1696.
  4. Bhai Rai Singh, killed in the battle of Muktsar in 1705.
  5. Bhai Hati Chand, killed in the battle of Bhangani in 1688.

Marriages and children[edit]

At the age of 15, Mani Singh was married to Bibi Seetobai, the daughter of Lakhi Rai, also known as Lakhi Shah who later, when Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded in Delhi, recovered the Guru's body, took it home and set fire to his home in Raisina in order to cremate the Guru's body. At that site now stands Gurdwara Rikabganj. After his marriage Mani Singh spent some time with his family in his village Alipur.

List of Bhai Mani Singh's sons:

  1. Chitar Singh, martyred with Mani Singh in Lahore in 1734.
  2. Bachitar Singh, martyred in the battle of Nihan near Anandpur Sahib in 1704.
  3. Udai Singh, martyred in Sahi Tibi near Anandpur Sahib in 1704.
  4. Anaik Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1704.
  5. Ajab Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1704.
  6. Ajaib Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1704.
  7. Gurbaksh Singh, martyred with Mani Singh in Lahore in 1734.
  8. Bhagwan Singh
  9. Balram Singh
  10. Desa Singh - the author of the Rahetnama (Code of conduct) of the Khalsa.

Seven of Mani Singh's sons were from his first wife, Seetobai and the remainder from his second wife Khemi.

Service of Guru Har Rai[edit]

When Mani Singh was 13 years old, his father, Bhai Mai Das, took him to Guru Har Rai at Kiratpur to pay their homage.[2][3] When Mani Singh, in paying his respects, prostated himself before Guru Har Rai, the Guru prophesied, "This lad, full of good deeds, will be world famous." Mani Singh spent about two years at Kiratpur in the service of Guru Har Rai. He served in the Guru's kitchen everyday, scrubbing cooking pots and utensils. He also attended to other chores and at the same time found time to learn Gurbani. He took part in prayer sessions with great zeal.

When Mani Singh was 15 years old, his father applied to Guru Har Rai for leave to be granted to Mani Singh for a short period. Leaving having been granted, Mani Singh and his father returned to their village Alipur where he was married to Bibi Seetobai.

Subsequently, Mani Singh, accompanied by his elder brothers, Bhai Jetha Singh and Bhai Dial Das, went to Kiratpur and presented themselves before Guru Har Rai for service at his shrine. Mani Singh's great desire was to spend all his life in the service of the Guru.

Service of Guru Har Krishan[edit]

After the passing of Guru Har Rai, Mani Singh started serving Guru Har Krishan.[4] When Guru Har Krishan proceeded to Delhi, Mani Singh was one of the Sikhs who accompanied him.

Service of Guru Tegh Bahadur[edit]

When Guru Har Krishan passed on on 30 March 1664 in Delhi, Mani Singh escorted the Guru Har Krishan Ji's mother, Mata Sulakhani, to Bakala and presented himself before Guru Teg Bahadur for service.[5] Mani Singh's elder brothers, Bhai Jetha Singh and Bhai Dial Das also arrived at Bakala for service with the Guru. Mani Singh was at that time 20 years of age. After serving some time in the service of Guru Teg Bahahdur, Mani Singh took leave of the Guru and returned to his village in Alipur.

Mani Singh later, accompanied by his family, proceeded to Anandpur Sahib for the Vaisakhi festival.[6] Guru Teg Bahadur had then just arrived at Anandpur Sahib after a preaching tour in the East. This was in 1672. Living in the presence of Guru Teg Bahadur, Mani Singh continued with great zeal making copies and preparing small pothis (books) of Gurbani.

When Guru Teg Bahadur heeded the appeal of the Kashmiri Pandits and their request for help in saving the Hindu religion,[7][8] Guru Teg Bahadur decided to proceed to Delhi. Bhai Jetha and Mani Singh and some other Sikhs remained at Anandpur with Guru Gohind Singh to look after him. Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dial Das accompanied Guru Teg Bahadur to Delhi.[9] They were arrested together with Guru Teg Bahadur and taken to Delhi where all of them suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Mughals. Bhai Dial Das was, as stated earlier, the elder brother of Bhai Mani Singh while Mati Das and Sati Das were the grandsons of Bhai Parag Das or Bhai Piraga, as he was known popularly, a Brahmin of the Chhibber clan, from Kariala, a village in District Jhelum(Pakistan), who became a Sikh at the time of Guru Arjan, and later distinguished himself as a warrior while serving Guru Hargobind Sahib, especially in the battle of Rohilla and batte of Amritsar.[10]

Service of Guru Gobind Singh[edit]

Bhai Mani Singh was a childhood companion of Guru Gobind Singh.[11] He was not of the same age as Guru Gobind Singh (at that time called Gobind Rai) but much younger. Mani Singh remained in his company even after Gobind Rai had ascended the religious seat as Guru. Mani Singh accompanied the Guru to the seclusion of Paonta where Guru Gobind Singh spent some three years exclusively given to literary work.[12]

Mani Singh was not only a great scholar of Sikh sacred scripture and wrote books on Sikhi but was also a warrior who accompanied Guru Gobind Singh as one of his body guards on many occasions. The brave deeds of Mani Singh in so many battles earned him the reputation of a great warrior. In his position of being the Guru's Diwan (Minister) he had to attend to many matters in the Guru's establishment. Nevertheless he had time to study the Sikh scripture under the Guru's guidance and became an accomplished theologian. He acquired so much knowledge and understanding of Gurbani, that he used to do Katha (Exposition) of the Granth Sahib to the Sangat (Congregation) both at Anandpur Sahib and later at the Harmandir Sahib.

In 1685, when Guru Gobind Singh went to Nahan, on the invitation of Raja Medni Prakash, Bhai Mani Singh was one of the Sikhs who accompanied the Guru.

In 1687, when the Guru received a request for help from the widow of Baba Ram Rai, because the Masands were ill treating her, Guru Gobind Singh accompanied by Mani Singh went to Derah Doon, taught the Masands a good lesson and put them in their proper place.

In 1688, at the Barsi (Death anniversary) of Baba Ram Rai, Guru Gobind Singh sent Mani Singh at the head of a Jatha of 50 Sikhs to represent him at the Barsi.

Bhai Mani Singh accompanied Guru Gobind Singh when he went across the banks of the Yamuna River to Paonta, Himachal. Bhai Mani Singh fought in the Battle of Bhangani in 1688 ca. to defend Paonta from the joint attack of all the hill rajas.[13] Mani Singh showed his prowess with the sword. In this battle his younger brother Hati Chand was killed.

In 1690, in the Battle of Nadaun, Mani Singh showed great bravery and prowess with the sword; so much so that after the victory of the Guru's forces,[14] Guru Gobind Singh bestowed on Mani Singh the title of Diwan (Minister).

Creation of the Khalsa[edit]

In 1699, on Vaisakhi day when Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa Panth and Bhai Mani Singh took Amrit at the hands of Guru Gobind Singh and from Mani Ram he became Mani Singh. On this day Bhai Mani Singh's brothers, Rai Singh, Roop Singh and Man Singh were initiated and five of Mani Singh's sons were also initiated as Khalsas.[15] They were:

  1. Bachitar Singh
  2. Udai Singh
  3. Anaik Singh
  4. Ajab Singh
  5. Ajaib Singh

In 1699, after the Khalsa Panth was created with the famous Amrit ceremony and Rahit Maryada (Code of conduct of the Khalsa) was ordained, Guru Gobind Singh sent Bhai Mani Singh and five other Khalsas to Amritsar with instructions to take possession of the Harmandir Sahib. Bhai Mani Singh was appointed Granthi of the Harmandir Sahib and Jathedar of the Akal Takhat.[16] Mani Singh thus became the third Granthi of the Harmandir Sahib, after Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas. Mani Singh did away with all the Hindu practices that had crept into the Harmandir and restored all the traditional ceremonies of the Khalsa which became a regular daily feature. Apart from Kirtan Singing of hymns from the Granth Sahib, Bhai Mani Singh used to do Katha (Exposition of Gurbani) which became a very popular daily feature. Rahit Maryada was propagated and arrangements were made for administering Pahul (initiation) to new converts to the Khalsa fold. As a result of Bhai Mani Singh's efforts, a large number of Jats (farmers) from northern Punjab were initiated as Khalsas, whose numbers increased day by day. Many of them, when they went back to their villages, persuaded others to take the pahul and become Khalsas. Periodically, Bhai Mani Singh used to go to Anandpur Sahib to pay homage to Guru Gobind Singh and keep him informed of the affairs and happenings at Amritsar.[17]

In the first battle fought by Guru Gobind Singh after the creation of the Khalsa Panth in 1699, against Raja Ajmer Chand and his Mughal supporters, Bhai Mani Singh and his sons were in the first line of the Guru's forces. The Guru was so pleased with the bravery and the performance of Mani Singh's sons that after the Khalsa victory, the Guru issued a special Hukumnama (Edict) in praise of them. Mani Singh's sons mentioned in the Hukumnama were : Bachitar Singh, Udai Singh, Anaik Singh, Ajab Singh, and Ajaib Singh.

Bhai Mani Singh took an active role in the battle of Naduan in 1704. When Guru Gobind Singh Ji left Anandpur on the night of December 20, 1704, his family got separated at river Sirsa in the confusion created by the Mughal attack. Bhai Mani Singh took Mata Sunder Kaur and Mata Sahib Kaur to Delhi via Ambala.[18]

In 1704, Bhai Mani Singh escorted Guru Sahib's wife and Mata Sahib Devan to Talwandi Sabo[19] where the Guru was staying after defeating the Mughal army at Muktsar. Here Guru Gobind Singh from memory recited the current version of the Guru Granth Sahib while Bhai Mani Singh transcribed it.[20]

When Guru Sahib left Agra with Emperor Bahadur Shah for Nanded in 1707, Mata Sahib Devan and Bhai Mani Singh accompanied him. Afterwards Bhai Mani Singh escorted Mata Sahib Devan Ji back to Delhi where she lived with Mata Sundri Ji for the rest of her life.[21]

Post Guru Gobind Singh[edit]

After Banda Singh Bahadurs execution in 1716 The Khalsa abandoned their homes and escaped to the jungles of the Punjab, mountains of Sivalik Hills and deserts of Rajputana.[22]

In 1720 ca. there was some relaxation from the government of Zakaria Khan.[23]

Role in Sikh History[edit]

A scholar[edit]

Bhai Mani Singh acted as scribe when Guru Gobind Singh Ji dictated Sri Guru Granth Sahib.[24]

Bhai Sahib collected the Gurbani (Literally "Word of the Guru") of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and compiled it in the form of Dasam Granth (Book of the Tenth Guru).[25][26] The writings included in the Dasam Granth were composed at different times by the Guru himself and his band of 52 poets.[27]

Bhai Sahib also authored Japji Sahib Da Garb Ganjni Teeka (teeka means translation and explanation of a work). He expanded the first of Bhai Gurdas's Vaars into a life of Guru Nanak which is called Gyan Ratnavali. Mani Singh wrote another work, the Bhagat Ratnawali (sometimes called Sikhan di Baghat Mala), an expansion of Bhai Gurdas's eleventh Vaar, which contains a list of famous Sikhs up to the time of Guru Har Gobind.

In his capacity as a Granthi of Darbar Sahib at the Golden Temple, Bhai Singh is also stated to have composed the Ardas (Supplication) in its current format;[28] he also started the tradition of mentioning deeds of various Gursikhs with the supplication.

He also transcribed many copies of the sacred Sikh scriptures which were sent to different preaching centers in India.[29] He also taught the reading of Gurbani and its philosophy to the Sikhs.

Leadership at Harmandir Sahib[edit]

Bhai Mani Singh who was under the presence of Guru Gobind Singh in 1690s had taken over the Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar in mid-1699 from Minas.[30] After initiating the people of Majha to the Khalsa Panth Bhai Mani Singh came back to Anandpur Sahib. Bhai Mani Singh actively taught the reading of Gurbani and its philosophy to the Sikhs.

According to some Hukamnamas, Bhai Mani Singh was heading the shrine in 1716. He spent the period of worst persecution in post 1716 at the village of Baganwala in Jhang district.

In 1720, Mata Sunder Kaur came to know of the trouble that was brewing between the Tat Khalsa (A sect of Khalsa who were strict followers of Guru Gobind Singh) and Bandai Khalsa (A sect of Khalsa who regarded Banda Singh Bahadur as the Guru) military factions of the Sikhs. She appointed Bhai Mani Singh as the Granthi of Harmandir Sahib and sent him to Amritsar with Mama Kirpal Singh (Chand), the maternal uncle of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. On his arrival at Amritsar in 1721,[31] Bhai Mani Singh restored peace among the Khalsa, by casting lots and the Tat Khalsa was declared to have won, and put the affairs of Harmandir Sahib in order.

After Bhai Mani Singh's execution the next prominent Sikh leader was Nawab Kapur Singh (1697–1753)

Execution[edit]

Bhai Mani Singh being executed by dismemberment

in 1737 ca., Bhai Mani Singh asked to Governor of Lahore, Zakaria Khan, for permission to hold the Diwali festival to celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas at the Harmandir Sahib. The permission was granted for a tribute of Rs.5,000.[32] He hoped that he would be able to pay the sum out of the offerings to be made by the Sikhs who were invited to come. He issued initiations to the Sikhs of all places. The Governor alongside Diwan Lakhpat Rai[33] had different intentions and he sent secret orders to his forces to make a surprise attack on the Sikhs during the festival. Bhai Mani Singh came to know of this plan and sent messages to tell the Sikhs not to come. The Sikhs that did come had to leave because of the presence of an unnecessary big military force and suspicious movement of the officers.[34] Thus no money could be collected or paid to the government and Bhai Mani Singh was ordered to be executed.

Bhai Mani Singh was taken to Lahore in chains. When Bhai Mani Singh could not pay the fine the dues he had agreed to pay the Mughals (to legally hold the event) he was ordered to convert to Islam. Refusing to give up his beliefs he was ordered death by dismemberment.[35] When the executioner started to begin with his wrists, Bhai Mani Singh sincerely reminded the executioner of the sentence, reminding the executioner of his punishment and to start at the joints in his hands.[36]

Bhai Mani Singh was executed at Nakhaas Chowk, Lahore in December, 1738 ca. The Nakhaas Chowk has since been known as Shaheed Ganj - the place of martyrdom. Another commemorative shrine built in the late 1900s at a Gurdwara near Laungoval in the ruins of village Kamboval marks Bhai Mani Singh's hometown and place of birth. By 1737, the Mughal government of Lahore had strictly prohibited the Sikhs to visit Amritsar and bathe in the holy tank. Zakaria Khan died in 1745

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Patwant (2007). The Sikhs. Random House Digital. ISBN 9780307429339. 
  2. ^ Chauhan, Gurmeet (2005). The Gospel Of The Sikh Gurus. Hemkunt Press. p. xi. ISBN 9788170103530. 
  3. ^ Osborne, Eileen (2006). Holy Books B. Folens Limited. p. 32. ISBN 9781843036135. 
  4. ^ Ralhan, O. P. (1997). The Great Gurus of the Sikhs: Banda Bahadur, Asht Ratnas etc: Volume 5 of The Great Gurus of the Sikhs, The Great Gurus of the Sikhs. Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. p. 64. ISBN 9788174884794. 
  5. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (1987). "Bhai Mani Singh". The Sikh Review 35 (397-408): 12. 
  6. ^ Abstracts of Sikh Studies 4: 24. 2002. 
  7. ^ Kashmiri Pandits: Looking to the Future. APH Publishing. 2001. p. 184. ISBN 9788176482363. 
  8. ^ Chitkara, M. G. (2002). Kashmir Shaivism: Under Siege. APH Publishing. p. 208. ISBN 9788176483605. 
  9. ^ Singha, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 56. ISBN 9788170103011. 
  10. ^ Dilagīr, Harajindar (2000). Who are the Sikhs?. Sikh Educational Trust. p. 102. 
  11. ^ Singh, Patwant (2007). The Sikhs. Random House Digital. ISBN 9780307429339. 
  12. ^ Singh, Harjeet (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Sikhism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 157. ISBN 9788178357218. 
  13. ^ Naiar, Gurabacan (1992). The Sikhs in Ferment: Battles of the Sikh Gurus. Michigan: National Book Organisation. p. 12. ISBN 9788185135571. 
  14. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (1999). Sikhs in the Eighteenth Century: Their Struggle for Survival and Supremacy. Singh Bros. p. 98. ISBN 9788172052171. 
  15. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History Of Sikh Gurus Retold 1606-1708 C.E. Vol# 2. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 1092. ISBN 9788126908585. 
  16. ^ Dilagir, Harajindar (1995). Akal Takht Sahib (edition 2). Sikh Educational Trust. p. 99. ISBN 9780969596417. 
  17. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History Of Sikh Gurus Retold 1606-1708 C.E. Vol# 2. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 1092. ISBN 9788126908585. 
  18. ^ Singh, Harjeet (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Sikhism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 158. ISBN 9788178357218. 
  19. ^ Murphy, Anne (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780199916290. 
  20. ^ Macauliffe, Max (2013). The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors. Cambridge University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9781108055475. 
  21. ^ Singh, Harjeet (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Sikhism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 158. ISBN 9788178357218. 
  22. ^ Singh, Sangat (2001). The Sikhs In History. New Delhi: Uncommon Books. p. 96. ISBN 8190065025. 
  23. ^ Singh, Sangat (2001). The Sikhs In History. New Delhi: Uncommon Books. p. 96. ISBN 8190065025. 
  24. ^ Macauliffe, Max (2013). The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors. Cambridge University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9781108055475. 
  25. ^ Johar, Surinder (1999). Guru Gobind Singh A Multi-faceted Personality. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 119. ISBN 9788175330931. 
  26. ^ Singh, Nikky-Guninder (2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. p. 46. ISBN 9781848853218. 
  27. ^ Johar, Surinder (1999). Guru Gobind Singh. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd.,. p. 119. ISBN 9788175330931. 
  28. ^ Singh, Harjeet (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Sikhism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 158. ISBN 9788178357218. 
  29. ^ Singh, Harjeet (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Sikhism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 158. ISBN 9788178357218. 
  30. ^ Dhanoa, Surain (2005). Raj Karega Khalsa. Sanbun Publishers. p. 146. 
  31. ^ Singh, Harjeet (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Sikhism. Gyan Publishing House. p. 158. ISBN 9788178357218. 
  32. ^ Johar, Surinder (1998). Holy Sikh Shrines. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 9788175330733. 
  33. ^ Seetal, Sohan (1971). Rise of the Sikh Power and Maharaja Ranjeet Singh. Michigan: Dhanpat Rai. p. 183. 
  34. ^ Seetal, Sohan (1971). Rise of the Sikh Power and Maharaja Ranjeet Singh. Michigan: Dhanpat Rai. p. 183. 
  35. ^ Seetal, Sohan (1971). Rise of the Sikh Power and Maharaja Ranjeet Singh. Michigan: Dhanpat Rai. p. 184. 
  36. ^ Sahota, Sohan (1971). The Destiny of the Sikhs. Michigan: Sterling Publishers. p. 14. 

Books and articles[edit]

  • History of Sikh Gurus retold :1606-1708 CE by S.Surjit Singh Gandhi
  • Shaheed Bilas : Bhai Mani Singh by Giani Garja Singh
  • Prachin Panth Parkash, (ed) Bhai Vir Singh, New Delhi Edition, p 222-223, Rattan Singh Bhangu.
  • Encyclopaedia of Sikh Literature, Mahan Kosh, 1974, foot note, p 951.
  • Gurmat Sudhakar, Bhasha Vibhag, 1970, p 221, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha.

External links[edit]